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人眼的结构和工作原理 – 译学馆
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人眼的结构和工作原理

Structure and Working of Human Eye

Structure and Working of the Human Eye
人眼的结构和工作原理
Nature has located the eye close to the brain,
在人体自然构造中 眼睛靠近大脑
so that its messages may arrive there quickly.
便于将信息迅速传至大脑
The eyeball is completely surrounded by a layer of soft fatty tissue,
眼球四周由一层柔软的脂肪组织包围
and placed within a bony orbit where eye is protected.
眼球位于眼眶内 并受其保护
Seeing from inside,
从内部观察
the protected position of the eyeball within its funnel shaped eye socket,
眼球在漏斗状眼窝中被保护的情况
is shown still more clearly.
能更为清晰地展现出来
Note that this is a white stalk called optic nerve
注意 这条白色茎状物叫做视觉神经
which connects the eye to the brain,
它连接了大脑和眼睛
and also these muscles which move the eyeball.
而这些肌肉控制着眼球运动
This is the empty eye socket within the skull,
这是头颅内部的眼眶
with its bony wall inside and bony orbit in front.
内部为眼眶骨壁 外部为眼窝
The capsule of the eyeball seems to have three layers.
眼球似乎有三层构造
This thick tough outer layer is called the sclera,
外部这层组织为巩膜 厚且粗糙
and serves to protect the delicate structure within.
以保护内部脆弱的组织结构
This transparent bulging portion is called the cornea.
凸起来的这层透明物为眼角膜
There is also a crystalline lens
眼角膜后面就是晶体
which is one of the main parts of the human eye.
晶体为人眼的主要部分
The second layer is called the choroid.
第二层为脉络膜
It consists of three different zones.
包含三个不同区域
The first zone is called choroid proper,
第一为固有脉络膜
and it is the part that carries nourishment to the tissues of the eye.
为眼睛各组织运输营养物质
The next zone is called the ciliary body.
下一区域为睫状体
This is the broad ring shaped band of thin muscle fibers,
平滑肌(睫状肌)在眼球前部形成环状体
which plays a very active and vital role in the vision adjustment of the eye.
是调节屈光能力的重要部分
The third zone is a well-known iris,
第三为广为人知的虹膜
which expands and contracts the pupil,
能控制瞳孔放大 收缩
much like the diaphragm of the camera.
就像照相机里的光圈
The innermost layer of the eyeball is the retina,
眼球最内部组织为视网膜
a very delicate membrane.
这层薄膜极为脆弱
The retina is actually the part of the optic nerve,
视网膜实则是视觉神经的一部分
which transmits the light impulses to our brain.
它将光脉冲信号传递给大脑
The retina is the most important and complex structure in the eyeball.
视网膜也是眼球内最复杂 最重要的结构
It consists of a complicated arrangement of rods and cones,
由排列复杂的杆状 锥状细胞构成
which convert light waves into nerve impulses.
将光波转换成神经冲动
Between the lens and the cornea is the aqueous humor,
晶体 眼角膜之间为房水
consisting mostly of water and a little salt.
其主要成分为水和少量盐
This largest space within the eye is filled with vitreous humor,
玻璃体液在眼球中占比最大
consisting chiefly of water mixed with salt and albumin.
主要是水 盐及白蛋白的混合物
It is a highly transparent jelly-like substance,
玻璃体液为无色胶状体
and plays a very important role in visual adjustment.
对眼睛屈光力有重要作用
The reflected light of the world enters through
外界物体反射的光线进入眼球
the crystal transparency of the cornea, pupil, aqueous humor,
经过眼角膜 瞳孔 房水
lens and vitreous humor,
晶体 及玻璃体液
which is a clear gel-like substance that fills the middle of the eye,
这些清透的凝胶状物质填满了眼球中央
and then projects onto the photo receptors of the retina,
然后 光线映射到视网膜上的光感受器上
which is a photo sensitive tissue lying at the back of the eye.
即眼底的感光组织上
The macula is a very small area at the center of the retina
视网膜中央有一小块区域为黄斑区
that gives us a fine pinpoint center of vision.
形成中心视力
The area of retina surrounding the macula
分布在黄斑区外的视网膜
gives us a peripheral or side vision.
形成周边视力(视野)
The retina converts the light rays into the signals
视网膜把光线转化成视觉信号
that are sent to the optic nerve,
传递到视觉神经
and then to the brain.
然后传递到大脑
Continual adjustment of the pupil and lens
瞳孔及晶体不断调节
regulates the entry and focusing of light.
控制光线进入和聚焦
Every blink helps our eyes natural defense system.
眨眼睛是人眼抵御危害的机制
The tear film retains moisture and maintains visual aquatic.
泪液膜能湿润眼球 保持角膜光滑透亮
Tear gland secretes the tear fluid,
泪腺分泌眼泪
which contains important natural disinfectants to keep bacteria away,
其中含重要的天然消毒剂 可抵御细菌
and it drains through the tear duct into the nose
眼泪冲洗完眼睛表面后
after flushing and cleaning the entire eye surface,
再从泪管流到鼻腔
and thus the tear system washes away impurities
将所有有害物冲洗干净
to maintain eye health.
以维持眼部健康

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视频概述

人眼的结构和工作原理

听录译者

zbz

翻译译者

刘小贵

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzyphSTkW2U

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