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超级细菌有了一个新敌人:DNA序列CRISPR

Super Bacteria Has a New Enemy: The CRISPR Pill

CRISPR is mostly known for making gene editing so easy,
CRISPR以基因编辑更简单而出名
scientists had to pump the brakes for a second,
科学家们不得不刹住车
and talk about the ethical implications of playing God.
讨论扮演上帝的伦理意义
But while we haven’t figured out yet exactly
但是我们还没有弄清楚
where to draw the line on messing with the human genome,
究竟该在哪里划定干扰人类基因组的界限
I think we can all agree we’re cool with using this revolutionary technique
我认为我们都很乐意使用这种革命性的技术
to mess with harmful bacteria, because we hate those guys.
来对付有害细菌 因为我们讨厌那些家伙
Researchers are developing a CRISPR pill which could help fight bacteria
研究人员正在开发一种CRISPR药片
that have developed a resistance to other forms of antibiotics,
能拮抗对其他类型抗生素有耐药性的细菌
the much feared superbugs.
也就是令人担忧的超级细菌
Best of all, killing bacteria using CRISPR
最重要的是 使用CRISPR杀死细菌
turns their own defenses against them.
可以使细菌自身的防御系统对它们进行反击
CRISPR is not just how I like my bacon.
CRISPR不是个简单的词
It’s also an acronym that stands for clustered, regularly, interspaced, short, palindromic, repeat.
它的全称是 规律间隔成簇短回文重复序列
It refers to sequences in a bacteria’s DNA that are pretty much what they sound like.
指的是与它们发音基本一致的细菌DNA序列
Short sequences that are partially the same backwards and forwards
短序列它们前后部分相同
that are spaced out regularly.
且有规律间隔
CRISPR is actually a bacterium’s defense mechanism against viruses.
CRISPR实际上是一种细菌对抗病毒的防御机制
That’s right, bacteria get viruses.
没错 细菌会被病毒感染
It”’s a virus eat bacteria world out there.
这是个病毒吞噬细菌的世界
Anyway, when a virus attacks a bacterium, it injects it’s DNA into it.
不管怎样 当病毒攻击细菌时 将它的DNA注入细菌
But if the Bacterium has been attacked by this kind of virus before,
但如果细菌曾被这种病毒攻击过
it’s saved a bit of its DNA in between the CRISPR strands.
它会在CRISPR链之间保留病毒的一些DNA
The bacteria will use that as a template to create a strand of RNA that can target the virus’ DNA.
这些细菌将以此为模板 转录出针对病毒DNA的RNA
Once the RNA is locked on a protein called CRISPR associated protein 9,
一旦RNA锁定目标 一种叫做CRISPR关联蛋白9
or cas9 to its friends, chops up the virus DNA and renders it harmless.
或cas9的蛋白质就会剪切病毒的DNA并使它无害
It’s like an ingenious primitive immune system.
它就像一个巧妙的原始免疫系统
So scientists thought,
所以科学家们想 如果我们使用这种
What if we used this bacterial defense to make the bacteria destroy its own DNA?
细菌防御系统来让细菌破坏它自己的DNA呢?
Researchers are figuring out how to do exactly that,
研究人员正在研究如何做到这些
and to add insult to injury,
更难的是
They want to use a virus to infect the bacteria
他们想用一种病毒来感染细菌
and convince them to destroy their own DNA
从而破坏细菌的DNA
It takes a little more finesse than just swallowing a pill of viruses,
这比吞下一粒病毒药片更需要技巧
because stomach acid would break them down.
因为胃酸会将它们分解
So the plan is to shroud the virus in innocuous bacteria, like a trojan horse.
所以计划是用益生菌包裹病毒 就像特洛伊木马一样
Once the good bacteria make it through the stomach,
一旦益生菌进入胃部
the virus reveals itself before forcing the bacteria to commit suicide.
病毒就会强迫细菌在自杀之前暴露自己
Disguised viruses using bacteria’s own weapons against them for revenge?
伪装的病毒利用细菌自身的武器来报复它们?
It’s like Game of Thrones up in there.
这里就像《权力的游戏》
The best thing about this approach is it can be used to target very specific bacteria,
这种方法最好的一点是它可以用来针对非常特殊的细菌
which is what you want in an antibiotic.
这就是你想要的抗生素
Broad spectrum antibiotics kill swaths of bacteria indiscriminately,
广谱抗生素不分青红皂白地杀死大量细菌
whether they’re good or bad.
不管它们是好是坏
Their overuse has created bacteria that are becoming more and more resistant to antibiotics,
滥用抗生素会导致细菌对其耐药性越来越强
and if antibiotics become ineffective, that’s a huge step backwards for humanity.
如果抗生素失效 那对人类来说是一个巨大的倒退
Remember bubonic plague?
还记得黑死病吗?
Neither do I, and I don’t want to.
我不记得 我也不想记得
This research has a way to go before it’s ready to start busting gut microbes.
这项研究在消灭肠道微生物之前还有很长的路要走
The delivery method is in its early stages and hasn’t been tested on animals.
这种给药方法处于早期阶段 还没有做过动物实验
Plus right now the researchers are just targeting one species of bacteria, C. difficile.
另外 目前研究人员只针对一种细菌 艰难梭菌
While C. difficile is a drug-resistant bacterium classified as an urgent threat by the CDC,
虽然艰难梭菌是一种被疾控中心列为紧急威胁的耐药细菌
it is just one species, so the same virus can’t be used to fight other bacteria
但它只是一个种类 所以相同的病毒不能用来对付其他细菌
because viruses tend to be one-species-only kind of murderers.
因为病毒杀菌有特异性
Still, we’re in need of new ways to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria.
我们仍然迫切需要新的方法来对抗耐抗生素的细菌
And if we can kill them in the most ironic way possible,
如果我们能用最意想不到的方法杀死它们
I say heck yeah, more research is needed.
我认为还需要更多的研究
Special thanks to our sponsor, Domain dot com.
特别感谢我们的赞助商 Domain dot com
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您将为创建自己的品牌迈出了第一步
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没有比com或net域名更能说明您的故事了
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CRISPR’s most well known use is genetic engineering.
CRISPR最广为人知的用途是基因工程
Trace goes in depth on how it does right that here.
Trace将深入介绍它是如何做到这些的
So are you worried about superbugs
那么 你是担心超级细菌
or do you think we’ll science our way out of this one?
还是认为我们会通过科学的方法摆脱这个问题?
Let us know in the comments, don’t forget to subscribe, and thanks for watching Seeker.
请在评论中告诉我们 不要忘记订阅 感谢收看

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一种技术,一种我们还没有掌握的技术,我们还需要用很长的来进行探索。

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