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斯多葛主义之失落的芝诺哲学

STOICISM | The Lost Philosophy of Zeno

We have two ears and one mouth ,
我们有两只耳朵和一张嘴
so we should listen more than we say.
所以应该少说多听
Zeno of Citium
季蒂昂的芝诺
Around 300 BC,
公元前300年左右
Zeno of Citium founded the Stoic school of philosophy.
季蒂昂的芝诺建立了斯多葛主义
He published a list of works
他发表了一份清单
on ethics, physics, logic, and other subjects,
罗列了伦理 物理 逻辑和其他学科的作品
including his most famous work: Zeno’s Republic,
其中有他最著名的作品 芝诺共和
which does sound quite similar to a dialogue authored by a philosopher named Plato.
它听起来和哲学家柏拉图所著的对话很像
Despite Zeno being the founder of Stoicism
尽管芝诺是斯多葛主义的建立者
and having written extensively,
并且广泛著书
he is hardly cited in modern Stoic literature.
但他很少在现代斯多葛文学中被提及
The reason for this is simple:
原因很简单
none of his works have survived.
他的作品无一幸存
The good news is that other authors wrote about him.
好消息是 其他作者写到过他
Biographer Diogenes Laërtius
传记作家第欧根尼·拉尔修
preserved most details about his life,
保留了他生活中的大部分细节
including a series of fragments
包括一系列片段
that give us an insight into what he taught.
让我们得以洞察他讲了什么
This video is a short essay about Zeno’s life and philosophy.
这段视频是关于芝诺的生活和哲学的小短文
失落的芝诺哲学
There is no certainty about Zeno’s ethnic and cultural background,
芝诺的种族和文化背景无法确定
except that his nickname was the ’Phoenician’
除了他的昵称是“腓尼基人”
and that Diogenes described him as a haggard, dark-skinned man.
这是第欧根尼用以形容他的黑皮肤的
His father gave him books about Socrates
芝诺父亲给了他苏格拉底的书籍
that he brought back from his travels as a merchant.
这是父亲在经商旅行带回来的
And, thus, Zeno became obsessed with philosophy.
从此 芝诺开始沉迷于哲学
He became a pupil of the famous cynic Crates of Thebes,
他从师于著名的犬儒主义者克拉特斯
and among his other teachers were Polemo and Stilpo.
另外两位老师是Polemo和Stilpo
Later in life, Zeno started teaching himself in the Stoa Poikile.
后来 芝诺开始在坡隆庙的画廊自学
His pupils were called Zenonians first,
他的学生最初被称为Zenonians
but later became known as the Stoics.
但后来被称为斯多葛主义者
Zeno was concerned with the whole spectrum of Stoic philosophy,
芝诺关注斯多葛哲学的每个部分
like logic, epistemology, and the nature of the universe which,
如逻辑 认识论和宇宙的性质
according to his view, primarily consists of matter
根据他的观点 宇宙主要由物质构成
and is governed by a divine principle.
并受神的意识支配
God, therefore, isn’t apart from the universe; it is the universe.
因此 上帝与宇宙不分离 上帝就是宇宙
This is a quote by Zeno,
这是罗马哲学家西塞罗
that Roman philosopher Cicero preserved:
所记载的芝诺的一段话
That which exercises reason is more excellent than that which does not exercise reason;
保持理性比不理性更为优秀
there is nothing more excellent than the universe,
没什么比宇宙更优秀
therefore the universe exercises reason.
因此 宇宙是理性的
End quote.
引用结束
Well, that’s a hell of a statement to ponder over.
好吧 这真是令人深思的声明
It definitely lies at the basis of the Stoic belief,
它基于斯多葛主义的信仰
that the universe is governed by an intelligent
即 宇宙是由名叫Logos的
and primordial matter called Logos,
先进又原始物质所支配的
which can also be called Universal Reasonor or Fate.
这也可以称为“普遍理性”或“命运”
Living a life according to reason, therefore,
因此 按照理性生活
is living in a life in accordance with nature.
就是按照自然生活
This is the underlying idea of ‘amor fati’,
这就是“amor fati”的基本理念
which means ‘the love of fate’.
它的意思是 爱上命运
In regards to ethics, Zeno’s view seems compatible
在伦理学方面 芝诺的观点似乎和
with the later Stoic definitions of them.
后来斯多葛主义的定义是一致的
Simply put: virtue is the only good,
简单地说 美德是唯一的善
and as opposed to virtue there is vice.
与美德相对的是恶
The end goal is reaching a state of Eudaimonia, which is human flourishing.
达到人类蓬勃发展的幸福主义是终极目标
And this can be achieved by the pursuit of virtue.
这可以通过追求美德来实现
Or as Zeno stated:
或者正如芝诺所说
“Happiness is a good flow of life.”
幸福是生活中滔滔不绝的好事
A bit more detailed description of Eudaimonia we can find in the works of Diogenes,
我们在第欧根尼的作品中能找到的
who quotes Zeno as follows:
芝诺对“幸福主义”更详细的描述如下
The end may be defined as life in accordance with nature or,
目的可以定义为据自然而定的生命
in other words, in accordance with our own human nature as well as that of the universe.
换言之 是符合我们自己以及宇宙的本性
End quote.
引用结束
Zeno also laid the foundation for the system of indifferents;
芝诺也为平等制度奠定了基础
things that aren’t necessarily good or bad
不一定是好还是坏的事物
but can nevertheless contribute to self-preservation or destruction.
却可以促进自我保护或毁灭
He saw the human tendency for self-preservation
他把人类自我保护的倾向
as a part of human nature,
看作是人性的一部分
which isn’t virtuous on its own
这本身并不道德
but could contribute towards one’s efforts towards it.
但可以为自己的努力作出贡献
This set the Stoics apart from the Cynics,
这让斯多葛和犬儒主义得以区分
who rejected possessions and everything that befalls the body.
犬儒主义者拒绝财产和一切切实的东西
According to Stoicism, indifferents do have value,
斯多葛主义认为 平等确实有价值
and we should pursue them,
且我们应该追求它
but not cling to them as possessions that will make our life better,
但并不能当做使我们生活变得更好的财富
But as a catalyst for living in agreement with nature.
而应当作与自然和谐相处的催化剂
For example, wealth itself doesn’t lead to virtue,
举个例子 财富本身并不能带来美德
but it does lead to self-preservation.
但确实能自我保护
which can assist in the pursuit of virtue.
这有助于追求美德
Another example: sickness doesn’t lead to vice,
另一个例子 疾病不会导致恶行
but it is not a preferable thing
但这不是件好事
because its destructive nature goes against self-preservation.
因为它的破坏性违背了自我保护
Zeno also stated that ’bad feelings’ are commotions of the mind,
芝诺还说 坏感觉是大脑的骚动
repugnant to reason, and against nature.
与理性相悖 与自然相悖
So, even though emotions are human,
因此 即使感情是人类的
they are a sign of, simply put, bad reasoning
简单的说 却是错误推理的一种表现
and could be overcome by getting a clear understanding of how life works.
并且可以通过透彻理解生活机制来克服
Grievance because of death could be overcome by accepting
对死亡的不满可通过接受机制来克服
that death is the natural and inherent part of life.
那就是 死亡是生命中自然而固有的部分
And our frustrations with “bad parents”
对“坏父母”的抱怨
could be overcome by the knowledge that,
可以通过这样的认识来解决
at the end of the day, no one is entitled to good parents.
归根结底 没人生来有权拥有好父母
We see that all these misfortunes happen according to natural laws,
我们看见的这些不幸皆源于自然法则
which are, fundamentally, reasonable.
从根本上说 这是合理的
About Zeno’s death, there’s no consensus,
关于芝诺之死 没有形成共识
as different sources tell different things.
因为不同出处的描述各不相同
Also, it is impossible to know what Zeno really thought,
同样 我们无法知道他的真实想法
because none of his works survived.
因为他的作品无一幸存
Some say that his contributions to Stoic philosophy,
有人说 正如我们所知
as we know it, were of high significance,
他对斯多葛主义的贡献意义重大
While others believe that other
而另一些人认为
other philosophers like Cleanthes and Chrysippus
其他哲学家 如克林赛斯 克里斯普
were responsible for actual development of Stoicism,
是使得斯多葛主义发展的真正原因
and Zeno’s role as ´founder´
而芝诺作为创始人
is more of a symbolic one
更多起象征作用
Nonetheless, he remains a key figure
但无论如何 在斯多葛主义历史上
in the history of Stoicism.
他仍是关键性的人物
Thank you for watching.
感谢观看

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视频概述

这是一个介绍芝诺(斯多葛主义的建立者)的生活与哲学思想的视频。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

wy

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szUsitFuF9c

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