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世界各地的禁忌

Taboos Around the World

禁忌这个词源于1777年的一次进餐
The word taboo originates from a mealtime in 1777,
当英国探险家詹姆斯·库克邀请汤加部落
when British explorer James Cook invited a Tongan tribe
与他一起坐下来享用美食时
to sit down with him and enjoy the food.
该部落拒绝了
The tribe refused,
告诉库克 对他们来说 这样做是一种禁忌
telling cook it was taboo for them to do so.
受到震惊的库克可能会感到些许讶异
Startled Cook probably feeling a little taken aback,
并问禁忌是什么
asked what taboo meant,
一段时间后 在一些部落居民的帮助下
and after a little time with some help from the tribesmen,
他认识到 禁忌意味着一些禁止的
he found that it meant something that was forbidden,
不可侵犯的 甚至是被诅咒了的事物
inviolable, or even cursed.
当今 我们都活在自己所处文化的禁忌之中
Today we all live with our own cultural taboos.
比如
For example,
一般美国人不会把其深爱的
the average American is not likely to make a steak
已故的祖母煮来吃
out of his dearly departed grandmother,
但对于新几内亚西部的科罗威部落来说
But for the Korowai tribe in western New Guinea,
吃掉死者的尸体并不是一种失礼的行为
consuming the carcass of the deceased is not a social faux pas.
而是一种仪式
It’s a rite.
今天我们将在这期信息图表节目
Today we are going to explore our cultural differences
“世界各地的禁忌”
in this episode of The Infographic Show,
来探寻我们文化的差异
Taboos Around The World.
不要忘了订阅并点击这个铃声按钮
Don’t forget to subscribe and click the bell button,
这样你可以收到我们的通知信息
so that you can be part of our notification squad.
我们先来看看美国
Let’s start by traveling to the USA,
当今仍然存在着一些颇具争议的禁忌
and looking at a controversial taboo that persists today.
与我们自己家庭成员有着性关系
Having an intimate relationship with our own family member,
几乎在任何一种文化里 都被认为是一种永远不可接受的事
is seen as an immutable no-no in just about every culture.
不仅因为我们认为这是不道德的
Not only because we deem it unethical,
并且因为这种关系的后代
but also because the offspring of such a relationship
会存在着基因缺陷的风险
is at risk of being genetically flawed.
在美国
In the USA,
最近有一件臭名昭著的乱伦事件
one famous incestuous relationship happened quite recently,
那就是爸爸妈妈乐队的主唱 约翰·菲利普斯
and that was with the Mamas & the Papas band leader John Phillips.
他与自己的女儿麦肯齐有着性关系
He started having an intimate relationship with his own daughter Mackenzie.
2009年 这个事件的披露引起了巨大的震惊
This was quite a shock when the story came out in 2009,
尤其在他女儿告诉媒体 她曾为其父亲流过一个孩子
especially as his daughter told the press she had aborted his baby.
在美国大多数州
In most US states,
这将被认为是一种犯罪 并处以监禁
that would be a crime punishable with a prison sentence.
尽管 在新泽西 乱伦关系是合法的
Although in New Jersey an incestuous relationship is legal,
但这两人结婚是不合法的
marriage for the couple is not.
就拿基因缺陷来说
Speaking of genetic flaws,
物种起源的作者达尔文
the author of on the Origin of Species,
与他的堂妹结婚了
Charles Darwin married his first cousin.
他们共有十个孩子
They had 10 kids together,
其中三个在其很年轻时 便去世了
and 3 of them died very young.
在英国 乱伦是不合法的 但这仅限于近亲
In the UK, incest is illegal but only for close family,
达尔文的做法在当今的英国是合法的
what Darwin did then would be legal today in the UK.
再来看一看美国
Staying in America for a moment,
我们知道 用食指指着某人
we know that when the index finger is pointed at someone,
普遍认为是无礼的
it is almost universally seen as rude,
这可能是由于好莱坞电影的输出
and that’s probably due to the export of Hollywood films.
美国之外的其他地区更为复杂
Outside of the USA is more complex.
在亚洲 竖起食指和中指
In Asia, holding up the fore finger and index finger,
手掌向内 被视为可爱的一种标志
with the palm turned inwards is seen as a sign of cuteness.
但在英国 这很容易让你卷入一场斗争
But in the UK, it’s liable to get you into a fight.
因为这被视为挑衅 先前英国弓箭手
This is because it was the signed English archers of the past
向他们的法国对手展示 表明他们仍然还有两根手指
show to their French rivals to prove they still had two fingers.
如果法国人抓住这些弓箭手的话
The French would cut them off,
会把他们的中指及食指全都砍掉
if they captured the archers,
因此弓箭手们就再不能用它们
so they couldn’t use them again
来拉弓
to pull the straw on the archers bow.
现今这个手势在英国的意义
The sign now in the UK
相当于在美国竖中指的意义
is the equivalent of giving the middle finger in the US.
在亚洲的大部分地区
In most parts of Asia,
指着人是不礼貌的 所以不要这样做
don’t point at anyone as its seen as impolite,
然而 在常常可以搭便车的以色列
while a thumb-up gesture in Israel,
竖大指拇是一种冒犯的行为
where hitching rides is common, is offensive .
这在大多数中东地区也是一样的
It’s the same throughout much of the Middle East.
你可以想象一下这种场景 你对每辆经过你身旁的车都伸出手
Imagine giving the finger to every car that passes you.
现在让我们把焦点放到亚洲
Let’s now look more at Asia,
在这里禁忌或许更为常见
where taboos are perhaps more prevalent
在亚洲的一些地区
In some parts of Asia,
用你的脚底指着某人
pointing at the soles of your feet at someone
是极其无礼的
is seen as extreme rudeness
并且可以很容易地让你陷入麻烦之中
and could easily get you into trouble.
在俄罗斯以及
This is also true in Russia,
中东部分地区也是如此
as well as parts of the Middle East.
这就是为什么乔治·布什差点
That’s why when George.W.Bush almost took a shoe to the head
被一位愤怒的伊拉克记者用鞋子袭击到头的原因
from an angry Iraqi journalist,
相比于这种暴力行为而言 这更体现出了一种象征意义
it was more symbolic than it was an act of violence.
鞋子 一种肮脏的武器
She was a dirty weapon
却对着身体最高最受尊重的部分
aimed at the highest and most esteemed point of the body.
在泰国 中国 这样的国家
In countries such as Thailand and China,
把你的脚放在椅子上
putting your feet up on a chair
当然 放在靠近
and certainly any place
任何人的头可能会放的地方
near to where someone might put their head,
会被认为十分的不礼貌
is seen as very disrespectful.
大部分亚洲人认为 脚是不干净的
The foot in most of Asia attitude is dirty,
头是神圣的
the head is seen as sacred.
如果你计划去亚洲旅游
If you are planning to travel to Asia,
谨记这些禁忌 免得你惹恼当地人
bare this mind, lest you rankle the locals.
因此那些举止粗鲁的美国人
OK, so the rude American
可能会因为他那脏兮兮的大脚而让亚洲东道主不高兴
may have upset his Asian host with his filthy big feet.
大家对人吃饭时产生的声音又怎么看呢
But what about the noise that guy makes when he eats?
大多数文化都能接受这点
Most cultures accept that
如果你超过三岁
eating quietly with your mouth closed is just plain good etiquette,
闭着嘴巴 安静吃饭 不失为一种良好的礼节
if you are older than three years old.
中国不大像这样
Not so much in China.
在餐厅就餐发出的声音好似
We’re eating at a restaurant can sound like a course of cows
一头奶牛在潮湿的草地上啃食
chomping down on wet grass.
对中国人来说 从嘴里发出声音
Well, to the Chinese the sound emitting from your mouth
表明了你对此食物的喜欢程度
is a sign of how much you appreciate the food.
这就像在无言地表明 这很美味
It’s like saying “that’s delicious” without the words.
中国人会咕嘟着大声地吃饭 菲律宾人会咂咂着津津有味地吃饭
The Chinese slurp and the Filipinos often smack their lips,
如果这打搅到你
if it bothers you,
只需记住 他很愉快
just remember someone is having a good time.
在亚洲 怎样吃饭
In Asia, how you eat,
穿什么 什么样的仪态
what you wear, your body language,
甚至是如何书写 都需要考虑
and even how you write has to be taken into consideration.
在亚洲部分地区
In parts of Asia,
当你给别人写信时 要注意
be careful when you write something down for someone,
用红色墨水书写被认为是一种诅咒
as writing in red ink is seen as a curse.
因为在大部分亚洲文化中
This is because in some Asian cultures,
红色墨水用于写给死者的信件中
red ink was reserved for messages applying to the deceased.
在台湾地区 韩国 日本 泰国这类国家
Filling in an official form in red,
用红色填写官方表格
maybe even an arrival card,
甚至一张入境卡
in countries such as Taiwan, Korea, Japan, or Thailand,
都会被视为一种讨人嫌的行为 或许一种凶兆
is seen as bad form and perhaps a very bad omen.
在正式场合 红色是用于死者的
Red is reserved for the dead in an official environment.
至于食物
As for what you eat,
某些在西方是严重禁忌的动物
some Asians chow down on animals
一些亚洲人却吃得大快朵颐
that are strictly taboo foods in the West.
然而食人 几乎在世界上任何地方
While cannibalism is downright taboo
都是一种绝对的禁忌
pretty much everywhere in the world,
据西方媒体报道
there are certain animals
某些有价值的动物文化
cultures put on the table
却被放在了餐桌上
that calls out prize in the Western media.
最臭名昭著的是对狗肉的消费
The most infamous is the consumption of dog meat,
大概5%到30%的韩国人都吃狗肉
something is thought around 5% to 30% south koreans have done.
据BBC新闻报道
According to one BBC story,
在韩国 一碗狗肉汤
a bowl of dog soup
需花费你十美元左右
will set you back about $10 in South Korea.
中国 越南 尼日利亚 印度尼西亚也吃狗肉
Dog is also eaten in China, Vietnam, Nigeria and Indonesia.
2014年美国新闻周刊报道 在瑞士
In 2014, Newsweek reported hundreds of thousands of people in Switzerland
数十万的人都吃猫肉及狗肉
eat cat and dog meat,
并补充道 这是圣诞日的一道特色菜
adding that it’s a specialty dish at Christmas.
法国人喜爱烹饪马肉
The French have a penchant for cooked horse.
我们知道 泰国人会吃 穿在棍子上的 鸡的胚胎
The Thais have been known to eat chicken embryos on a stick,
并且油炸豚鼠作为一种特色菜
and deep-fried Guinea pig as a specialty
已经走出南美 现在美国人也吃了
has moved from South America and is now eaten in the USA.
大概需要45美元
For around $45,
你可以试试纽约的乌鲁班巴餐厅
you can try some at the Urubamba restaurant in New York.
这里的啮齿动物既可爱又有趣
If cute rodent is interesting,
该餐厅也提供牛犊心 牛脚汤 以及兔肉
the restaurant also offers veal heart, cow foots soup and rabbit.
禁忌不仅与吃什么有关
Taboos don’t only relate to what you eat,
也与怎样吃有关
but how you eat.
在许多西方国家
In many western countries,
吃光盘子里的食物会显得有礼貌
it’s polite to clean your plate of food,
即便是你不是特想吃
even if you are not so keen on the cuisine.
剩下食物可能意味着你不喜欢
Leaving food might mean you didn’t like it,
也会被视为一种浪费
and it’s also seen as being wasteful.
好吧 如果你在中国 印度 或者是阿富汗这样做
Well, if you do that in China, India, or Afghanistan,
就会出现这种情况
one thing is going to happen.
你的盘子就会被再次填满
Your plate will be refilled.
总是留下一点点 这被认为是礼貌的
It’s seen as polite to always leave a little,
清光你的盘子会被认为有一点贪吃
and a bit greedy or expecting to clean your plate
因为其意味着再多给我点
as its saying give me more.
这就会导致这样一种场景
This has certainly led to situations,
那些有涵养的西方人会
in which polite Westerners have made themselves almost sick
因为要客气的吃完所有提供的东西而反胃
by politely eating up what’s offered.
只能靠主人来猜测他们是否已经饱了
Only for their guests to think they’re absolute gluttons,
但又不得不再次添加食物 以示礼貌
but obliged to fill the plate again.
是否一些禁忌存在于每种文化中?
Do some taboos carry across every culture?
毫不意外 侮辱别人的父母
Insulting someone’s mother or father
世界普遍认为是一种禁忌
is taboo a pretty much worldwide for obvious reasons.
但在一些文化中
But in some cultures,
即使是提及其父母的消极方面
even mentioning parents in a negative light
都能让你陷入麻烦之中 甚至是惹来杀身之祸
can get you into trouble or even killed.
在俄罗斯 一对基督教徒父母
In Russia, a Christian parent in it
被认为是一件你可以说的最糟糕的事
is seen as the worst thing you could possibly say.
在马达加斯加 属于安东奶牛部落的孩子
In Madagascar, children belonging to the Anton dairy tribe
甚至是不允许直呼他们父亲的名字的
are not even allowed to call their father by his name.
在一些印度家庭里
In some Hindu families,
即便是丈夫的妻子
even the wives of husbands
也是不允许直呼其男人的名字的
are not permitted to call the man by his name.
尽管印度的先进人士认为这是过时的 父权的
Although progressive Hindus see this as antiquated and patriarchal,
一些西方人还是可能会觉得有点奇怪
some Westerners may find that strange.
但在大多数西方文化里
But in most Western countries,
孩子直呼父母的名字才是一种禁忌
it’s taboo for children to be on first-name terms with their parents.
诅咒咒骂母亲几乎是普遍的
The curse mother plus expletive is almost universal on language.
在公共场合 普遍来说 该是一种禁忌吧?
Surely public pooping is universally taboo?
对发达国家来说 是的
In developed nations, yes.
但据2015年BBC的报道
But the BBC reported in 2015 that
印度仍然存在是在公共场合排便的问题
open defecation in India was still a problem
大多数原因是缺少厕所
mostly due to the lack of toilets.
法国哲学家 蒙田
French philosopher Michel de Montaigne,
使同为高雅知识分子的同伴恼怒
upset his fellow highbrow intellectuals,
由于他喜欢谈论
because he liked to discuss flatulence,
各种放屁
aka passing gas, farting, cutting the cheese.
他甚至写了一篇关于放屁以及其他身体机能的论文
He even wrote a treatise on farting and other bodily functions,
他写道 国王和哲学家要排便 女士也是这样
one saying kings and philosophers defecate, and so do ladies.
尽管他恳求帮助人们
In spite of his entreaties to help
使人类习惯这种身体的禁忌
make the human race comfortable with such bodily taboos,
但在大多数文化里并不能接受在公共场合放屁
public farting doesn’t go down well in most cultures.
显然 如果你被邀请在因纽特家里吃饭
Well, apparently if you are invited to eat in an Inuit household,
你可以在餐后放一次屁
you can show your appreciation for the meal
表示你对食物的喜爱
by letting one rip postprandial.
尽管我们平均每天放约14次屁
Even though we fart on average about 14 times a day,
我们通常是小心谨慎的
we are usually discreet about it.
但在南美的亚诺玛米族就不同了
Not so much for the Yanomami tribe in South America,
他们视放屁为一种问候
or set to fart as a greeting.
是不是禁忌 还有待商榷
Taboo or not taboo, that is the question.
我们需记住 我们的生活方式
We might do well to remember that our way of living
不一定是正确的方式 但也是一种方式
is not the right way, but a way.
蒙田认为 我们应该对禁忌持有好奇心
Montaigne believes we should be curious about our taboos,
然后 一步一步地消灭它们
deconstruct them and at times get over them.
那么 你怎么看
Then again, how would you feel
如果你的祖父和他的妻子在感恩节的晚餐上
if your granddad turns up to Thanksgiving dinner
将要放屁了
with his new farting fiance,
他也确实放了出来
who is actually his cousin,
并且狗狗以及喵咪也这样做了
with a gift of dog and cats do,
毫无疑问 晚餐的食欲就被毁了
and an appetite for dinner destruction.
你会如何应对这样的场景?
Could you handle that?
在评论区发表你的看法
Let us know in the comments.
如果你的国家有着一些不同寻常的禁忌 请联系我们
And please tell us about any unusual taboos in your country.
如果你喜欢这期的视频
If you like this video,
一定要看我们的另一期视频
be sure to check out our other video called
“一美元带你看世界”
“What A Dollar Gets You Around The World.”
谢谢观看
Thanks for watching.
一如往常 不要忘记点喜欢 分享与订阅哦
And as always, don’t forget to Like, Share and Subscribe.
下次再见
See you next time.

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译制信息
视频概述

不同的地域有着不同的禁忌,有些部落可以食人,然而这是为大多数人所不接受的,又比如,美国人认为吃完自己盘子的东西才算礼貌,然而在大多数亚洲国家,却认为是不够吃,一起来了解更多地禁忌吧

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

lulu

审核员

HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQP0jjSMRgc

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