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6分钟拔萃:省时高效学习 – 译学馆
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6分钟拔萃:省时高效学习

Study Less Study Smart: A 6-Minute Summary of Marty Lobdell's Lecture - College Info Geek

如果你曾花过时间
If you’ve spent any time at all
在YouTube上找学习建议 那么你或许已经
on YouTube looking for study advice, then you’ve probably
看到过这个名为Study Less Study Smart的视频
come across this video called Study Less,Study Smart.
这个讲座来自于Marty Lobdell教授
This is a recorded lecture from Professor Dr. Marty Lobdell,
他曾是皮尔斯学院的一位心理学教授
who is a former psychology professor at Pierce College,
他想就如何成为一名高效的学生这个问题给出自己的建议
and wanted to give his thoughts on how to be an effective student student.
我大二时这个视频就已经面世了
The video came out when I was a sophomore in college,
我很想观看这个视频
and I wanted to watch it
问题是 它有整整一个小时之久
but the problem was, it was an entire hour long.
我抽不出这么长时间
and I could just never make that time.
我发现有许多学生也有和我类似的困扰
Now I’ve seen a lot of students say the exact same thing about the video,
因此我今天的视频的目的就是为你们
so what I want to do with this video is try to give you
将这个讲座里80%-90%的精华
about 80-90 % of the value packed within the lecture,
浓缩在它原时长1/10的时间里
in about 1/10th of the time.
为此 我首先观看了这个视频
So, to do that, I first watched the lecture myself,
并做了详细的笔记
and took detailed notes on it.
如果你需要这些笔记的话
If you want those notes,
我将笔记放在了视频的末尾部分
I’ve actually included them at the end of this video.
现在让我们直接来看教授的建议
But first, let’s get into the tips.
第一条建议是 将学习时间划分成较大的时间段
Tip number 1 is to break your studying intochunked sessions.
原因是 学生能够保持专注的时间一般只有 25-30分钟
The reason for this is that the average student can only really pay attention for 25-30 minutes.
这个时间长度适用于听讲座 阅读 或是单纯的学习
And this goes across the board, from lectures,to reading, to studying.
在大约25到30分钟后
After about 25-30 minutes,
你的效率会开始降低 这就是为什么
your efficiency starts to really taper off
这就是为什么那些单纯延长学习时间的做法根本没有效果
And that’s why the advice to simply study more is not effectiveat all.
你应该将你的学习时间划成大约20到30分钟的时间段
Instead you want to break your study sessions into about 20-30 minute chunks,
在完成一个时间段内的任务后 休息5分钟 放松一下
and after those are done, take 5 minute breaks where you do something fun,
或者至少不要再继续学习
or at least away from your studies.
同理 在你一整天的学习时间都结束之后
So, once your study sessions are done for the entire day,
希望你能给自己来点看得见摸得着的东西作为鼓励
you want to give yourself a real, tangible reward for doing it.
正如Lobdell博士在讲座中所说
As Dr. Lobdell says in the lecture,
反复出现的积极事物能帮助养成好的学习习惯
reinforcement of positive things builds good study habits,
这么做还有另一项好处 那就是你在训练自己学习
and as an added benefit, you’re training yourselfto study.
坚持这么做
So, as you keep doing this,
你就会逐渐变得能适应更长的学习时段
you’re going to able to study for longer and longer on each session.
第二条建议是开辟一块只用来学习的地方
Tip number 2 is to create a dedicated studyarea.
原因在于 我们身边的环境
And the reason for this is that our environment,
也就是我们所处的场合 很大程度上影响着我们的行为
the context that we’re in, largely determines our behavior.
回想一下你身处教室内的情景
So think about when you’re in class.
当教授向全班提出问题时
When the professor presents a question to the entire class,
你会本能地举起手
you instinctively raise your hand.
但是如果他只对你一个人提问
But if he asks you specifically,
你将会口头作答
you’re going to give a verbal response.
这是一种自动的反应
This is automatic.
是一种条件反射
You’re conditioned to do it. Well,
你的学习环境也是一样的道理
your studying area is the exact same.
如果你在一个你习惯于在其中做其他事情的环境中学习
If you do it in a place where you’re conditioned to do other things,
比如你睡觉 打游戏或和朋友们一起玩的地方
like sleep, or play video games, or hang out with friends,
你将很难在这种环境中进入学习状态
it’s going to be really hard to get into your studying.
所以你应当找个地方专门用来学习
What you want to do is find an area that is specifically used for studying,
让这个专用环境的氛围促使你进入学习的状态
so the context of the situation makes it easy for you to get into your studies.
Lobdell教授的第三条建议就是要主动学习
Dr. Lobdell’s third tip is to study actively,
下面这句直接引用自讲座的话很好地总结了这一点
and it’s best summed up with this quote, straight from the lecture:
在学习中你越主动 你的学习就越有成效
“The more active you are in your learning, the more effective you’ll be.”
实现有效学习的最佳方法
Now, the best way to do this,
并非花费时间去死记硬背 或是一遍遍啃书本
rather than going through rote memorization, or reading and rereading chapters from your book,
而是在开始学习之前就先问自己
is to first ask yourself, before studying,
我正要学习的东西是什么
what is it that I’m learning?
而你要学习的东西一般是以下两类中的一类
And what you’re learning is going to fall into 1 of 2 categories,
要么是事实 要么是概念
either facts or concepts.
概念是
A concept is something like,
类似于”这块骨头在我们人体有何作用”一样的东西
what does this particular bone in the human body do?
你必须理解它
You have to understand it.
而事实则是那些你需要记住的东西
A fact is just something you need to remember.
比如”这块骨头的名字是什么”
What the name of this bone is.
概念比事实更重要
Now, concepts are more important than facts,
因为在了解到一个概念之后 一旦你真正理解了它的内在逻辑
because once you learn a concept, once you truly understand its inner workings,
它将伴你终生 你将一直记得它
it’s with you forever. You’re going to remember it.
而对于事实 你会慢慢随着时间的流逝而遗忘它们
Facts, on the other hand, can sort of drift away over time,
不过令人欣慰的是我们有谷歌 可以随时查询
and the good thing about that is that we have Google.
我们可以轻松地查找任何事情
We can look up facts very easily.
但不幸的是 在教室考试时
Unfortunately, in a testing situation in class,
无论是事实还是概念你都必须记住
you have to remember both facts and concepts,
并且通常情况下考试是不允许使用谷歌的
and you don’t have access to Google, usually,
但即使这样 概念仍然是更重要的 需要优先学习概念
but still, concepts are going to be more important to learn first.
学习并真正理解各种概念的方法是用你自己的方式来描述它们
Now, The best way to learn these concepts and to be sure you know them is to put them in your own words.
自我检测并主动学习
Test yourself and learn actively.
他举了一个例子
And there’s one thing he gives as an example,
我认为这个例子是整个讲座中最重要的部分
which I think is one of the most important parts from the entire lecture,
这个例子是关于给书里的内容做标记
and it’s hisexample about highlighting.
大部分学生都知道不应该标记整本书
Most students know not to highlight entire sections of the book,
因为如果你这样做 基本上就相当于你什么都没标记
because if you do that, you’re basically highlighting nothing at all.
但是如果你只标记那些最重要的术语
But if you highlight really important terms,
并在你读过 标记过书的一部分之后再回头去学习那些内容
and then you go back after your first read and highlight session, and study them,
并且只看那些你之前标记过的东西 并告诉自己 我都看明白了
and just simply recognize the thing you highlighted before, and say,”Oh, I know it,”
实际上你已经在慢慢进入一种危险的状态
then you’regetting into this dangerous territory where
那就是你不知道你是真的在回忆某些东西 还是仅仅能够认出它们
you don’t know whether you’re actually recalling something, or simply recognizing it.
人类的大脑非常善于识别事物
The human brain is very good at recognizingthings.
即使是对于很久没见过的人我们仍然能认出他们
We can recognize people’s faces, even if we haven’t seen them in a long time.
但是识别和回想之间的区别在于
But the difference between recognition andrecollection
识别需要一个最初的诱因 或者说是能触发识别的线索
is that recognition requires an initial trigger, a cue.
如果你在考试 这种情况下并不存在诱因和线索
And if you’re in a test, there is no trigger orcue.
你就必须努力从记忆里回想了
You have to actually pull it forth from yourmemory.
为了确保你能够真的回想起学过的内容而不是仅仅能认出它们
To test and make sure that you’re actually recalling something, instead of just recognizing it,
你需要自测
you need to quiz yourself.
你需要做到主动研究和主动学习
You need to do active studying and activelearning.
第四条建议是多做有用的笔记 在这个点上他讲得很简洁
The 4th tip is to take more effective notes, and he’s really brief on this one.
他说 一节课结束后 尽可能快地
Basically, he says, after class, as soon as possible,
一定要尽快地
and truly as soon as possible,
对你的笔记进行充实
flesh out your notes a bit.
对它们加以补充 以促使你巩固学习到的概念
Add some more to them so you can actually solidify the concepts on your mind.
如果你觉得有什么地方模棱两可
If you’re fuzzy on something,
向那些做了更完整的笔记的同学求助 或在办公时间内问老师
ask another classmate who also took good notes, or go to office hours,
或者等到下次上课
or wait until the next lecture and ask the professor before he starts
在课前问老师是否方便帮你弄懂你没掌握的地方
if he can clarify something that you don’t really have a good grasp on.
第五条建议是要总结 甚至向其他人传授 你学过的东西
The 5th tip is to summarize or teach whatyou learned.
博士说检验真正学习某样事物的最佳方法就是去教这样东西
And he says the best way to actually learn something is to teach it.
这样说有两方面的理由
The reason for this is two fold.
首先 这是主动学习的一种好方式
Number 1, it’s a great form of active studying,
因为要想教别人 你自己就必须不断进行回想
because you’re forcing your brain to recall
所有的知识 这样你才能将知识总结起来 去教别人
all the information so you can basically summarizeit for somebody.
另一方面 教别人能确保你充分理解了所学内容
And number 2, you’re really making sure that you fully understand the subject.
如果你把这些东西教给那些对你要教的东西一无所知
If you’re explaining it to somebody who has absolutely no idea about the the topic,
只能从初学者角度理解它的人
they’re coming at it from a beginner’s perspective,
那么这个教的过程将会帮你轻易地发现你自己学到的知识中的缺漏和不足
then you’re really going to have an easy time of pinpointing gaps in your own understanding.
第六条建议是 正确地使用你的教材
Tip number 6 is to use your textbooks correctly.
讲座上说到这个问题时 他提到了SQ3R方法
In this part of the lecture, he goes over the SQ3R method,
SQ3R指的是综览 提问 阅读 背诵 和 复习
which stand for survey, question, read, recite, and review.
正如我在关于我之前的主动阅读视频中所说的
And as I talked about in my active reading video,
我认为这样的试图包罗万象的方法论其实既繁琐又浪费时间
I think overarching systems like this are actually kind of cumbersome and time consuming.
但我认为你应当尝试SQ3R系统中的每个相对独立的方法
But I do think it’s important that you take individual portions of these systems
看看它是不是适合你的学习
and see if they’re worth it for your studying methods.
我们用SQ3R方法的 综览 方法来举例子
So, as an example, the survey portion of SQ3R,
综览 指的是 在阅读之前先对章节进行综览
surveying the chapter before you read it,
尤其要翻到章节最后 看复习问题和重点词汇
and especially going to the end and looking at the review questions and the vocabulary,
这可以真正地锻炼你的大脑 加强它在阅读时分辨出最重要信息的能力
can really prime your brain for picking out the most important information when do the reading.
Lobdell博士的第七条 同时也是最后一条建议是 在学习事实时使用记忆术
And, Dr. Lobdell’s 7th and final tip is to use mnemonics when studying facts.
与概念相反 将事实与实际意义联系起来要难得多
Now, facts, as opposed to concepts, are a lot harder to tie actual meaning to,
因此 许多学生往往通过死记硬背来记忆事实
And as a result, a lot of students often turn to simple rote memorization to remember them,
然而 更适合用来记忆事实的方法 是使用记忆术
but a better way to go about it is to use mnemonics.
记忆术实际上可以是任何一种可以帮助和促进回想的机制
And a mnemonic is really any system that facilitates recall,
但在讲座中 博士着重提了具体三种类型的记忆术
but he goes over 3 specific types of mnemonics in the video.
第一种记忆术是 首字母缩写
Those 3 are acronyms,
比如 用Roy G.Biv来记忆色谱
things like Roy G. Biv for remembering the color spectrum,
第二种是 常用或者固有说法 例如
coined sayings, things like,
哥伦布于1492年踏上新大陆[two和blue押韵]
in 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue,
以及第三个类型 也是我和Lobdell博士都认为是最好的
and the third one, which both I and Dr. Lobdell think is the best one,
那就是图像联想
imageassociations.
换句话说 图像联想其实就是
Another way to think about image associations are just interacting images,
与你的思维交流的图像 它包含着你所学的东西
including the thing you’re trying to study,
在脑海中构成不可思议甚至荒唐可笑的画面或故事
that create a ridiculous picture or story in your head.
你构想得越栩栩如生或怪异
The more emotionally evocative or weird it is,
你越能容易地回想起这幅画面所代表的信息
the more easily you’re going to be able to recall that piece of information.
以上就是我对于Lobdell博士讲座的总结
So that is my summary of Dr. Lobdell’s lecture.
如果你想看一个小时长的原视频
If you want to see the entire hour long video,
我将链接放在视频介绍里了
I have it linked down in the description.
如果你觉得不用看 你也可以在片尾看看我的笔记和其他资料
Otherwise, you can get my notes and other things in the end card.
感谢你的收看 我们下个视频见
Thanks for watching this video, and I will see you in the next one.
嗨各位 谢谢看完我的整个视频
Hey guys, thanks for sticking around to the end of my video.
如果你想了解更多的学习技巧 上个星期我也录了个更高级的学习建议的视频
Now if you wanna get even more study tips, I made a video about advanced study tips last week,
你可以通过点击缩图收看
and you can see those by clicking thethumbnail.
如果你想每周都了解新的学习技巧和成为优秀高校生的方法
Also, if you want to get new study tips every single week, and ways to be an awesome college student,
那就请点击订阅按钮 关注我的频道
then just click the big, red subscribebutton, right there.
就像刚刚说过的 我为你准备了这个讲座的详细笔记
As I said in this video, you can get the detailed notes on the entire lecture
点击这个橙色按钮 查看对应这个视频的博客文章 就可以看到笔记了
by clicking the orange button to go to the companion blog post for this video.
另外 如果你想成为一名优秀的学习者
Also, if you want to become an awesome study-er,
我写了一本一百多页的书 主题是怎么取得更好的学习成绩
I wrote a hundred plus page book on how to get better grades,
点一下左边的书的封面 你就可以免费得到它
and you can get it for free by clicking the picture of the book.
最后 如果你想和我联系 或者有什么对下一个视频的意见和建议
Lastly, if you want to connect with me, or have ideas for new videos,
可以在推特给@Tom Frankly发推
You can either connect with me on Twitter @ Tom Frankly,
或直接在这个视频下留言
or just leave a comment on this video.

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视频概述

演讲者就一位心理学博士的关于如何成为进行更高效的学习的讲座进行了总结,将博士给出的七条建议总结在了6分钟的视频中,并欢迎大家订阅和提供建议

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HesperiaM

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23Xqu0jXlfs

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