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讲好故事的七个原则 – 译学馆
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讲好故事的七个原则

Storytelling: 7 Principles for Greater Impact

斯坦福商学院
STANFORD BUSINESS
你的故事是什么?
So what’s your story?
我问向一个在高地屋顶遇见的学生
I asked this new student I just met at the rooftop of Highland.
你有多少时间?
How much time do you have?
我没课
I don’t have classes.
不用担心
Doesn’t matter.
然后他就给我讲述了
Then he proceeded to telling me about a story
在他的家乡——黎巴嫩爆发的内战
of the Civil War that had broke out
以及他如何创建了一个
in his home country, Lebanon,and how he founded a non-profit
帮助穆斯林和基督教青年沟通的非盈利组织
that bridged communication gap betweenMuslim and Christian youth groups.
之后 他又给我讲述了
And later, he told me
一次濒死的经历
about a story of a near death experience
这让他思考人生的意义是什么
that brought him to questionthe meaning of life.
值得注意的是 那是新学期开始的第三天
Mind you that was day 3 of week 0.
直到那时 所有那些
Up to that point every conversation I’ve had
我在研究生院和新生的对话
with new students I met at the GSB,
不是说说之前的工作 就是暑假里去过的地方
were either about the jobs before GSB or where they traveled the summer before.
但那天下午 我们整整聊了三个小时
But that afternoon, the two of ushad a three-hour conversation.
而那个人 哈比卜
That person, Habib,
你们中大部分人应该都认识 他现在是我的男朋友
as many of you know here in this room, is now my boyfriend.
[笑声]这就是故事的力量
[LAUGH]That’s the power of storytelling.
故事能让你走进他人的心灵
Story let you into a windowof someone else’s life.
故事能够传递那些难以用文字表达的想法
Stories allow us to convey ideas that can not be simply expressed by words.
讲故事的能力是可以学会的
Story telling can be learned.
我刚刚所展示的就是讲故事的两个技巧
What I had just illustrated weretwo techniques of story telling.
我们都知道第一印象很重要
We all know,first impression is everything.
在你面试的过程的前15秒
During your interview process,the first 15 seconds,
面试官就已经决定是否录用你了
your interviewer has already decided whether they’re going to hire you or not.
你对听众说的第一句话
The first word you say to youraudience during a presentation
决定了他们在剩下的展示中将如何看待你
is going to determine how they perceive you for the rest of the presentation.
我用的第二个技巧——空降
The second technique I used,parachuting in.

You see,
我并没有告诉你们我准备讲述一个
I didn’t tell you that I was going to tell you a story
有关如何遇见我男朋友的故事
about how I met my boyfriend.
我只是直接开始 把你们拉进了对话当中
I just told you the story and drew you into the conversation.
在我和哈比卜聊的那三个小时里
And during that three hours ofconversation I had with Habib,
他从没描述自己是谁
he didn’t describe who he is.
他没有告诉我他是怎样的人
He didn’t tell me what he is as a person,
但我从他的故事里明白了一切
but I learned from his stories,
他的个性 性格 价值观念
his personality,his character and his values.
所以别等了 让你的故事替你诉说
So don’t wait,let your story speak for you.
那是在
> > It was two
凌晨两点 医生从手术室走出来
in the morning when the doctor came out from the surgery room and
对我妹妹说 祈祷吧
said to my sister, let’s just pray and hope for the best.
这比我们想象得更糟
Because it’s far worsethan what we expected.
我妹妹一下子哭了 不知道
My sister then burst into tears,and wondered
我能不能活下来
whether I will still be alive.
一周之前 我徒步爬过我们国家最高的山峰
A week earlier, I hiked one of the highest mountains in my country.
而当我准备下山的时候
By the time I had to climb down,
我开始呕吐 有一股剧痛
I vomited and felt a terrible pain
涌向我的腹部 痛了整整一夜
in my stomach all night long.
第二天我只能慢慢得走
The next day I had to walk very slow,
因为我每走一步 都觉得像
because every step that I took,I felt like being
有一把尖刀刺向我的腹部
stabbed with a very sharpknife right in my stomach.
爬下来真的不容易
It wasn’t a simple climb down,
因为在最后下山之前
because I had to climb for another 8,000 feet
我还得走8000英尺的距离
before I was finally able to descend from the mountain.
那天 我经历了酷刑一般的12个小时
That day I took 12excruciating hours just to
只是为了完成一段本应在6小时内结束的旅程
finish a trip that’s supposed to be done just within 6 hours.
这个故事和我们的生活很像
This story is similar to our real life.
我们总是期待着什么 却又无法控制着它们
We expect something butwe couldn’t control the situation.
不管怎样 我想告诉你们
However, I want to tell you this.
成果取决于对形势的反应
Your outcome depends on howyou respond to your situation.
所以在山上的时候
So back in the mountain,
我真希望这些疼痛能消失
I wish that I had my pain gone
[响指] 就像那样 但那不是我要讲的故事
[SOUND] just like that,but that wasn’t the story.
所以我设法通过期望来控制我自己
So I controlled my responseby managing my expectation,
告诉自己 要坚持
telling myself to be more persistent, and
向着目标一步一步走
keeping my feet to move one step at a time toward my goal.
当我第一次告诉队友这件事的时候
Now, the first time I toldthis story to my teammates,
我花了超过七分钟的时间
I spent more than seven minutes,
因为我讲了很多细节
because I gave too many details,
而那会使听众迷失方向 更糟的是他们会觉得无聊
and that will get the audience lost, or even worse, get bored.
而另一方面
On the other end of the spectrum,
太多的细节
if you gave too few details,
会让听众无法抓住整个故事的意义
then the audience may lack the context to grasp the meaning of our story.
所以 我们需要使用金发女孩原则
Therefore, we have to applythe Goldilocks principle,
就是展示恰到好处的
which is to present just the right amount
细节来讲一个有说服力的故事
of details to convey a compelling story.
我很焦虑 我很紧张
>> I was very anxious, I was nervous.
我感觉好冷 手掌冒着冷汗
I really felt really cold, butmy palms were still sweaty.
我坐在那里 紧握着椅子的扶手
I sat there, gripping the armchair.
没有看手机
Not even on my phone.
也没有上网
Not even on the Internet.
只是坐在那里等待着结果
Just waiting for what would come next.
终于 秘书对我说 JC·费舍尔 主任要见你
The secretary finally said JC Fisher, the dean will see you now.
所以我走了进去 坐了下来
So I walked in and took my seat
主任坐在桌子前面
across from our dean at his desk.
我等着
And I waited.
感觉像是过了一个世纪 他终于说话了
For what felt like an eternity,before finally he spoke.
他说 JC
He said, JC,
我们想让你发表今年的毕业演讲
we’d like you to give our graduation speech this year.
[笑] 我很高兴
[LAUGH] I was elated.
太棒了
It was awesome.
[笑声]我辛苦了整整四年
[LAUGH]I’d worked so hard for for four long years
就是为了能够把我同学的经历
to be the one to take my classmates’ experience and
传达给我的朋友 家人
convey it to our friends,to our family, and
以及其他院校来听讲的学生
to our other classmates who wouldbe there from different schools.
不幸的是 这并不是我最好的毕业演讲
Unfortunately it wasn’tthe greatest graduation speech.
很生硬 很普通 大概只有我自己记住了
It was solid, but unremarkable, andprobably only remembered by me.
[笑声]很大一部分原因是我没有讲故事
[LAUGH]In large part because I didn’t tell stories,
而且我没有用到
and I didn’t use a couple
我们现在所讲的技巧
of techniques that we’ll talk about now.
仁者见仁 智者见智
One of those is one person, one thought.
当我站在台上
As I stood up on stage,
环顾整个体育馆的时候 我仅仅只是看着
gazing over the basketball stadium, I just kind of looked out.
没有联系起每一个听众
I didn’t connect with any one person.
我不是在和你 或者你 或者你 来分享这一瞬间
I didn’t share a moment with you,or you, or you.
但是要做到这一点 正如JD所说的
But doing so, as JD has taught us,
需要很多细节
lots of details go into it,
只要给他们那样的瞬间
you can really connect more powerfully
你完全可以和听众
with the audience as a whole
联系得更加紧密
by giving a few people that one moment.
花上四到七秒的时间
Now it’s not always easy to spend four to seven seconds,
或者和听众产生联系并不简单
or to really potentially build a connection.
但我有两个小窍门 可以帮助我做到这一点
But I have two tricks that have helped me build this skill.
第一 感觉比想法更容易表达
One is that feelings are easierto do than thoughts.
我们很容易能和某人分享一个带有情感的故事
It’s easier to share a moment that’s charged with emotion with another person.
第二 那些友善的脸庞
And the second is that a friendly face,
那些你对他们笑 他们也会对你笑的人
who you smile at and smiles back to you,
使你能够
gives you the ability to easily
有自信不慌张地去联系下一个听众
move to the next person with more confidence and less anxiety.
你们可能发现了
Now you may have noticed
我尝试使用的第二个技巧
the second technique I tried to use,
沉默的力量
which is that silenceis extremely powerful.
得到了你们的注意力后我再开始
I started,you all drew your attention inwards.
我甚至能看见
I even saw those of you
玩电脑的人对我有了反应 停了下来
on a laptop giving feedback, pause, and
看了看我
look up, and make eye contact.
沉默还能够
One of the other things silence can do
让听众来填充这一空当
is give the audience time to fill the space.
你自己非常熟悉所要讲的故事
You may have all the lines of your story,but
但是 听众们需要时间去理解
they need to fill the spots in between.
同样的 停顿也能特别强调出诸如焦虑和紧张之类的情感
It also can punctuate particularlypowerful emotion like anxiety and nervousness,
它能传递一种信息
and it can convey a meaning
文字不能表达一切
that words just don’t do enough justice.
例如 遥遥无期的等待
For instance, waiting an eternity,
那切中要害的不舒适感
to the point that it might be uncomfortable,
需要多久的停顿
how long the silence lasts.
所以当你们走出去讲述自己的故事的时候
So when you go out and tell your story,
别忘了把这些东西放进去
don’t forget to weave some of these
利用这些技巧 制造更有说服力的话语
things in and use them to really create more impact with your words.
当我决定申请这所学校的时候
> > When I decided to apply to business school,
我做了最基本的准备
I started from the basics.
搜集资料 准备GMAT 托福
I did some research, [COUGH] and I studiedfor the tests, the GMAT and the TOEFL. Yes,
作为一名国际学生
as an international student,
我必须先通过这两项测试
I had to take two tests before even thinking
才能申请商学院
about applying to business school. Luckily,
幸运的是 我第一次成绩还不错
I got good scoreson my first attempt.
就这样
That was it.
我进入了这所学校
I was getting in.
故事结束
End of the story.
斯坦福商学研究院 哈佛大学商学院
The GSB, HBS,
芝加哥 都求着我来
and Chicago were going to beg me to come to these programs.
[笑声]但那不是事实的真相
[LAUGH]But that was far from the truth.
我还要做许多事情
I had a lot of work to be done yet.
准备论文 面试
I had to prepare essays,prepare interviews, and
让招生办相信 我是这个专业的合适人选
convince admission officers that I was a suitable candidate for an MBA.
那时候我被压得喘不过气来
I remember feeling pumped.
只想让一切都快点过去
I really wanted to get over this.
结束这些事情 好去念我的MBA
I wanted to get done with this job and go to my MBA.
但当我坐下来 开始写论文的时候
But when I sat down to write the first few words of my essay,
我感觉撞上了一堵墙
I hit a wall,
巨大而又坚实的墙
a big, thick and solid wall.
我发现自己不知道怎么写论文
I realized that I didn’tunderstand how to write down my essay.
不懂得如何营销自己
I didn’t know how to sell myself.
我觉得是没有工作经验
I felt that I didn’t havethe work experience or
或是课外活动 能放在简历里去说服他们
the extracurricular activities inmy resume to convince anybody.
所以我决定寻求帮助
So I decided to look for help.
我问了所有我认识的
I contacted every person that I knew
有过这些经历的人
that had survived this process
就在去年
in the last year.
我认识一个指导我如何写作的人
I had an advisor who provided me with examples of good writing.
我浏览了所有能找到的博客
I went to every blog that I could find.
突然有一天 我发现那堵高墙并没有我想象得那么厚
And suddenly that big wallwas not thick as I thought.
我有能力在上面钻一个洞
I was going to be able to drill
走到另一头
a hole and to get to the other side.
第二个月
In the next month,
我就写了六篇论文 两篇报告
I was able to write six essays and prepare two presentations.
我很幸运 所有申请过的学校都向我发来了面试通知
Luckily I got interviews invites from every school that I applied to.
几个礼拜后 我收到了来自国防科学局
And a few weeks later,I got acceptance letters the DSB,
哈佛 和芝加哥的录取通知书
from Harvard, and from Chicago.
尽管没有人求我来这里
Although nobody begged me to come here,
那些我刻苦钻研的日子
the whole day I was able to drill into this big admission process
是我这辈子最大的成就
is one of the biggest accomplishments of my life.
这个故事告诉你们
Now that I’ve told you a story,
我们需要集中精力应对我刚说的那堵高墙
we need to focus on the wall that I mentioned.
这堵墙对你来说 意味着什么
What does the wall means to you?
对我而言 这堵墙是一种感觉
For me, the wall was this feeling of,
它使你迷茫
don’t know where to start,
使你凝固 使你麻痹
of being frozen, of being paralyzed.
我可以肯定对你们来说也是一样的
And I’m pretty sure that foryou it meant the same.
因为这堵墙
That’s because the wall is a very
可以类比到你们每个人的身上
well known analogy to all of you.
这就是诗歌和类比的力量
And that’s the power of poetry andanalogies,
使我们能够通过简洁的文字 传递复杂的想法
that we are able to transmit very complex ideas with very few words.
但我们需要注意的是
But we have to be careful with one thing though
在类比和写诗的时候
when we’re using analogies and poetries.
我们要了解观众
We have to know our audience.
我们需要确定
We have to be sure
他们能够领会我们的意思
that they are getting what we are trying to transmit.
所以说
Being that said,
我希望你们在下次讲述故事的时候用上类比这一技巧
I invite you to use analogies the next time you tell a story.
它们能够帮助你
They’re going to help you to be
顺利而具体地表达
successful and more concrete with your ideas.
他们要毁了我们的家
>> They were going to tear down our homes.
我们甜蜜温暖的家
Our homes, filled with love,warmth, and comfort.
我和邻居们 手拉着手 在市政厅前示威
My neighbors and I marchedhand-in-hand to the town hall meeting.
我们要他们发声
We wanted to hear what they had to say.
策划团队的一位长者走了出来
So a senior person onthe planning team came by.
她说 这将会是一个美丽的项目
She started with,it’s going to be a beautiful project.
我们会为研究生建造更好的宿舍
We’re going to have beautiful housing forgraduate students.
有电影院 按摩浴缸 爆米花
There might be a theater,hot tubs, popcorn.
所有的一切 会在2021年实现
All this in 2021.
我们并没有惊讶
We were not impressed.
[笑]到了2021年 我们早就不在了
[LAUGH]We were not going to be there in 2021.
这有关我们的生计
We had bread and butter issues.
我们担忧的是
We were concerned.
我们以后住哪?
Where are we going to live?
这就是她的开场白
That’s how the presentation started, and
演讲者的话语无法联系到听众的内心
as the speaker droned on you could see the obvious disconnect with the audience.
每一段话 每一个故事
In every message, and in every story,
都需要去了解你的目标人群
it is crucial to know your AIM.
理解你的听众 理解你的意图 理解这段话
You need to understand your audience,your intent, and the message.
在这个例子中
In this case,
演讲者根本没有理解他的听众
there was a clear disconnect in the speaker’s understanding of the audience.
尽管她的目的十分明确
And even though herintent was very clear,
想让我们支持她的计划
she wanted us to support the housing project,
她说的冠冕堂皇
her message was beautiful,
这里会更加美丽
it was going to be beautiful place.
但她错了 我们不想听这些
But her message fell,unfortunately, on deaf ears.
如果你的意图混乱并且模糊
If your intent is muddled, fuzzy,
则会产生不同的效果
it can have a different effect,
大家可能认为你说的话很自私
whereby your message may beperceived as being selfish,
或者不真实 即使你已经很努力了
or inauthentic,even though you have the best intentions.
最后 如果你所说的内容没有说服力又不清楚
And finally if the message is diluted andunclear it
那听起来就像插科打诨一样
might just create a situation whereyour just making unconstructive noise.
所以记住三点 听众 目的 语言
So audience, intent and message,
是成功讲述一个故事的基础
really form the foundationof telling a successful story.
今天我们学习了讲故事的七个原则
Today we have put together sevenkey principles of storytelling.
它们很重要
These principles are important,
所以讲故事
so that storytelling
不仅仅是讲述自己想法的好方法
is not merely a clever way of putting ideas together,
而且还是一门艺术
but truly an art.
[音乐]
[Music]

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视频概述

我有故事,你有酒吗?斯坦福商学院出品,为您讲述故事的力量,以及讲好故事的七个原则。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

赵大诗

审核员

审核员A

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PiRbgEqQKEM

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