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人可以只吃土豆吗? – 译学馆
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人可以只吃土豆吗?

Survive on a single food | CAN IT BE DONE?

In the 2015 sci-fi film The Martian,
2015年科幻电影《火星救援》中
a marooned astronaut survives on the red planet
孤立无援的宇航员仅仅依靠土豆
eating nothing but potatoes.
在火星上生存
But since there are no real humans on Mars,
但考虑到火星上并没有人类
could a person survive eating nothing but spuds on Earth?
那在地球上人可以只吃土豆生存吗?
The short answer: Unless you’re stranded with nothing but taters,
答案是除非你被困时只有土豆
it’s not a good idea.
否则最好不要
To survive,
为了生存
humans need a plethora of minerals and vitamins,
人类需要大量矿物质和维他命
as well as 20 different amino acids.
以及20多种不同的氨基酸
Nine of those amino acids are essential,
其中有9种氨基酸是必需的
meaning we can’t make them ourselves
且不能靠自身生成
so we have to get them from food.
需要从食物获取
And, obviously we need water
并且很显然 除了食物中的水外
in addition to what we eat
我们还需要额外的水
to keep our cells hydrated
来维持细胞水分
so they don’t wither and die.
防止细胞脱水死亡
Technically, the traditional white potato contains
理论上说 普通土豆含有
all the essential amino acids you need
人体必需的全部9种氨基酸
to build proteins, repair cells, and fight diseases.
用以生成蛋白质 修复细胞 对抗疾病
And eating just five of them a day would get you there.
并且一天只需吃5个土豆就可以到达效果
However, if you sustained on white potatoes alone,
然而 如果你只靠土豆为生
you would eventually run into vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
将会陷入缺乏维他命和矿物质的状态
That’s where sweet potatoes come in.
所以便需要红薯
Though these orangey spuds technically
虽然红薯严格来讲
belong to a different taxonomic family than white potatoes,
属于与土豆不同的科
eating them increases the likelihood of
但是食用它们增加了
getting the recommended daily dose of Vitamin A
每日摄取适量维生素A的可能性
the organic compound in carrots
你妈妈告诉过你
that your mom told you could make you see in the dark—
胡萝卜中含有的有机化合物(以及维生素E)
along with Vitamin E.
可以让你在黑暗中看清
Also, no one on a diet of sweet potatoes and white potatoes
并且经常吃红薯和土豆
would get scurvy,
可以防止坏血病
a famously horrible disease that happens
这是一种因缺乏维生素C
due to a lack of Vitamin C
而患上的众所周知的可怕疾病
and causes the victim’s teeth to fall out.
它会导致患者的牙齿脱落
But even with this combo of white and sweet potatoes,
即使红薯和土豆搭配食用
you’ll still need to eat a lot of them
也需要吃很多
before you intake the right levels of
才能摄取足够的
everything your body needs.
人体所需物质
To avoid a calcium deficiency,
为了避免钙质缺乏
you’d have to consume 34 sweet potatoes a day,
你一天不得不吃上34个红薯
or 84 white potatoes.
或者84个土豆
You would also need 25 white potatoes a day
并且你还需要一天吃25个土豆
to get the recommended amount of protein.
来摄取足量的蛋白质
Of course, there are a lot of health disadvantages to taters,
当然 土豆也有对健康不利的地方
especially when you eat them in bulk.
尤其当你吃大量土豆时
White potatoes are high in a kind of carbohydrate
土豆中含有的大量碳水化合物
that causes your blood sugar to spike and then dip,
会使你的血糖先升高再降低
which puts a strain on the insulin system.
这会对胰腺系统造成损伤
People who eat a lot of these tubers
吃太多这类块茎植物
are more likely to get diabetes and become obese,
会更容易患上糖尿病或者变得肥胖
according to multiple studies conducted around the world.
这是根据世界各地的多项研究而得出的
That’s not to say one can’t lose weight by eating only potatoes,
这并不是说不能通过只吃土豆
or just one kind of food.
或者只吃一种食物来减肥
There are plenty of people who have done it throughout history.
曾经有很多人都这样做过
But that likely has more to do with previous food choices
但他们前期在食物选择上应该做了许多功课
than eating potatoes—
而不是吃土豆
eating less sugar and food overall
总的来说吃更少的糖和食物
is bound to result in shedding a few pounds.
必然会减轻几磅
But no nutritionist would get on board with an all-potato diet.
但是没有营养学家会建议全土豆饮食
Nor would they recommend
他们也不会建议
an all coconut, kale, seaweed, or yogurt one either.
全椰肉 全甘蓝 全海藻或全酸奶的饮食
There’s a reason that the U.S. dietary guidelines recommend eating a variety of vegetables,
这也是为什么美国膳食指南建议食用多种蔬菜
grains, proteins, fruits, and oils.
谷物 蛋白质 水果和油
Eat any of these just by themselves
仅仅食用它们中的一种
and you would soon run into the same nutritional deficiencies that you would with a potato.
你会很快变得营养不良 就像只吃土豆一样
Variety is important, and in this case, it’s vital.
多样化很重要 在今天的案例中甚至生死攸关
So don’t eat a plain baked potato
所以不要只吃单一的烤土豆
— load it with other healthy stuff, too.
也吃些其他健康的食物
Maybe even some bacon…as long as it’s in moderation.
甚至是培根也行 但是要适量

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视频概述

人可以只吃土豆吗?人只吃土豆或者只吃一种食物的话,不能够获得人体生存必需的全部营养物质,会导致营养缺乏。所以,我们要保持一个多样性膳食习惯。

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视频来源

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