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被绑在坠落的直升机上

STRAPPED INTO A FALLING HELICOPTER - Smarter Every Day 154

大家好 我是Destin 欢迎回到Smarter Every Day
Hey it’s me Destin welcome back to smarter every day
我喜欢直升飞机的原因之一就是你可以
And one of the reasons that I absolutely love helicopters is that you can
到达其它交通工具去不了的地方
take the places you can’t with any other devices
所以今天我和Bradley Friesen一起来到这儿 这是哪儿?
So today I’m with Bradley Friesen here in where?
Bradley:我们现在在不列颠哥伦比亚 Pinecone Burke 公园的Widgeon湖
Bradley: We’re, uh, right now in British Columbia, at Widgeon Lake in beautiful Pinecone Burke park
好吧 我们将会以你之前可能从未想过的方式讨论直升机
Alright, so we’re going to talk about helicopters in a way that you might not have thought of before
但是首先让我们先安全降落
but first, let’s do the safe landing
Bradley:我们要进入Widgeon湖中的天然停机坪
Bradley: So we’re coming into what we call mother nature’s helipad here on Widgeon Lake
Bradley:我们就在这儿降落
Bradley: Right here we go
我知道 这很难以置信吧
I know is that incredible or what?
今天在Smarter Every Day上我想讨论一个关于直升机的误解
Today on Smarter Every Day I wanna talk about a particular misconception when it comes to helicopters
最近一个非常著名且受人尊敬的科学家发表了推文
A very famous well-respected scientist recently tweeted
那就是”如果飞机失去引擎就会变成滑翔机
that “if an airplane loses an engine it turns into a glider
但是如果直升机失去引擎就会变成砖头”
But if a helicopter loses an engine, it turns into brick.”
今天在Smarter Every Day上 我想对这个提出质疑
Today on Smarter Every Day, I want to question this
真的将我的生命置于危险之中
by literally putting my life on the line.
我会回到直升机里
I’m going back into the helicopter
我们将关掉引擎 然后看看会发生什么
and we’re gonna power down the engine and we’re gonna see what happens
我们应该如何安全降落
How do we get to earth safely?
但在我们做之前
But before we do that,
先让我们在直升机里
Let just go and enjoy this
享受一下这里的一切
in the helicopter,
然后去见一个自动旋转方面的专家
and let go meet an expert on auto rotation.
让我们一起进入Smarter Every Day
let’s get Smarter Every Day.
Destin: 那只推特小鸟告诉我你对我的一条推文感兴趣
Destin a little birdie told me that you took interest in one of my tweets
我在那儿发表意见说
where I commented that it
引擎坏了的飞机
airplane whose engine dies,
降落就像是滑翔机
lands like a gilder.
不管直升机的哪个引擎坏了
Whereas helicopter whose engine dies,
降落都会像砖头
lands like a brick.
假设螺旋桨的叶片不旋转
Assuming that the propeller blades not rotating.
但现在我听说
But now I hear,
你了解引擎坏了的情况下 直升机降落的一种方法
that you know of a way to land a helicopter with a busted engine
如果是这样的话 我很想知道
well, if so I wanna know about it.
你知道为什么吗
You know why?
原因是我想“每天变得更聪明”
cause I want to get smarter every day.
所以我会一直关注
so I’ll be watching
对抱怨你网上推文的人这是多么漂亮的回应啊
What a super classy way of responding to somebody whining about one of your tweets on the internet
非常感谢Neil 而且你还是挺对的
thank you very much Neil and you’re kind of right at
如果旋转叶片对等旋转 你就会像砖头一样落下来
if the rotor blade quits turning you are gonna fall like a brick.
但是直升机飞行员有一个人工窍门可以阻止那种情况发生
But helicopter pilots have a physics trick to keep that from happening.
当直升机引擎在运转时 在空中就会很像巨大的风扇
When a helicopter engine is running it acts like a big fan blowing down the air.
如果你想风扇停下 它会停止鼓气 然后开始下降
If you try the fan off, it stops blowing and starts to fall
可以通过旋翼可以改变在空中要去的方向
changing the direction that the air goes through the rotors.
这就像是一个风很大的风扇可以给空气创造动力
Just like a powered fan can create air movement,
空气流动可以像纸风车一样带动风扇转动
air movement can create fan movement just like pinwheel.
直升机飞行员正好有能力精确地改变螺旋桨扇叶的高度
Helicopter pilot have ability precisely change to pitch their blades
通过调整叫Collective的控制器
by adjusting the control called Collective.
通过这样做 无论什么时候引擎坏了 他们都能快速
By doing this whenever the engine dies they can quickly adjust from
把动力风扇模式 调整到风车模式 那样他们就可以利用现存的大气
this powered fan mode to pinwheel modes that they can use that air that’s now
从下方向上至旋转系统的底部 在机身向下落时
coming up to the bottom of the rotor system to keep the blades turning all
可以保持叶片旋转直至地面
the way down to the ground while they fall.
如果你的旋转太快了
If you pinwheel this too fast
他们就会超过本身的速度 就会因为过快而掉落
they’re gonna over speed them and breaks stuff
然后你就会像砖头一样掉下来
and you’re gonna fall like that brick.
所以这是窍门
So here’s the trick,
我们知道叶片的外面比里面的转得还要快 是吧?
we know that the outside of the blades moves faster than the inside of the blade, right?!
我们也知道拖拽回影响速度
and we also know that drag is a function of velocity
由于这是沿着叶片的有魔力的尖端 所以不再表现得像纸风车
because of this does is magic point along the blade that it no longer acts like a pinwheel
而它就像一个风扇
it acts like a fan
飞行员然后可以调整集合体 然后再决定叶片的多少
the pilot can then adjust the collective and determine how much of the blade he
他想用纸风车 然后他想用风扇
wants to use a pinwheel and how much he wants to use a fan
他给它装上薄边 一直乘坐着到地面
he feathers it and rides at all the way down to the ground
要保持旋转系统在合适的速度
keeping the rotor system at just the right speed
用风车模式让叶片保持不太快也不太慢的速度
not too fast and not too slow he keeps the blade running with
然后以起重的形式排出多余的转动能量
the pinwheel mode and he bleeds off the extra rotational energy in the form of
用起重机帮他慢慢地滑行到地面
lift which helps him slowly glide to the ground.
这整个的动作叫做自动循环这是由直升机训练飞行员传授的
This whole maneuver is called an auto rotation and it’s taught by helicopter
每个地方都有
training pilots everywhere
因为你现在我想展示自动旋转 你需要做什么正确的训练?是的
Now I’d like to demonstrate an autorotation because you, you need to do some training right? yeah
我们要去和谁说呢?这人的名字叫什么
we’re going to talk to who? what’s the guys name?
他叫Gerry Friesen
His name is Gerry Friesen
他实际上在二十五年前就训练过我了
He actually trained me twenty five years ago,
他差不多有16000小时的飞行时间了
he has around 16,000 flight hours
Destin: 执着的梦想 然后他有…….他们说……
Destin: Good dream. – and he has a…they say…
花了10000小时才掌握了这些事
It takes 10,000 hours to become master of something
所以Gerry是一个大师
So Gerry is a master…
Destin:了不起 —了不起
Destin: and a half – and a half
这真好 好吧
It’s awesome. Alright!
让我们邀请 Gerry Friesen参加Smarter Every Day
let’s go get Smarter Every Day with Gerry Friesen.
你是Gerry吗?
Are you Gerry?
是的!
Yeah!
我是Destin 很高兴见到你 你是怎么做到的?
I’m Destin. Nice to meet you. How you’re doing?
有人说直升机降落像砖头
If someone were to say helicopters fall like bricks
你会对普通人说些什么
What it would be your input to the common man
你想让普通人知道关于直升机的什么?
what would you want the normal person to know about helicopters?
嗯 我……我想……
Well, I..I would like…
任何人知道一个直升机的滑行
anyone to know that a helicopter glides
很像一个飞机
nicely like an airplane.
关于直升机最棒的事就是
And the nice thing about the helicopter
就是…不管在哪儿都可以替代飞机
It’s a…instead of an airplane where…
不管你在哪儿会以最低的速度被迫降落
where you force to touchdown probably at a minimum of…
大约是50到60节的速度
fifty to sixty knots.
然后直升机的降落速度
And the helicopter can touchdown at…
可低至10节
Ten knots!
所以比飞机更安全
So even safer than an airplane?
我想说你更安全
I would say you’re safer.
原因就是…
and the reason is…
好了 这很好理解 要想滑翔
Ok, that makes sense because in order to glide
你必须非常快地
you have to be moving through the
高速通过气流
air very fast or high rate of speed
但是在直升机里以只能用几乎为0的速度
but in a helicopter you could do it almost zero.
你要挑选一个开阔的地方
You pick an open spot,
飞机可以进入这个地方
an airplane going into that spot
它以60降落的话会翻掉
it’s gonna land at sixty and tumble
是的 这样直升机去的地方就可能会碰到一些树
Right! and maybe hit a few trees that helicopter going into that spot will
众所周知对于最后几英尺应垂直下降
descend vertically for the last few feet known for…
不管发生什么样的动力 最坏的情况可能是树的
momentum whatsoever and worst that’ll happen maybe little clips of tree
那真是太好了 如果飞行员
That’s amazing! provided that the pilot
处理旋转系统里活跃的能量 用潜在能量平衡这
manage the kinetic energy in its rotors system and balance it with its potential energy
在这种平衡下 推进的部位就能和旋转系统被动的部位相抗衡
in kind of balance that driving region versus the driven region of the rotor system.
正是
Exactly!
那真是太好了!
That’s amazing!
好了 我们现在要做的就是上升然后和断开旋翼的引擎系统
ok so here’s what we’re gonna do we’re up high and they were about to disconnect
当这样做的时候 我们就将开始把
the engine for the rotor system. When we do that we’re gonna start trading our
旋转系统里的垂直势能转变成动能
vertical potential energy for kinetic energy in the rotor system so what
现在Jerry所做的就是使旋转系统加速旋转 并且随着我们的降落
Jerry’s doing now is he’s spinning up the rotor system and as we go down we have a
底部部分的旋翼会驱动旋转体 这是因为风上升到底部
part of the rotor that’s driving the rotor because winds coming up to the
现在我们会有另一个部分被驱动 这一部分会提供阻力
bottom and we have another part that’s being driven now that part is providing
我们要做的就是像Gerry那样通过调节集合器
drags what we’re doing is as Gerry is adjusting the collective he is trading
来估测距离 驱动旋转器所在的区域
off the distance all the driving in the driven that region of that rotors.
所以我们下来了 他很快就找到了并且就在这底部
So we coming down he’s got it spot up really fast and right here at the bottom
他将要点燃它
he’s gonna flare it
当它燃烧时 它将系统中的动能转化
and when it flares it that trades off that kinetic energy in the system
成为…
into…
我们会去
There we go
你听说什么?
You hear that?
所以…
So…
我们只是做了一个自动旋转
We just made an autorotation
我们要慢慢减速直到停止
We skidded to a stop,
但是我们还活着
But we are alive
非常感谢 真的很感谢 你真牛!
Thank you very much, really appreciated it, you’re the man!
你客气了
You’re welcome.
你已经有多少小时了
How many hours you have?
比16000多一点点
A little over 16,000
那是全部吗?
It’s that all?
是全部
That’s all.
可能你总有一天你会发现是怎么做到的
maybe you’ll figured it out how to do this one day
是的…练习练习
Yeah…practice practice
你知道它后面的原理
You can know the theory behind it
但是你不知道怎么真正理解…
But you don’t really understand how…
你一直练习直到你完全可以自己去做,是吗
you do it until you do it yourself, right?
是的…正是
That yea…exactly
这只是一个感觉上的事
and just becomes a feel thing.
我希望你能享受Smarter Every Day的有趣经历
I hope you enjoyed this episode of Smarter Every Day
我想感谢Neil愿意作为“陪衬”来录制这期视频
I wanna say thank you to Neil deGrasse Tyson for agreeing to be the ‘foil’ for this video
也想感谢Bradley让我们乘坐他的直升机
also want to say thanks to Bradley freezin for taking up in his helicopter
他有一个非常酷的直升机频道 你真的应该去看看
he’s got a really cool helicopter channel you should really check it out
他的狗和他一起飞行 这真的很有趣
his dog flies with him, it’s really fun.
同时也感谢赞助商
Also wanna say thanks to the sponsor
就是 kiwicrate. com
which is kiwicrate.com
然而
However,
他们对这个视频的支持会直接回应
Their gonna support this video in direct response to how
有多少人进入 kiwicrates
many people get kiwicrates
因此 我不想让我自己再告诉你了
Therefore, I’m not gonna tell you about it myself,
我想让我的孩子做这个
I’m gonna let my kids do it
因为他们更可爱 也更尽可能地相信他们
Because their cuter, and probably gonna believe them more
你可以打开你的制作箱了 努力争取吧!
You can open your crates, go for it!
如果你支持每天Smarter Every Day
If you support Smarter Every Day
请前往 kiwicrates. com/ smarter
Go to kiwicrates.com/smarter
然后你就可以得到这个真的非常酷的制作箱
and you get this really cool crates
送到你家
sent to your house.
这叫ThinkerCrate
This is called the Thinker Crate
这就像是工程项目
This got like engineering project
这个是什么?
What is this one?
这是Bio的手工
A Bio mechanical hand
在那儿我们有这个
Over here we had this,
这叫什么 伙计?
What this one called buddy?
考拉制作箱
Koala crate
一个树袋熊制作箱 这是给小孩子的
A Koala Crates. This for younger kid.
然后这个叫涂鸦制作箱 你能做什么呢?
and this one called a Doodle Crate, where you can do what?
做手工
Make craft.
做手工 这很有趣 你们很喜欢这个吗?
Make craft. They’re really fun. You guys enjoy them?
是的
Yes so!
好的 我们可以在自己家里做这个
Ok. So we do this at our house
我们真的一直都很喜欢这个
all the time and we really enjoy it.
所以如果你们喜欢
So if you like to go
请支持 Smarter Every Day
Support Smarter Every Day
前往 kiwicrate. com/ smarter
Go to kiwicrate.com/smarter
你会得到一个免费的制作箱送到你家
Get a free crate sent to your house
这是订阅服务
It’s a subscription service
我觉得你们可以订阅 因为它们真的很好
I think you’re gonna keep it because they’re awesome
这能帮助孩子成为更有思想的人 用他们自己的手学会很多
and they help kids be thinkers and do-ers and learn a lot with their hands
你认为其他孩子也会喜欢吗?
Do you think other kids would enjoy this?
是的
Yes!
真的吗?是爸爸让你说的吗?
Really? Is daddy making you say this?
不是
No!
kiwicrate. com/ smarter
kiwicrate.com/smarter
你得到的每个盒子都可以直接支持 Smarter Every Day
Every box you get goes directly to support Smarter Every Day
到直升机那去
Get to the chopper!
登上直升机
Get into the chopper!
没时间了
There’s no time!
回声
Echo!!
回声
Echo!!
你为什么要得到回声就一定要喊回声呢
Why’d you have to say the word “Echo” to get an echo?
这样它行得通
So it works.
[哇喔]
woohooo….
我要去没人去的地方去探索
I going to explore somewhere that nobodys else can get to…
这就是直升机可以做到的呀
That’s what helicopters do for ya…
我喝了一些冰水
I drink glacier water.
[大笑]
[laugh]
你能行吗
Did you make it?
我应该能
I almost.
你靠得太近了
You were very close
我弄坏了我的
And I broke mine!
这还是好的 请给我五美元 做得好!
It’ll be okay, give me five, good job!

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视频概述

“如果飞机失去了引擎会变成滑翔机,但如果直升机失去了引擎就会变成砖头。”这是真的吗?一起来看本期视频吧~

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BTqu9iMiPIU

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