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老鼠,雷射光束和被操控的记忆 – 译学馆
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老鼠,雷射光束和被操控的记忆

Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu: A mouse. A laser beam. A manipulated memory.

-我研一的时候
Steve Ramirez: My first year of grad school,
我躺在床上
I found myself in my bedroom
吃Ben & Jerry’s 冰淇淋
eating lots of Ben & Jerry’s
看一些没营养的电视节目
watching some trashy TV
或许 或许还听听泰勒·斯威夫特的歌。
and maybe, maybe listening to Taylor Swift.
我刚刚经历一场失恋嘛
I had just gone through a breakup.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以很长一段时间里 我所做的
So for the longest time, all I would do
就是一边反反复复地回忆有关我前任恋人的一切
is recall the memory of this person over and over again,
一边希望自己能摆脱那种
wishing that I could get rid of that gut-wrenching,
撕心裂肺的痛苦
visceral ‘blah’ feeling.
现在 我成为了一名神经科学家
Now, as it turns out, I’m a neuroscientist,
我也知道了有关那个人的记忆
so I knew that the memory of that person
以及那记忆中所挟带的痛苦情感
and the awful, emotional undertones that color in that memory,
其实很大程度上是由不同脑区调控的
are largely mediated by separate brain systems.
所以我就想 如果我们能进入大脑
And so I thought, what if we could go into the brain
改变那种痛苦的情感
and edit out that nauseating feeling
却同时完好地保留关于那个前任恋人的记忆会怎么样呢
but while keeping the memory of that person intact?
之后我意识到 可能即使在现有技术条件下也很困难
Then I realized, maybe that’s a little bit lofty for now.
那么如果我们能从进入人脑
So what if we could start off by going into the brain
找出一个单一记忆开始着手做起会怎么样呢?
and just finding a single memory to begin with?
我们是否可以跳转到一段过往记忆并在 现实中重新演绎
Could we jump-start that memory back to life,
甚至也许可以稍稍改编一下记忆的内容?
maybe even play with the contents of that memory?
不过现在 全世界有一个人
All that said, there is one person in the entire world right now
我倒是希望她没有看这场演讲
that I really hope is not watching this talk.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以啦 凡事都有代价
So there is a catch. There is a catch.
也许以上这些设想会让你想起《全面回忆》
These ideas probably remind you of ‘Total Recall,’
《暖暖内含光》
‘Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind,’
或者《盗梦空间》这些电影
or of ‘Inception.’
不过我们所研究的电影明星
But the movie stars that we work with
都算是实验室里的名人
are the celebrities of the lab.
刘旭:(也就是)小白鼠
Xu Liu: Test mice.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
作为神经科学家 我们通过研究老鼠
As neuroscientists, we work in the lab with mice
来尝试理解记忆的运作机理
trying to understand how memory works.
今天 我们希望向你们证明
And today, we hope to convince you that now
事实上我们能够在大脑中
we are actually able to activate a memory in the brain
快速激活一段记忆
at the speed of light.
要完成这个任务 我们只需要两个简单的步骤
To do this, there’s only two simple steps to follow.
首先 在大脑中找到并且标记一段记忆
First, you find and label a memory in the brain,
然后用开关激活它
and then you activate it with a switch.
就是这么简单
As simple as that.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
史蒂夫:你们信吗?
SR: Are you convinced?
其实 在大脑中找到一段记忆并非如此简单
So, turns out finding a memory in the brain isn’t all that easy.
刘旭:的确 这其实要比
XL: Indeed. This is way more difficult than, let’s say,
大海捞针要难得多
finding a needle in a haystack,
因为至少针是实际存在的客观事物
because at least, you know, the needle is still something
你可以用手拿
you can physically put your fingers on.
但记忆不是
But memory is not.
而且大脑中的脑细胞可比
And also, there’s way more cells in your brain
稻草堆中的稻谷要多得多
than the number of straws in a typical haystack.
所以 这个任务似乎异常艰难
So yeah, this task does seem to be daunting.
但幸运的是 我们从大脑自身得到了帮助
But luckily, we got help from the brain itself.
事实上我们只需要
It turned out that all we need to do is basically
让大脑自己生成一段记忆
to let the brain form a memory,
然后大脑会告诉我们哪些脑细胞
and then the brain will tell us which cells are involved
参与了这一段记忆的组成
in that particular memory.
史蒂夫:那么在我回忆前任的时候
SR: So what was going on in my brain
我的大脑中究竟发生了什么呢?
while I was recalling the memory of an ex?
如果你们能暂且抛开人类道德
If you were to just completely ignore human ethics for a second
即刻将我的大脑切片解剖
and slice up my brain right now,
你会发现当回忆那段记忆的时候
you would see that there was an amazing number
有一片大脑区域相当活跃
of brain regions that were active while recalling that memory.
在这其中被称为
Now one brain region that would be robustly active
海马体的脑区是最为持续活跃的
in particular is called the hippocampus,
这一脑区负责处理
which for decades has been implicated in processing
对我们来说独具意义的记忆
the kinds of memories that we hold near and dear,
这一点也使得海马体成为可供深入研究的理想目标
which also makes it an ideal target to go into
我们可以试着在海马体中找到并激活一段记忆
and to try and find and maybe reactivate a memory.
刘旭:当你聚焦于海马体
XL: When you zoom in into the hippocampus,
当然你会看到许多脑细胞
of course you will see lots of cells,
但我们也能够找到参与
but we are able to find which cells are involved
某一特定记忆的那些细胞
in a particular memory,
因为当一个脑细胞
because whenever a cell is active,
向形成一段记忆那样活跃时
like when it’s forming a memory,
它也会留下一些迹象 之后我们就可以从这些迹象中找出
it will also leave a footprint that will later allow us to know
近期表现活跃的那些细胞
these cells are recently active.
史蒂夫:与夜晚大楼的灯同理
SR: So the same way that building lights at night
它们给你某人可能正在那儿工作的信息
let you know that somebody’s probably working there at any given moment,
从某种现实的意义上来说 这是一种细胞自带的
in a very real sense, there are biological sensors
只有在该细胞工作时
within a cell that are turned on
开启的生物传感器
only when that cell was just working.
就像很多亮着的生物窗口
They’re sort of biological windows that light up
我们以此知晓这些细胞处于活跃状态
to let us know that that cell was just active.
刘旭:所以我们选取这个传感器的一部分
XL: So we clipped part of this sensor,
并将这一部分连接到用于控制脑细胞的开关上
and attached that to a switch to control the cells,
然后我们将这一开关植入于人造病毒中
and we packed this switch into an engineered virus
并注射于实验鼠大脑
and injected that into the brain of the mice.
所以每当一段记忆形成时
So whenever a memory is being formed,
人造开关就会被安装到
any active cells for that memory
参与这部分记忆的每一个脑细胞
will also have this switch installed.
史蒂夫:这就是在形成一段恐惧记忆后
SR: So here is what the hippocampus looks like
海马体的样子 举个例子
after forming a fear memory, for example.
你们所看到的这一蓝色区域
The sea of blue that you see here
密集分布着许多脑细胞
are densely packed brain cells,
但是这些绿色标记的脑细胞
but the green brain cells,
这些绿色的脑细胞就是那段
the green brain cells are the ones that are holding on
特定恐惧记忆的载体
to a specific fear memory.
所以你们现在看到的就是
So you are looking at the crystallization
恐惧形成瞬间的结晶
of the fleeting formation of fear.
这其实是一组记忆横截面
You’re actually looking at the cross-section of a memory right now.
刘旭:现在 对于我们说过的开关
XL: Now, for the switch we have been talking about,
它运作极快
ideally, the switch has to act really fast.
不需要几分钟或几小时
It shouldn’t take minutes or hours to work.
它的运作速度与大脑相当 以毫秒计
It should act at the speed of the brain, in milliseconds.
史蒂夫:所以你怎么看 刘旭?
SR: So what do you think, Xu?
你觉得我们能用医学用药
Could we use, let’s say, pharmacological drugs
来激活或减退大脑细胞的活动吗?
to activate or inactivate brain cells?
刘旭:行不通吧 药物太难控制了 它们全身乱跑
XL: Nah. Drugs are pretty messy. They spread everywhere.
而且等它们作用到脑细胞上就太慢咯
And also it takes them forever to act on cells.
所以我们不太可能用药物来及时控制记忆
So it will not allow us to control a memory in real time.
那史蒂夫 你觉得用电流刺激大脑这个想法如何?
So Steve, how about let’s zap the brain with electricity?
史蒂夫:嗯 电流的速度确实快
SR: So electricity is pretty fast,
但是我们不太可能将电流精确定位于
but we probably wouldn’t be able to target it
承载着这些记忆的特定脑细胞
to just the specific cells that hold onto a memory,
而且还可能因此烧坏脑子
and we’d probably fry the brain.
刘旭:噢 那倒是 那看来
XL: Oh. That’s true. So it looks like, hmm,
我们确实得要找到一个更好的方法
indeed we need to find a better way
能以光速来控制大脑
to impact the brain at the speed of light.
史蒂夫:光的穿行速度不就是光速嘛
SR: So it just so happens that light travels at the speed of light.
所以或许我们就可以
So maybe we could activate or inactive memories
用光来激活或消退记忆……
by just using light —
刘旭:那样确实够快
XL: That’s pretty fast.
史蒂夫: 而且由于一般的脑细胞
SR: — and because normally brain cells
对光脉冲没有反应
don’t respond to pulses of light,
所以那些对光脉冲做出反应的脑细胞
so those that would respond to pulses of light
就相当于一个光敏开关
are those that contain a light-sensitive switch.
要做到这点 首先我们必须诱使脑细胞
Now to do that, first we need to trick brain cells
对激光产生反应
to respond to laser beams.
刘旭:对!你们没有听错
XL: Yep. You heard it right.
我们正尝试向大脑中发射激光
We are trying to shoot lasers into the brain.
(笑)
(Laughter)
史蒂夫:而我们依靠的技术就是光遗传学
SR: And the technique that lets us do that is optogenetics.
通过光遗传学我们得到了这个光敏开关
Optogenetics gave us this light switch that we can use
我们可以用来来开启或关闭脑细胞
to turn brain cells on or off,
这个开关就叫做光敏通道
and the name of that switch is channelrhodopsin,
也就是这里显示的附于这个脑细胞的绿色小点
seen here as these green dots attached to this brain cell.
你可以把这个光敏通道想象成
You can think of channelrhodopsin as a sort of light-sensitive switch
可以人为地安装在脑细胞中的光敏开关
that can be artificially installed in brain cells
因此现在我们就可以简单的通过点击这一开关
so that now we can use that switch
来激活或者灭活脑细胞
to activate or inactivate the brain cell simply by clicking it,
这里我们用光脉冲来点击
and in this case we click it on with pulses of light.
刘旭:我们把这个光敏通道的光敏开关
XL: So we attach this light-sensitive switch of channelrhodopsin
安装于我们刚刚提到的传感器上
to the sensor we’ve been talking about
并将它注于脑内
and inject this into the brain.
所以每当一段记忆形成时
So whenever a memory is being formed,
光敏开关也会被安装到
any active cell for that particular memory
参与这一特定记忆的每一个细胞上
will also have this light-sensitive switch installed in it
正如你们所见 我们也就能
so that we can control these cells
通过调控激光来控制脑细胞
by the flipping of a laser just like this one you see.
史蒂夫:那么我们现在就来测试一下
SR: So let’s put all of this to the test now.
我们拿出实验鼠
What we can do is we can take our mice
将它们放到和这个盒子一模一样的盒中
and then we can put them in a box that looks exactly like this box here,
然后施于它们一个轻微的足电击
and then we can give them a very mild foot shock
让它们对盒子产生一段恐惧记忆
so that they form a fear memory of this box.
它们会记得在这里发生过一些不好的事情
They learn that something bad happened here.
根据我们的理论 那些参与这段记忆的
Now with our system, the cells that are active
海马体中的脑细胞会很活跃
in the hippocampus in the making of this memory,
现在只有这些细胞携带光敏通道
only those cells will now contain channelrhodopsin.
刘旭:当你像老鼠那么小的时候
XL: When you are as small as a mouse,
会感觉仿佛全世界都要欺压你
it feels as if the whole world is trying to get you.
而你最好的应对办法
So your best response of defense
就是尽量把自己藏好
is trying to be undetected.
每当老鼠害怕时
Whenever a mouse is in fear,
呆在盒子的角落里
it will show this very typical behavior
尽量一动不动就会
by staying at one corner of the box,
是一种相当典型的行为
trying to not move any part of its body,
我们称这个姿势为“定格”
and this posture is called freezing.
因此只要老鼠记得在这个盒子里发生过不愉快的事
So if a mouse remembers that something bad happened in this box,
当我们将它们放回盒中时
and when we put them back into the same box,
老鼠就会表现出“定格”行为
it will basically show freezing
因为它不想被
because it doesn’t want to be detected
盒中任何可能的危险捕获
by any potential threats in this box.
史蒂夫:你们可以将“定格”理解为
SR: So you can think of freezing as,
你好好地走在路上 想着你自己的事情
you’re walking down the street minding your own business,
然后你的前男友或前女友
and then out of nowhere you almost run into
不知从哪冒出来了
an ex-girlfriend or ex-boyfriend,
就在那令人恐慌的两秒内
and now those terrifying two seconds
你开始想 “我该怎么做?我要打招呼吗?
where you start thinking, ‘What do I do? Do I say hi?
我要和他们握手吗?转身就跑?
Do I shake their hand? Do I turn around and run away?
还是就坐在这里,假装自己不存在?”
Do I sit here and pretend like I don’t exist?’
这些在你脑中一闪而过的念头令你四肢僵硬
Those kinds of fleeting thoughts that physically incapacitate you,
而你脸上的表情就像车头灯照射下的惊恐小鹿
that temporarily give you that deer-in-headlights look.
刘旭:然而当你将实验鼠置于一个截然不同的新盒中
XL: However, if you put the mouse in a completely different
就像这里的第二个盒子
new box, like the next one,
它就不会害怕
it will not be afraid of this box
因为它没有理由对这个新环境产生恐惧
because there’s no reason that it will be afraid of this new environment.
但是如果我们将实验鼠放于这个新盒子里
But what if we put the mouse in this new box
同时用激光
but at the same time, we activate the fear memory
激活之前的那段恐惧记忆
using lasers just like we did before?
我们能否将对于第一个盒子的那段记忆
Are we going to bring back the fear memory
在这个新环境中重现呢?
for the first box into this completely new environment?
史蒂夫:不错 这就是那个耗价百万的实验
SR: All right, and here’s the million-dollar experiment.
现在就让我们把那一天的记忆重现
Now to bring back to life the memory of that day,
我记得那一天波士顿红袜队正巧打赢一场比赛
I remember that the Red Sox had just won,
那是一个绿意盎然的春日
it was a green spring day,
非常适合沿河散步
perfect for going up and down the river
走到最北端
and then maybe going to the North End
吃一些煎饼卷
to get some cannolis, #justsaying.
另一方便 刘旭和我
Now Xu and I, on the other hand,
在一个密不透风的黑房间里
were in a completely windowless black room
不做任何眼部运动 甚至是眨眼
not making any ocular movement that even remotely resembles an eye blink
因为我们的眼睛要盯着屏幕
because our eyes were fixed onto a computer screen.
我们要运用我们的技术看这只老鼠
We were looking at this mouse here trying to activate a memory
首次唤醒它的记忆
for the first time using our technique.
刘旭:这就是我们所看到的
XL: And this is what we saw.
当我们第一次将老鼠放进这只盒子时
When we first put the mouse into this box,
它在探索 这边嗅嗅 那边转转
it’s exploring, sniffing around, walking around,
完全沉浸在自己的世界里
minding its own business,
事实上
because actually by nature,
老鼠天性就是好奇心旺盛的动物
mice are pretty curious animals.
他们想知道 这个新盒子里有什么
They want to know, what’s going on in this new box?
这很有趣
It’s interesting.
但是当我们打开激光灯 就像你们现在看到的
But the moment we turned on the laser, like you see now,
突然之间实验鼠进入了“定格”模式
all of a sudden the mouse entered this freezing mode.
它停在那里 身体一动不动
It stayed here and tried not to move any part of its body.
很显然它僵住了
Clearly it’s freezing.
似乎我们能够将
So indeed, it looks like we are able to bring back
对于第一个盒子的恐惧记忆带回到
the fear memory for the first box
这个全新的环境中
in this completely new environment.
当我和史蒂夫看到这些时
While watching this, Steve and I
我们也像实验鼠一样惊呆了
are as shocked as the mouse itself.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
当实验结束后 我们两啥也没说
So after the experiment, the two of us just left the room
一声不响地离开了房间
without saying anything.
过了一段有点尴尬的时间后
After a kind of long, awkward period of time,
史蒂夫首先开口了
Steve broke the silence.
史蒂夫:“所以那个成功了?”
SR: ‘Did that just work?’
刘旭:“是啊” 我说 “它确确实实成功了!”
XL: ‘Yes,’ I said. ‘Indeed it worked!’
我们对此兴奋不已
We’re really excited about this.
然后我们在《自然》杂志
And then we published our findings
发表了这一发现
in the journal Nature.
自从发表以来
Ever since the publication of our work,
我们从互联网
we’ve been receiving numerous comments
收到了无数的评论
from all over the Internet.
也许我们可以看看其中的某些评论
Maybe we can take a look at some of those.
“天呐!终于…… 有太多太多的新发现了:虚拟现实 神经控制 梦境的视觉再现 神经编码 ’记忆的记录与再记录‘ 心理疾病 啊 未来太棒了”
[‘OMGGGGG FINALLY… so much more to come, virtual reality, neural manipulation, visual dream emulation… neural coding, ‘writing and re-writing of memories’, mental illnesses. Ahhh the future is awesome’]
史蒂夫:你首先会注意到人们
SR: So the first thing that you’ll notice is that people
对这类研究有着非常强烈的观点
have really strong opinions about this kind of work.
我完全同意
Now I happen to completely agree with the optimism
第一条评论所体现的乐观性
of this first quote,
如果用零到摩根弗里曼的声音这一范围作为量表
because on a scale of zero to Morgan Freeman’s voice,
这一定是我听过的
it happens to be one of the most evocative accolades
最好的赞誉之一
that I’ve heard come our way.
(笑)
(Laughter)
但你也将看到 这并不是唯一的观点
But as you’ll see, it’s not the only opinion that’s out there.
“这太可怕了……如果他们能在几年内轻而易举地将这一技术用于人类?!天呐 我们完蛋了”
[‘This scares the hell out of me… What if they could do that easily in humans in a couple of years?! OH MY GOD WE’RE DOOMED’]
刘旭:实际上 如果我们看一下第二条
XL: Indeed, if we take a look at the second one,
我们都会认为
I think we can all agree that it’s, meh,
这不很乐观
probably not as positive.
但也正提醒我们
But this also reminds us that,
虽然现在我们只是试验于老鼠身上
although we are still working with mice,
但也许我们也该开始思考、探讨
it’s probably a good idea to start thinking and discussing
记忆控制
about the possible ethical ramifications
可能产生的道德后果
of memory control.
史蒂夫:现在 鉴于第三条评论
SR: Now, in the spirit of the third quote,
我们想要展示我们最近在实验室进行的一个项目
we want to tell you about a recent project that we’ve been
我们把它叫做 盗梦空间
working on in lab that we’ve called Project Inception.
“他们应该以这个为题材拍一部电影 在人脑中植入一些想法并对它们进行控制 就叫它:盗梦空间“
[‘They should make a movie about this. Where they plant ideas into peoples minds, so they can control them for their own personal gain. We’ll call it: Inception.’]
所以我们认为既然我们能唤醒一段记忆
So we reasoned that now that we can reactivate a memory,
那么何不开始操纵这段记忆?
what if we do so but then begin to tinker with that memory?
我们是不是可以将它变为一段错误记忆?
Could we possibly even turn it into a false memory?
刘旭:所有记忆都是复杂的 它们总是处于动态模式
XL: So all memory is sophisticated and dynamic,
用个简化的比喻,我们可以将记忆想象为
but if just for simplicity, let’s imagine memory
一段电影。
as a movie clip.
目前我们所说的只是我们能够控制
So far what we’ve told you is basically we can control
这段电影片段的“播放”按钮,
this ‘play’ button of the clip
借此我们可以随时随地地播放这段影片
so that we can play this video clip any time, anywhere.
但是我们是否可以深入大脑内部、
But is there a possibility that we can actually get
并改编这段影片,
inside the brain and edit this movie clip
让它不同于原片?
so that we can make it different from the original?
是的 我们可以
Yes we can.
事实上 我们所要做的就只是
Turned out that all we need to do is basically
像原来那样利用激光激活一段记忆
reactivate a memory using lasers just like we did before,
同时 如果我们呈现新的信息
but at the same time, if we present new information
并将新信息融入旧的记忆中
and allow this new information to incorporate into this old memory,
这将会改变原先的记忆
this will change the memory.
这就像制作一段混音录音
It’s sort of like making a remix tape.
史蒂夫:那么怎么做呢?
SR: So how do we do this?
这次我们不找大脑中的恐惧记忆了
Rather than finding a fear memory in the brain,
而是将我们的小白鼠
we can start by taking our animals,
放到这种蓝色盒子里
and let’s say we put them in a blue box like this blue box here
我们会发现代表着蓝色盒子的脑细胞
and we find the brain cells that represent that blue box
欺骗他们 让它们对光脉冲产生反应
and we trick them to respond to pulses of light
就像我们之前所说的那样
exactly like we had said before.
然后第二天 我们把动物放在
Now the next day, we can take our animals and place them
它们从未待过的红盒子里
in a red box that they’ve never experienced before.
发射激光并唤醒
We can shoot light into the brain to reactivate
脑中关于蓝盒子的记忆
the memory of the blue box.
那么将会发生什么呢 当老鼠
So what would happen here if, while the animal
唤起关于蓝盒子的记忆时
is recalling the memory of the blue box,
我们对它的脚进行几次轻微冲击
we gave it a couple of mild foot shocks?
我们想要人工形成老鼠对
So here we’re trying to artificially make an association
蓝盒子
between the memory of the blue box
和足电击反应之间的联系
and the foot shocks themselves.
我们试着将两者相联系
We’re just trying to connect the two.
为了测试是否成功
So to test if we had done so,
我们再一次
we can take our animals once again
将动物放回蓝盒中
and place them back in the blue box.
再一次 我们唤醒关于蓝盒子的记忆
Again, we had just reactivated the memory of the blue box
同时给小老鼠的足底来几次冲击
while the animal got a couple of mild foot shocks,
突然 老鼠就僵住了
and now the animal suddenly freezes.
它仿佛回忆起曾在这种环境里被轻微惊吓到
It’s as though it’s recalling being mildly shocked in this environment
即使实际上从未发生过
even though that never actually happened.
由此错误记忆就生成了
So it formed a false memory,
专业地讲就是 它错误的
because it’s falsely fearing an environment
对一种环境产生恐惧
where, technically speaking,
而事实上从未发生过任何不好的事情
nothing bad actually happened to it.
刘旭:到现在为止 我们仅仅是在讨论
XL: So, so far we are only talking about
这个光控开关的“开启”功能
this light-controlled ‘on’ switch.
事实上 我们的光控开关还有“关闭”功能
In fact, we also have a light-controlled ‘off’ switch,
不难想象
and it’s very easy to imagine that
有了这个光控“关闭’开关
by installing this light-controlled ‘off’ switch,
我们也可以随时随地关闭一段记忆
we can also turn off a memory, any time, anywhere.
所以今天我们所讨论的研究
So everything we’ve been talking about today
都是基于神经科学的一条哲学原则
is based on this philosophically charged principle of neuroscience
即大脑虽然看似神秘
that the mind, with its seemingly mysterious properties,
但其实也是由可以被我们所调控的物质基础所组成的
is actually made of physical stuff that we can tinker with.
史蒂夫:从我的角度来说
SR: And for me personally,
我所看到的是一个只要我们愿意就可以
I see a world where we can reactivate
激活任何一段记忆的世界
any kind of memory that we’d like.
同时我们也可以消除不想要的记忆
I also see a world where we can erase unwanted memories.
甚至还可以基于一段事实
Now, I even see a world where editing memories
去改变这段记忆
is something of a reality,
因为我们生活在一个可以从科幻小说中
because we’re living in a time where it’s possible
提取研究方向
to pluck questions from the tree of science fiction
并可以将其落地变为现实可能的时代中
and to ground them in experimental reality.
刘旭:如今 全世界的科研人员
XL: Nowadays, people in the lab
和其它工作者
and people in other groups all over the world
都在用相似的方法来激活和改写各种记忆
are using similar methods to activate or edit memories,
无论是旧的记忆 新的记忆 积极的或消极的
whether that’s old or new, positive or negative,
这样我们便能够更好地理解
all sorts of memories so that we can understand
记忆的运作
how memory works.
史蒂夫:例如 我们实验室的一个研究小组
SR: For example, one group in our lab
发现了生成恐惧记忆的相关脑细胞
was able to find the brain cells that make up a fear memory
并使它们产生愉快记忆
and converted them into a pleasurable memory, just like that.
这也就是我所说的改变这种过程
That’s exactly what I mean about editing these kinds of processes.
我们实验室的一名研究人员甚至能够对雄性老鼠激活
Now one dude in lab was even able to reactivate
本存在于雌性老鼠的记忆
memories of female mice in male mice,
据说这是一段相当愉快的经历
which rumor has it is a pleasurable experience.
刘旭:不错 我们正生活在一个令人振奋的时刻
XL: Indeed, we are living in a very exciting moment
在这里科学发展没有任何外在限制
where science doesn’t have any arbitrary speed limits
它只为我们的想象力所缚
but is only bound by our own imagination.
史蒂夫:最后 我们要如何解决这一切?
SR: And finally, what do we make of all this?
怎样继续推进这项技术?
How do we push this technology forward?
这些问题不该仅仅
These are the questions that should not remain
留存在实验室
just inside the lab,
今天演讲的一个目的就是
and so one goal of today’s talk was to bring everybody
告诉大家在神经科学领域
up to speed with the kind of stuff that’s possible
这种事件发生的可能性
in modern neuroscience,
但同样重要的是
but now, just as importantly,
我们想鼓动每个人都加入到这场交流中
to actively engage everybody in this conversation.
让我们像一个团队那样思考一下这一切意味着什么
So let’s think together as a team about what this all means
又该何去何从?
and where we can and should go from here,
因为刘旭和我都认为
because Xu and I think we all have
有一些非常重要的决定在前方等着我们
some really big decisions ahead of us.
谢谢大家 刘旭:谢谢各位
Thank you. XL: Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

重新唤醒丢失的记忆?改变记忆?一切都将成为可能

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

survivor

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXo3qA9V3eI

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