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蝎子蜇vs鼠咬 – 译学馆
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蝎子蜇vs鼠咬

Stinging Scorpion vs. Pain-Defying Mouse | Deep Look

索诺兰沙漠上正上演着一场装备竞赛
There’s an arms race underway in the Sonoran desert
食蝗鼠 vs 蝎子
Mouse vs. scorpion
双方僵持不下 丝毫不让对方占上风
Locked in a battle of one upmanship, each animal evolving better, stronger chemical
并展开了更加激烈的化学斗争
defenses against the other.
考虑到亚利桑那州青棕色的蝎子
Consider the Arizona bark scorpion.
它们尾鞭上带有的毒液比美国任何种类的蝎子都更为致命
Its tail contains the most powerful venom of any scorpion in the United States, delivering
会带来高温灼伤的刺痛感
white hot electrical pain.
每年有成百上千人被它蛰进医院
This sting sends hundreds of people to the hospital each year.
这种毒液不仅强势 还复杂
That venom isn’t just potent… It’s sophisticated.
位于旧金山的加利福尼亚大学科学院的研究人员为了消除蝎子带来的威胁
Researchers at The California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco are studying how this venom
正在研究这种毒液如何会日益复杂
became increasingly complex over time to deal with the threats scorpions face.
他们迷惑着蝎子 哄骗它去蛰一张蜡纸
They milk the scorpion. They use a piece of wax paper to coax it into stinging.
那一小滴含有复杂的化学成份 包括各种神经毒素
That droplet contains a complex brew of chemicals, including neurotoxins that quickly paralyze
它们可以迅速麻痹猎物 就像这只蟋蟀……
prey, like this cricket….
但是毒液也可以作为自我防卫的强大武器 防止被捕食
But venom also serves as a powerful defense… against being eaten
然后 轮到食蝗鼠了
That’s… where the mouse comes in.
别被它可爱的外表欺骗
Do not be fooled by its cuteness.
这种老鼠是老鼠中的稀有品种 是个残忍的捕猎者
The southern grasshopper mouse is a ferocious hunter, which is rare among mice.
它正想捕食蝎子
And it’s got a taste for scorpion.
这听着像是要寻死 然而并非如此
Which would seem like a death wish. But it isn’t.
密歇根州立大学的科学家们正在研究这场战斗是如何展开的
Scientists at Michigan State University are studying how the battle unfolds — not just
并非身体搏斗 而是指化学武器方面
physically, but at a chemical level.
老鼠伸出爪子向它展开了攻击
This mouse is on the attack.
但蝎子……是没有爪子的
But the scorpion… is not having it.
看 它一直甩着尾鞭向老鼠袭去
See how it keeps stinging the mouse?
对其他任何动物来说 包括你和我 这样都会受很严重的伤
For any other animal — including you or me — this would hurt. Badly.
但对食蝗鼠来说 这不过是转瞬即逝的疼痛罢了
And for a second, with the grasshopper mouse, it does.
蝎子坚持不懈地蛰着老鼠的面部
See how it’s rubbing its face?
但是片刻的疼痛过后 绝不会有麻木的感觉
But after a brief moment of pain, its nerves go numb.
大部分和它差不多体型的动物都会当场死亡
Most animals its size would be dead by now.
但是食蝗鼠在进化过程中对蝎子的毒液产生了特殊的抵抗
But the grasshopper mouse has evolved a specific defense against scorpion venom.
食蝗鼠的神经细胞中存有一种蛋白质 可以抵抗这种毒素
A protein built into the mouse’s nerve cells — binds to the toxin.
蛋白质阻碍了毒素的扩散
It blocks it.
恰恰相反 这种毒素不但没有给食蝗鼠带来痛感和麻木感
Instead of creating pain and paralysis, the toxin does the opposite.
它更像是个疼痛杀手——一种止痛药
It acts like a painkiller — an analgesic.
最先蛰的那几下 食蝗鼠几乎没有任何感觉
After the first couple stings, the mouse barely feels anything…
蝎子的情况却不容乐观
Bad news for the scorpion.
研究人员认为这种方法可以为人类指明道路 研究出更有效的止痛药
Researchers think this trick could point the way to more precise pain medications for people,
且具有更少的副作用
with fewer side effects.
曾经有段时间 蝎子的毒液能够完全保证它自身的安全
Once upon a time, the scorpion’s venom was enough to protect it.
但是现在 在这场沙漠臂力比赛中 食蝗鼠处于优势
But today — in this desert arms race — the mouse has the upper paw.
至少现在还是
At least for now.
嗨 这是艾米
Hi, it’s Amy.
这就是蝎子的外观 当你用紫外线扫射它们
So this… is what scorpions look like when you shine a UV flashlight on them.
它们是荧光色的
They’re fluorescent.
为什么会这样?这是个迷
Why this is? is a mystery.
但这确实更易于研究人员于夜晚时分寻找它们
But it does make it easier for researchers to find them at night, which is when scorpions
那是它们的活跃期
are active.
如果你在这点击订阅按钮 深色部分会更容易被发现
Deep Look episodes are easier to find if you click that Subscribe button right there.
还要检查好这个方框以确保新情况发生时能获得提示
And make sure to check the box to get alerts when fresh stories are up.
感谢收看 下期再见!
Till next time, thanks for watching!

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视频概述

蝎子的毒素正在改变

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鹿鹿

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-K_YtWqMro

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