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日本传统美食寿司 – 译学馆
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日本传统美食寿司

Sushi: How to Eat, History & Cost | japan-guide.com

寿司
Sushi is a symbol of Japan,
寿司是日本的一个象征
and it is one of the most popular Japanese dishes around the world.
也是世界上最受欢迎的日本美食之一
But what is sushi?
但寿司是什么呢?
For starters, sushi consists of vinegared rice combined with different toppings,
首先 寿司是由醋饭和不同配料组成
usually seafood
(配料)通常是海鲜
and comes in different forms, such as Nigirizushi
寿司发展出了很多种类 比如手握寿司
Makizushi
卷寿司
Gunkanzushi
军舰寿司
Oshizushi
箱寿司
Temakizushi
手卷寿司
Chirashizushi
散寿司
and Inarizushi.
还有稻禾寿司
Sushi can be enjoyed at a wide range of establishments,
我们在很多地方都可以吃到寿司
from high-end restaurants where one sushi can cost more than 1000 yen a piece,
既有一个寿司卖到一千多日元的高档餐厅
to cheap on-the-go kaitenzushi restaurants that serve sushi for 50 yen a piece on a conveyor belt.
也有传送带上每个寿司只卖五十日元的回转寿司餐厅
Before we go into more details about this delicacy,
在对这款美食进行详细介绍之前
let’s take a quick glance at the history of sushi.
让我们先简单了解一下它的历史吧
In ancient times, raw fish was prepared for nobility.
在古代 生鱼是给贵族食用的
And in order to preserve it, it was fermented with rice.
为了方便保存 人们用大米来辅助生鱼发酵
After the fermentation process,
发酵完成后
the rice was discarded and only the fish was eaten.
把大米扔掉 只吃鱼肉
This traditional version of sushi can actually be found
实际上 这种传统的寿司现在仍然存在
and is still eaten in Shiga Prefecture,
而且在日本滋贺县 人们还在以它为食
and is called Funazushi.
它被称作鲋寿司
In the 15th century, people started to eat the rice used in the fermentation of the fish,
15世纪时 人们开始食用生鱼发酵过程中
before it would turn into a paste.
还没有变成糊状的米饭
Two centuries later, the biggest shift in sushi history happened
两个世纪后 用来发酵的大米被醋代替
when rice was replaced by vinegar as the fermentation agent.
这成为寿司发展史最大的转折点
This way it wasn’t necessary to wait several months for the process to end
这样一来就不需要花几个月的时间 等待发酵完成
and the fish could be consumed sooner.
就可以早点把鱼吃掉
The second big shift in sushi history happened during the Edo Period.
寿司发展的第二个转折点是在江户时代
At the time sushi was still expensive,
在当时寿司价格不菲
and mostly made for special occasions.
并且基本上只有特定场合才会提供
Until on employee at a famous sushi shop in Edo (now Tokyo)
直到江户(现东京)一家著名寿司店里的一名员工
decided to make cheap, delicious
决心做出一种人人都可以享用 便宜 美味
and quickly prepared sushi for everyone.
制作过程也很快的寿司
During the Edo period, street food stands known as yatai were the number one choice,
在江户时代 被称作yatai的路边摊
when it came to grabbing a quick lunch on the go.
成为赶路的人们匆忙解决午餐的第一选择
Sushi were sold there and earned the nickname of quick sushi
路边摊供应的寿司由于制作过程很快
because of how fast they were made.
又被称为速食寿司
This marked the birth of nigirizushi.
这标志着手握寿司的诞生
At that time, sushhi pieces were considerably bigger,
那时寿司个头相当大
almost three times the size of the modern sushi.
几乎是现代寿司的三倍
However, things changed after WWII,
但是 二战之后日本经历了粮食短缺
when Japan suffered from a shortage of food.
寿司大小也随之发生了变化
A union of sushi chefs decided to create a service,
一个寿司厨师联盟决定提供一项服务
that would allow people to supply their own rice,
就是允许人们带上自家大米
and pay a small fee for a chef
再付一点钱给厨师
to make a set of 10 sushi.
来换取一组十个寿司
which were smaller than pre-war sushi.
这些寿司比二战之前的寿司小很多
This became the standard size for modern sushi.
但这种大小已经逐渐变成现代寿司的标准
Because of the scarcity of ingredients during the post-war years,
由于战后食材匮乏
sushi using vegetables such as cucumbers (kappa-zushi) were invented.
以黄瓜等蔬菜为配料的寿司(黄瓜寿司)出现了
Finally, in 1950,
最后 在1950年
the first conveyor belt sushi restaurant opened in Osaka.
第一家回转寿司餐厅在大阪开业
The birth of kaitenzushi restaurants
回转寿司餐厅的诞生
helped make sushi a more accessible
使吃寿司变得更容易了
and on-the-go dish let it use to be back in the Edo Period.
而且回转寿司也重现了江户时代的风格
Although kaitenzushi continues to be popular today,
虽然回转寿司一直十分受欢迎
gourmet restaurant options are still widely available.
但是也有很多其他形式的餐厅可供选择
How to eat sushi
怎么吃寿司
A piece of sushi consists of vinegared rice called Shari
一个寿司是由被称作“Shari”的醋饭
and a topping called Neta.
和被称作“Neta”的配料组成
Some popular Neta include
一些很受欢迎配料包括
Tuna
吞拿鱼
Salmon
三文鱼
Schrimp

Eel
鳗鱼
Scallops
扇贝
Sea Urchin
海胆
and many more.
还有很多很多
When you are facing a spread of sushi which features many different neta,
当你面对不同配料的寿司时
there is no specific order in which you ought to eat the different sushi pieces.
你可以不用按照特定顺序食用
However some people recommend starting with a lighter Neta,
不过有人建议从配料清淡的开始吃
for example seabream,
例如鲷鱼寿司
and making your way to the stronger ones like Anago,
然后逐渐吃到口味比较重的
which is already coated in a thick sauce,
比如带有浓稠酱汁的齐头鳗寿司
and ending the meal with the lightly sweetened egg.
最后再吃微甜的厚蛋烧
But really any order is fine!
但其实什么顺序都可以啦
Sushi can be eaten using either your hands or chopsticks.
用手或者用筷子吃寿司都是可以的
First, dip it in the soy sauce.
(吃寿司的)第一步是蘸酱油
The proper way to do so
正确的方法
is to dip the neta rather than the rice.
是用调料而不是米饭去蘸酱油
For that, flip the sushi to the side and only dip a small portion of it,
因此 把寿司翻转过来 使配料的一小部分蘸到酱油即可
or otherwise, the soy sauce would overpower the delicate taste of the fish.
不然的话 酱油太多会掩盖鱼的鲜味
When you are eating Gunkan, use the Ginger (called Gari in Japanese) to dip in the soy sauce
吃军舰寿司时 用姜片(日语叫Gari)蘸酱油
and dribble it on top of the gunkan.
然后把姜片上的酱油滴到寿司上
Pieces already marinated or seasoned do not need to be dipped in soy sauce.
已经腌制调味过的寿司就不需要再蘸酱油了
Ginger is also eaten in between pieces
在吃寿司的间隙吃一些姜片
to help cleanse your palette
既有助于清除口腔的杂味
and appreciate the next piece better.
也能够更好地品尝下一块寿司
It’s good manners to eat the sushi in one bite.
一口吃掉一个寿司是很有礼貌的吃法
But do NOT bite half of the sushi
千万不要只咬一半
or try to split it into multiple pieces
或者尝试把一个寿司分成了很多块
then put it back on your plate,
再放回盘子里
since this is considered bad manners.
这些行为都很不礼貌
Also it’s important not to separate the fish from the rice.
吃的时候也要注意 不要把鱼和醋饭分开
Although many people do it,
虽然很多人会把芥末混到酱油里
we do not recommend adding wasabi into your soy sauce.
但是我们并不推荐这种吃法
In Japan, wasabi is directly put inside appropriate pieces of sushi by the chef,
在日本 芥末会被厨师直接涂在适当的寿司里面
in between the shari and the neta.
放在配料和米饭之间
Although we recommend trying it with the wasabi,
虽然我们建议你可以试试加上芥末
you can ask for Wasabi-nuki, which means without wasabi.
但你也可以要求不加芥末
Another reason to not add wasabi into your soy sauce is
不要把芥末加到酱油里的另一个原因是
that some pieces of sushi are better enjoyed with seasonings other than wasabi,
有一些寿司更适合搭配其他调味料
such as grated ginger.
比如姜蓉
If you are eating at a counter,
如果你在餐馆吧台就餐
the sushi chef will display the sushi one by one in front of you,
寿司厨师会把寿司
on a serving board called a geta.
挨个摆在你面前被称作geta(木屐)的容器上
The name geta actually comes from to its resemblance
木屐这个名字源于和它外形相似
to a wooden Japanese shoe of the same name.
并且同名的一种日本木鞋
Don’t move the geta from its original position,
吃寿司的时候不要挪动木屐
instead take the sushi with your hand or chopsticks
直接用手或者筷子拿取寿司
and eat it directly.
然后一口解决它
When eating at a kaiten-zushi restaurant,
在回转餐厅吃寿司时
sushi is prepared on the plate not geta.
寿司会放在盘子里而不是木屐上
that go around the restaurant on the prepare belt,
它们会在传送带上围着餐厅旋转
there are usually more than one piece per plate.
通常一个盘子里不止一块寿司
At places like this,
在这样的餐厅
you just grab the sushi you want from the belt,
你可以直接从传送带上拿你想要的寿司
keep the plate on your table,
然后把盘子放在桌上
and at the end of the meal, the waiter will count your plates to determine the bill.
用餐结束后 服务员会根据你的盘子数来结账
The price for each plate varies depending on its color,
不同颜色盘子里的寿司价格也不同
and a detailed board not far away
餐厅的显眼位置会有详细的价格表
will show the prices clearly.
清楚地标明价格
Some kaitenzushi also allow you to order
在有些回转寿司餐厅可以使用
via an interactive, multi-language touch-screen,
交互式的 可选多种语言的触摸屏进行点单
and receive your food via automatic delivery.
然后你会收到自动配送过来的食物
Finally, if you are dining at a high-end restaurant,
最后 如果你在一家高档餐厅就餐
it’s good manners to avoid wearing strong fragrances,
请不要在身上喷过浓的香水
as it might interfere with the taste of sushi for the people around you,
因为这可能会影响你周围人包括你自己
as well as yourself.
对寿司的品尝
Now that you know a little bit more about how to eat sushi,
现在你对怎么吃寿司有了一些了解了
let’s talk about budget.
下面我们来谈谈预算吧
第三部分 预算
The cost of sushi can vary wildly depending on where you go.
寿司的价格取决于你去哪吃
Most restaurants will offer sets or sushi by the piece
在大部分餐厅既可以点寿司套餐也可以单点
with prices ranging from 50 yen a piece at cheaper places
价格从便宜餐厅里的每个50日元
to more than 1000 yen at high-end restaurants.
到高级餐厅里的每个1000多日元不等
In some local restaurants,
在一些本地餐厅
the price for each sushi is not set,
寿司的价格并不固定
but decided by the chef day to day,
而是由寿司厨师
depending on the quality of the fish being used.
根据当天鱼的新鲜程度来决定
If you have a limited budget, we recommend trying a kaitenzushi restaurant.
如果你预算有限 我们推荐去回转寿司餐厅
Although sushi is a dish with a long history,
尽管寿司历史悠久
it has continued to evolve throughout the years,
但这些年来它还是一直不停地发展
with new sushi inventions, such as the California roll,
出现了加州卷等新型寿司
which keep pushing the boundaries of sushi creativity further and further.
这些变化也在推动着寿司不断创新
Who knows what type of sushi will be invented years from now?
谁知道几年后又会出现哪些新型寿司呢?
In the meantime, we hope this video will allow you
与此同时 我们希望这个视频
to appreciate and enjoy your sushi experiences even more.
能让您更好地了解和享用寿司
If you are looking for more information for Japan
如果您想要了解更多关于日本的信息
or to watch another video,
或者想要观看其他视频
could click the links on the screen now, or head over to Japan-Guide.com,
现在就可以点击屏幕上的链接 或直接打开Japan-Guide.com网站
your comprehensive, up to date travel guide, first hand from Japan.
那里有关于日本旅行的最新最全的第一手资料
Gochisosama deshita!
感谢收看!

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视频概述

寿司有着悠久的历史,是在全球范围都很受欢迎的日本美食,让这个视频来告诉你寿司要怎么吃以及去哪里吃会比较便宜吧

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收集自网络

翻译译者

一颗大橙子

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审核员FW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYquTY8mvnc

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