ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

结构基础 – 画出立体感 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

结构基础 - 画出立体感

Structure Basics - Making Things Look 3D

In this episode I’ll be talking about structure.
今天我要讲的是结构
What is structure, how does it work?
什么是结构 它的作用是什么?
And how do you show structure in your drawings?
在你的画里如何体现结构?
The next few episodes after this,
在接下来的几集视频
we will be on applying structure to the human figure.
我们会讲到画人体时如何运用结构
《Proko画室》 基础结构
画出立体感
Just like gesture had the three basic lines, csi,
正如人体姿态有三个基本线条 C S I
structure also has its three basic building blocks.
结构也有三个基本几何体
Spheres, cylinders and cubes.
球体 圆柱体 正方体
You can simplify pretty much any organic object
几乎所有有机物体都可以归纳简化成
into these three forms or a combination of these three forms.
这三种几何体或它们的组合
You can also stretch and bend these forms
也可以通过对几何体的拉伸和变形
to better fit the character of the subject.
更好的表达绘画题材的特点
A sphere can be modified to an egg shape.
可以把球体改成鸡蛋的形状
A cylinder can taper thinner to one end like you’d see in a leg.
把圆柱体的一端变窄 就很像腿的形状了
At its extreme, a tapering cylinder would become a cone.
将一端无限变细 圆柱体就变成了圆锥体
A cube can be stretched to be more rectangular.
正方体可以拉伸成长方体
And the sides don’t have to be the same size.
侧面的面积也可以不一样
You can taper thinner to one end like with the cylinder,
像圆柱体一样 可以把长方体一端变细
bend it to follow the gesture of the pose, and even twist it.
弯曲或扭转变形 来符合造型的姿态
Basically, think of these forms as if they’re made of playdough.
就把它们想成是橡皮泥
You can deform them as you wish.
想怎么变形都行
We construct from these basic building blocks
之所以要用基本几何体来造型
because it’s a lot easier to imagine simple forms
是因为简化的造型比复杂造型
three-dimensionally than complex forms.
更容易理解对象的立体感
It’s a lot easier to imagine and work out
用立方体和圆柱体
the perspective of this camel with boxes and cylinders.
更容易表现骆驼的透视关系
Then add the details of the anatomy.
再加上肌肉细节
The same could be done with the figure,
画人体也是同一个道理
which I’ll go over in detail in the next few episodes.
细节我在下面几集会讲到
Simplify the figure into basic spheres, cylinders and boxes.
把人体简化成基本的球形 圆柱体和立方体
This will immediately give the figure a three-dimensional look.
可以立即赋予人体立体感
Having established this idea
掌握了这个原理
allows you to visualize and construct
能让你准确掌握透视关系
in perspective more accurately.
直观的画出解剖结构的细节
The difference of Spheres, Cylinders and Cubes
球体圆柱体和立方体的区别
So let’s take a closer look at these simple forms.
咱们再仔细看看这几个简单的形状
You can simplify the rib cage and pelvis to spheres, cylinders, boxes,
可以把胸腔和盆骨简化成球体 圆柱体或立方体
or combinations of these forms depending on what you need for that pose.
或者根据姿势的不同 用这些形状的组合
The sphere is really just a circle,
没有色调的球体看着就是二维的
since a sphere without tone appears two-dimensional.
此时球体基本上就是个圆
So, the sphere is flat when using line.
用线表示球体 看起来就是平的
It doesn’t tell us anything about the form and its orientation in space.
看不出它的形状和它在空间里的方向
If you stretch the circle into an oval,
如果把圆形拉伸成椭圆形
now we have one piece of information about its orientation.
就能看出它的方向
The oval will only tell us the tilting left or right.
椭圆形只能告诉我们它是倾向左还是右
To show any kind of leaning back or forward,
至于它向前还是向后倾
we need to indicate a bottom plane or a top plane.
就需要表现出它的底面或者顶面
That’s where the cylinder becomes useful.
这时圆柱体能更好的帮助我们理解
It shows the tilting with the angle
一般用角度表现倾斜度
and the leaning with the bottom or top planes.
顶面和底面来表现前后倾斜
We can go one more step forward and use a box.
再用立方体来深入了解一下
The box has one thing that the cylinder doesn’t,
立方体有圆柱没有的一种元素
it shows us the edges between front, back and side planes.
也就是前后侧面相交而成的边线
This shows us the twisting motion.
能表现出旋转运动
So now with these three options, we can choose the one
有了这三个基本形状供选择
that does the best job in describing the form of the pose we’re drawing.
就可以选择最能表现绘画对象姿势的那种
Sometimes a cylinder for the rib cage with a centerline
有时候 用圆柱体和中心辅助线
to show the twist is enough.
就能充分表现扭转动作
Sometimes the addition of the corners at the rib cage andpelvis
有时候 在胸腔和骨盆处用立方体表现
to show the front and side planes is helpful.
能更好的体现前面和侧面的关系
It’s up to you to decide how you use these basic forms.
由你来决定怎么运用这些基本形状
Drawing Cylinders
圆柱体的画法
Start constructing cylinders by finding the angle, the length and width.
画圆柱体首先要决定它的角度 长度和宽度
This establishes its placements and size.
确定圆柱体的位置和大小
If the cylinder is foreshortened
如果圆柱体的透视是由近至远
make sure to slightly taper the sides thinner
确保边线是逐渐变窄的
towards the far end to indicate foreshortening.
越远处越窄 才能表现出透视关系
Then it’s time to identify the cross contours.
然后画出圆柱体的剖面
Ask yourself if you’re looking up or down at the cylinder and how much.
想一下是从上看还是从下看 能看见多少
Based on that, add the ellipses of the top and bottom planes.
根据你的决定 画出圆柱体的椭圆形顶面和底面
Make sure to keep the angle of the ellipse perpendicular to the angle of the sides.
确保椭圆和侧边的中心线相对垂直
The common mistake is to make the angle vertical or horizontal.
常见的错误是把椭圆的角度画的绝对垂直或水平
For example… The wheels on a car won’t be vertical like this,
举个例子 车上的轮胎是不可能与地面完全垂直的
Instead, they will be perpendicular to the angle of the axle.
而是与车轴相对垂直
Another common mistake is when we indicate the cross contour lines,
还有个常见的错误 是在画剖面线时
we tend to make them flatter than they really are.
把它们画的比实际看上去要平
The thing about cross contour lines, is that most of their effect is on the sides.
剖面线的主要作用是表现圆柱体的侧面
That’s where the roundness of the form is revealed.
来体现形体的弧度感
So don’t flatten them and bring them to a
所以不要把剖面线画的太平
sharp corner with the edge of the cylinder,
以免在交界线处显得不自然
that defeats the purpose of the cross contour line.
这样就让剖面线失去了作用
It should feel like it’s wrapping around the edges.
应该看上去有绕过边线的感觉
Drawing Boxes
立方体画法
You should be able to draw a 3d box from imagination at any angle.
你应该可以靠想象画出任何角度的三维立方体
In the illusion of depth series I talked a little about perspective.
在深度错觉系列里 我讲过一些透视的话题
A box’s edges will converge to a vanishing point on the horizon line.
立方体各边延长线会汇聚并消失在水平线的一点
This works well for structures like a house where the bottom plane is parallel with the ground.
在这种透视法对房子这样与地面平行的建筑物很好用
When you rotate the boxes it gets much more complex
把立方体转一下 情况就变得复杂多了
and personally I feel it’s too complex and too mathematical
个人觉得 在画人体的时候
to think about all that stuff when drawing a figure.
这样考虑涉及太多数学问题 太复杂了
So, develop a sense for perspective and use your intuition.
培养对透视的感觉 运用直觉
You’ll get better with practice,
加以训练你能画的很好
but a few tips will get you pretty far right away.
但是有些窍门可以让你快速入门
The way I approach it is at first I imagine which planes of the box I’m seeing.
我的方法是 先想想能看到立方体的哪几面
You’ll see 1, 2 or 3 planes.
能看到一面 两面 还是三面
If you’re looking directly at one side, like the front, it’s just a rectangle.
如果是从正前方看 能看到一面 只是个正方形
When the box rotates down, you start seeing the top plane.
当立方体往下转 就能看到顶面
And when it rotates to one side, you’ll see one of the side planes.
再往旁边转 就能看见一个侧面
Also, notice that all the lines are converging to create a sense of depth.
要注意到 所有的边线都向远处聚拢来表现透视关系
Look at this box and see if you draw boxes this way…
看看你是不是这样画立方体的
If you draw boxes this way, stop!
如果你就是这样画的 快停下
This is an impossible box.
真实的立方体不会长成这样
Things appear smaller as they move away from us.
远处的物体看起来要小一些
So, drawing all these parallel lines removes the perspective from the scene.
这些平行的线没有表现出透视关系
And if this plane is a rectangle, that indicates we’re looking directly at it.
如果这一面是个正方形 说明我们在正视这一面
If we were looking directly at it, none of the other planes would be visible.
如果我们在正视它 就不可能看到其他面
In this case, since we’re seeing some of the right side,
这个例子里 能看到一点右侧面
the front plane is starting to rotate away from us.
前面的这一面就转的离我们远了一点
The lines here would converge to the left.
这几条线就会向左聚拢
And since we’re seeing the top plane, the front and side planes are rotating downward.
我们也能看到顶面 说明前面和侧面都向下旋转
So, the lines would converge down.
所以竖边应该向下聚拢
Now that’s a much more three-dimensional box.
现在这立方体看着就很三维立体了
Let’s try a step by step approach and see if this helps you.
试一下分步骤画法 看能不能帮你更好理解
I’ll start with the inside edges of the box.
我先画立方体的内边
The most vertical one is a good starting point.
从最靠近垂直的一条线开始画
Is the box leaning to the left or right, and how much?
立方体是向左倾还是向右倾 倾斜多少?
Establish that with the first line.
把第一条线先画出来
Then, are you seeing the bottom or top of the box?
能看到立方体的底面还是顶面?
If you see the top, then
如果看到的是顶面
the other two inside edges will be attached to the top of the initial line.
其他两条内边就跟第一条线顶端相连
How much of the top are we seeing?
能看到多少顶面
If it’s a little, the lines will be flatter with an obtuse angle.
如果能看到的很少 那边线较平且相交呈钝角
A lot and they will have more of an acute angle.
能看到很多的话 边线相交的角度会小一些
Also at this point you’re thinking about how much of the front and right side you’re seeing.
同时也要考虑前面和右侧面分别能看到多少
The same of each would make the angles of these lines equal.
如果两个面看到的一样多 边线的长度应该相同
If you see more of the front,
如果看到前面更多
that side will be more horizontal and the other side more vertical
顶面的这条边会更平 另外一条边更垂直
since its moving away from us more.
因为那条边离我们远一些
And vice versa…
反之亦然
This is the foundation. It tells you the orientation of the box.
这些是基础元素 显示了立方体的朝向
After this it’s really easy.
这之后就简单了
Just go to the end of each line and connect the outside
只需要从线的底端 画出聚拢的外边线
edges with converging lines.
连到一起就可以了
Consider the lengths of the initial three lines.
决定最初三条线的长度
If it’s a perfect box then you just need to think about
先看它是不是正方体
how much each side is being foreshortened,
如果是 只需要让每条边都按透视法缩短
depending on how much it’s facing away from you.
根据它和你的距离 决定缩短的程度
But if some sides are longer than others,
如果某一面比其他面要宽一些
think about that length and foreshortening.
根据它的长度按透视法缩短
As you can probably tell, this isn’t something that you’ll get right on your first try.
你可能看出来了 这种方法不是初学者马上能掌握的
It’s a bit confusing so you need to repeat the process many times to get familiar with it.
你需要重复的练习 逐渐熟悉之后就不会觉得困惑了
It’s critical that you do get familiar with it
尤其是在画复杂人体的时候
if you want to apply these concepts to a complex form like the figure.
你需要对这个方法掌握的非常熟练
Next week we will talk about the robo bean,
下周我们会聊一下“无臂豆”
which is a 3d representation of the torso.
也就是躯干的三维表现
So, go practice your boxes by looking around you for boxy furniture
找找你身边的方形家具 练习立方体的画法
and drawing them from different angles.
从不同的角度来画
Then try inventing them from your mind…
最后试着画出你脑海里的立方体
Assignments
作业
Start by practicing cylinders and boxes of the things around you.
用你身边的东西来练习圆柱体和立方体画法
Here you’re using observation and what you know about structure to draw the forms.
用观察力和已经学到的几何体知识来画出物体
Then move on to drawing them from your imagination.
然后再练习画出你脑海里的东西
Can you imagine a box in your mind and draw it exactly how you imagined it?
你能想像一个立方体 然后把它完美的画出来吗?
When you’re ready, get some reference of animals and try to
当你准备充分 可以试着找些动物的参考图片
simplify them into balls, cylinders, and boxes.
把它们简化成球体 圆柱体和立方体
Avoid flat angles.
不要把角度画的太平
Try to find dynamic angles of the animals in motion.
体会一下动物不同运动带来的不同的角度
That will be a much more valuable exercise.
这是很有价值的练习
Student critiques
学生作品点评
In the premium section, I’m posting critique videos of student work.
我会把学生作品点评视频发到高级课程里
That’s where you come in..
这是你可以参与的内容
So, do the assignment from this week’s lesson.
画出这周的作业
Post your drawings on your Facebook page, tumblr,
把你的画发到你喜欢的社交媒体上
blog, forum, wherever you like to post your artwork.
脸书 微博 博客 论坛 都可以
In your post make sure to mention this video and include a link to it.
在帖子里加上这个视频的链接
Email me and tell me where I can find your drawings.
然后写邮件告诉我在哪里能看到你的画
Make sure to follow the guidelines that I describe on proko.com/critiques.
确保按我在proko.com/critiques的描述里写的指导方法来做
Everyone that participates will be able to download that critique video.
每位参与者都可以下载点评视频
If you want to see more detailed explanation of this video and
如果你想进一步了解这节课的细节
all the other.
还有其他课程
噪音警告
If you want to see more detailed explanation of this video
如果你想进一步了解这节课的细节
and all the other videos from the figure fundamentals series
还有其他人体画法基础课程的信息
check out proko.com/figure.
可以去proko.com/figure看看
For every free video that I post during this figure series,
这次人体课程系列的每一个免费视频
I have additional premium content on proko.com.
在proko.com都有高级版内容
This week I explain more about the position of the viewer,
这周我进一步讲解了视角对物体的影响
avoiding flat perspective and how to simplify forms.
提高透视准确度和简化形状
There’s over 3.5 hours of video in the premium section,
在高级课程里有3.5个小时的视频
so, lots of goodies there – proko.com/figure.
很多好内容都在proko.com/figure
Thanks for watching!
多谢观看
If you like this video, share the wealth, tell your friends, post it on your favorite social network.
如果你喜欢这个视频 请转发分享
Click this button here to subscribe to the Proko newsletter if you want to be updated about new videos.
点击订阅Proko画室 不要错过更新
Buh Bye!
再见

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

如何把复杂的绘画对象简化成基本几何体 如何掌握准确的透视感 这个视频能给初学者带来帮助

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

綝飛

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3uEtdDvK6Xo

相关推荐