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马格努斯效应令人吃惊的应用

Surprising Applications of the Magnus Effect

最近我的一些朋友去了塔斯马尼亚的戈登大坝
Recently some friends of mine went to the Gordon Dam in Tasmania,
大坝高126.5米(或者415英尺)
which is 126.5 meters (or 415 feet) high.
然后,他们在边缘掉落一个篮球
Then they dropped a basketball over the edge.
你可以看到篮球被风推动
You can see that the basketball gets pushed around of it by the breeze
但它基本上是停留在掉落的右下方
but it lands basically right below where it was dropped.
现在,看看会发生什么当他们放掉另一个篮球时
Now watch what happens when they drop another basketball,
但这次有点逆转
but this time with a bit of backspin…
哇,那将会去哪里呢?
‘Wow, where do that go?’
这是令人难以置信的
‘That’s incredible’
这是正确的,然后你扔掉
‘This is right, and you threw up *
我只是放掉伴随着旋转
I litterally just dropped that, with a bit of spin
就像我不得不扔掉,和我只是做这个而不知道将要进行什么
like I did have to throw, and it just took of, with no idea of what was gonna do that.
而这就是我来的位置
And this is where I come in:
篮球受到了马格努斯效应影响
the basketball was subject to the Magnus effect,
马格努斯效应影响到所有在空中飞行的旋转着的球或者圆柱体
which affects all rotating balls or cylinders as they fly to the air.
它是这样的:
It works like this:
随着篮球加速,
as the basketball picks up speed,
球前面的空气和它旋转的方向一样
air on the front side of the ball is going in the same direction as its spin,
因此,空气就被球拖动然后偏转拖回
and therefore it gets dragged along with the ball and deflected back.
空气在另一边,移动与球旋转的方向相反
Air on the other side, is moving opposite to the ball spin
所以空气流动与球分离而不是被拖回
so the flow separates from the ball instead of getting deflected.
最终的结果是球一方面推空气
The net result is the ball pushes air one way,
而另一方面空气也运用同等的力到球上
so the air applies an equal force on the ball the other way.
而这就是著名的马格努斯效应
And this is known as the Magnus effect,
海因里斯•古斯塔夫•马格努斯在1852年命名的
named after Heinrich Gustav Magnus who described it in 1852.
当然,艾萨克•牛顿灌输到近两百年
Of course, Isaac Newton beat into it by nearly two hundred years,
描述了网球的飞行在剑桥学院
describing a flight of tennisballs at Cambridge College.
但是,你知道,他有足够的材料命名
But, you know, he’s got enough stuff named after him…
这种效应在运动如网球,足球和高尔夫方面很重要
This effect is very important in sports like tennis, soccer and golf,
但它有非运动类型的应用程序吗?
but could it have non-sports applications?
可能吧
Perhaps.
这是一艘帆船。我知道它看起来不像一艘帆船
This is a sailboat. I know it doesn’t look like a sailboat
但这些都不是烟囱。
but those aren’t chimneys.
他们是旋转的圆筒被称为襟翼转子
They are spinning cylinders called ‘Flettner rotors’,
它们取代帆
and they take the place of the sails.
他们转移侧风,使用马格努斯效应推动船前行
They deflect crosswinds, using the Magnus effect to propel the ship forwards.
这是一架飞机用旋转的圆柱体代替翅膀
And this is a plane with spinning cylinders instead of wings.
使用马格努斯效应,圆柱体实际上比传统的翅膀产生更多的上升力
Using the Magnus effect, the cylinders actually generate more lift than traditional wings.
但他们也产生更多的阻力,是他们不切实际
However they also generate way more drag, making them impractical.
这个地方只能飞一次,之后就被坠毁了
This place only flew once, and then it crashed.
但是马格努斯效应可以使之复原
But the Magnus effect is making a comeback.
这是一个实验的转子翼飞机而它产生的所有的上升力都来自旋转的圆柱体
Here is an experimental rotor wing aircraft which generates all its lift from spinning cylinders.
这是E-ship1使用四个旋转圆柱体(这四个Flattner转子)
And this is the E-Ship 1 which uses four spinning cylinders (that’s four Flattner rotors)
提高效率和减少柴油的燃烧
to increase its efficiency and reduce the amount of diesel it burns.
因此,将来马格努斯效应可能不仅仅是有助于篮球飞行
So, in the future, the Magnus effect may help more than just basketballs fly.
我的来自‘如此荒谬’的朋友,来到这个大坝的真正原因是
Now the real reason my friends from ‘How Ridiculous’ were at the dam
是创下了世界最高篮得分的记录
was to set the world record for the highest basket ever scored.
所以去看看频道和视频
So go check out the channel and the video,
和订阅更多电影镜头的史诗。
and subscribe to them for more epic trickshots.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2OSrvzNW9FE

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