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测测你的视觉智力是否足够强 – 译学馆
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测测你的视觉智力是否足够强

Take This Perception Test to See How Visually Intelligent You Are | Best of '16

视觉智能是指我们无法处理所有视觉信息的时候
Visual intelligence is the concept that we see more than we can process and it’s the
对所见信息进行思考吸收 让生活更具目的性
idea of thinking about what we see, taking in the information and what do we really need
工作更效率的真正所需的概念
to live our lives more purposefully and do our jobs more effectively.
我要求知觉艺术试验者们的其中之一
What I ask the people at The Art of Perception to do one of them is looking down at a piece
俯视一张纸 另一位观察一幅画 在一分钟之内向同伴描述
of paper and the other is looking at the painting and they have one minute to describe what
他们所见内容 而同伴则根据听到的信息把它画出来
it is that they see to their partner and the partner has to sketch what are they hear.
这实验与艺术作品无关 亦与绘画技巧高低也无关 而是实验者对
And it’s not about the artwork, it’s not about how well you draw it’s how well can you describe
一系列新的、陌生信息进行描述和聆听 吸收并
a new set of unfamiliar data, how well do you listen and how well do you take that articulation
转化成自己的语言的能力
and transfer it to your own language.
视觉智力训练观察勒内·马格里特的名作《凝固的时间》一会
思考下你该如何描述这幅画的细节
Visual Intelligence Exercise Take a moment to observe Rene Magritte’s Time Transfixed.Mentally catalog the details you discover within the painting.
你们当中有多少人提到从壁炉跑出来一辆火车
How many of you said there was a train coming out of a fireplace?
每一个人都举手了
And everyone raises his or her hands.
你们当中又有多少人在讨论中提到了烟或者汽
And how many of you referenced smoke or steam in your discussion?
很多人举了手
Lots of hands go up.
接着 我提出谁曾明确指出地指出火车下面没有铁轨
And then I ask the question who articulated that there are no tracks under the train?
一些狡猾的人举了手 却是说我也没有指明火车下面
And a few astute people actually raised their hand and said I said there were no tracks
没有铁轨
under the train.
然后 我问谁注意到并且表明壁炉里面没有火
And then I ask who noticed and then articulated that there was no fire in the fireplace?
还是好几个举了手
And hands go up.
但不多
Not too many.
接着 我们探讨起画中的其他方面
Then we talk about other aspects in the painting.
多少人提及木地板的纹理
How many people mentioned the wood grain on the floor?
大部分人都注意到了这一点
Most people noticed the wood grain on the floor.
多少人描述了那种镶嵌在墙上的护壁板
How many people mentioned wainscoting, that kind of paneling on the walls?
有人表示一直都有一些装潢艺术因子 哦 我知道护壁板
And I always have some decorative arts aficionados oh yes I know about wainscoting.
接下来我问谁提到过壁炉的遮布
And then I say how many of you mentioned a mantle on the fireplace?
很多手都举着
Lots of hands go up.
谁说到了烛台
Who mentioned candlesticks?
(还是有)很多手举着
Lots of hands go up.
然后我又问有多少人提到烛台是空的
And then I ask how many of you said there were no candles in the candlesticks?
人们都说哦没有没人留意
And people say oh no never got there.
然后我又问 那种特别敏锐的人说出时钟上显示的是12:42还是8:05
And then I ask what really observant nerd said it’s 12:42 or 8:05 on the clock?
谁提到了时间
Who got to mention the time?
我之所以问了这一系列问题的原因是这幅画阐明了一个非常
And the reason I have that line of questioning is because this painting illustrates a very
重要的概念 它是我从急诊医学得来的并运用到更广泛的领域
important concept that I transfer from emergency medicine to a much broader application.
这个概念被称为否定相关
And the idea is called the pertinent negative.
这个概念是指在描述一个具体事物的同时联想其相关事物 这样其实能使被观察的事物
It’s saying what isn’t there in addition to what is there to actually give a more accurate
描述得更准确
picture of what you’re looking at.
所以当你说我看见一列从壁炉里开出的火车顺便说一下
So when you say I see a train coming out of the fireplace, and by the way there are no
那火车下面没有铁轨并且壁炉里面没有火
tracks under the train and there is no fire in the fireplace, why would you attempt to
人们为什么要提到没有出现的事物
say what’s not there?
因为在我的第三感觉中如果你叫我画一个壁炉 我会画上两根树枝
Because in my third-grade mind if you told me to draw a fireplace I would draw two sticks
和壁炉里的烟雾和火 除非你告诉我不要这么做
and a fire and smoke in the fireplace unless you told me not to.
而当你让我画一对烛台时 我会在蜡烛上画上火苗
And if you told me to draw a pair of candlesticks I’ll draw candles with flames unless you tell
除非你让我别这么做
me not to.
因此 否定相关是一个绝妙的概念 它赋予我们
So the pertinent negative is this wonderful concept that gives us a broader way of looking
更具体地观察事物的能力
at something.
让否定相关来取代我们最简单的观察方法吧
Instead of looking at something like this you look at it like this.
接下来 举个例子 关于如何将否定相关应用于现实
And here’s a example of how you apply that in the real world.
否定相关在医学领域中是指 当一个人被推进急诊室时
The pertinent negative in a medical situation is when someone comes into the emergency room
医生必须想到病人存在
and they have all the symptoms, it appears to the physician they have all the symptoms
患有肺炎的所有症状
of pneumonia.
肺炎具有三个症状
Pneumonia has three symptoms.
在患者身上发现了症状一症状二 但没有第三种症状
Symptom one is present, symptom two is present, but if symptom three is absent it’s the pertinent
这就是(急诊医学中的)否定相关
negative.
你大概会说因为第三症状不存在因此(患者)并没有感染肺炎
You have to say septum three is not there therefore it’s not pneumonia.
可是在现实世界中、在医学领域之外,我们应该如何使用这个(否定相关)
So in the real world, outside of medicine, how can we use this?
如果我们对一个人的行为有一个预估 并且你期待他们按一定轨迹行事
If we have an expectation of someone’s behavior, you expect them to behave a certain way and
但他们并没有 那就得说预估未曾发生
then they don’t,you need to say it didn’t happen.
当你对他人的工作进行评估
You’re evaluating someone on the job.
你将1、2、3项完成得很好 但没做4、5、6项
Well, you did A, B, and C very well but you didn’t do D, E and F. So it’s looking at the
那么这就是在积极面和消极面看待问题了
affirmative and looking at the negative.
同时否定相关也是一个精妙的工具
And the pertinent negative is a wonderful tool.
对于人口失踪案件 你到人家家里 房中缺少了什么
Missing person’s cases you go to their homes, what’s not there?
手机不在
The cell phone is not there.
钥匙不在
The keys are not there.
钱包不在
The wallet is not there.
你将通过对比这些事物是否存在 对此人
You’re going to have a very different search for that person if those things were present
进行相当不同的搜查
instead of absent.
因此玛格丽特的画作为我们提供了一个机会 它不仅仅探讨肉眼可见的事物还有与之相关却未曾出现的事物
So this Magritte painting gives us this great opportunity to talk about not just what we
能够让那些没有到现场的人 对于你所描述的信息
see but what we don’t see to give the person who can’t see what we see a much more accurate
有一个更具体准确的概念
description of what they’re looking at.

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大脑如何有效的处理视觉信息从而让其他人获得事物的正确信息

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