未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

霍金的茸毛黑洞理论

Stephen Hawking's Final Theory on Black Holes

感谢谷歌科学文档App
We want to thank Google’s science journal app
对PBS数字工作室的支持
for supporting PBS Digital Studios.
黑洞 真的不可思议
Black holes they’re weird.
在最近一篇关于黑洞的论文中
In a recent paper about them seems to me to
最让我意料之外的是 黑洞可能被茸毛覆盖着
be the strangest one yet black holes might be covered in hair
我是戴安娜 欢迎收看物理女孩
I’m Diana you’re watching physics girl
好久没有制作 YouTube 视频了
It’s been a while since I made a YouTube video.
希望你已经准备好和我一起
So I hope you’re ready for me to
探索令人激动的宇宙奥秘
get excited about space stuff
我们开始吧
Let’s get started so
理论物理学家的代表 史蒂芬·霍金 在2018年逝世
iconic theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking may have passed away in
但是他生前写的论文
2018 but papers he wrote are
在他死后还在不断发表出来
still coming out after his death
十月份发布的最新论文
His latest paper released in October
论证了黑洞可能是被类似软毛的物质覆盖着
argues that black holes might be covered in soft hair
他这是什么意思?
What does he mean by that
我会在视频的最后为你揭晓答案
We’re gon na get there by the end of this video
但是首先我们要知道黑洞到底是什么
but first we’re gonna understand what the heck a black hole is
我们将用一个又酷又不可思议的演示
by doing a cool weird demo
来直观地展示出为什么你不能逃出黑洞
that shows us intuitively why you cannot escape a black hole
根据爱因斯坦的相对论
According to Einstein’s theory of relativity
任何给定物体的引力与其密度成正比
the gravity of any given object is proportional to its density
因此 如果一个物体密度足够高
So if an object is dense enough
那么任何靠它太近的东西都无法逃脱
then nothing that gets too close can ever escape
无论是什么 都逃脱不了
no matter what nothing
甚至连光都不能从超高密度的物体中逃脱
not even light can escape from an ultra dense object
所以我们称它为黑洞
so we would call that a black hole
此外 我们可不可以花时间欣赏一下这个黑洞
Also can we just take a moment to admire this black hole
这是我了不起的动画师做的
My incredible animator made this
这不是影视素材
This isn’t stock footage
这是物理女孩制作的黑洞 哟
this is a physics girl black hole yo
就这样吧
That’s all. Now
现在 根据没有任何东西能逃脱
from the explanation of nothing being able to escape
黑洞引力的解释
the gravity of a black hole
你可能会认为万有引力是一种牵引力
you might assume that gravity is a pulling force
不只你一个人这样是想的
and you’d be in good company
艾萨克·牛顿爵士在17世纪也是这样想的
Sir Isaac Newton thought the same thing back in the 1600s
他注意到 当事物运动时 往往呈直线运动
he noticed that when things move they tend to move straight
除非有外力作用于它们 并改变它们的路线
unless a force acts on them and curves their path
外力如风或 来自牛顿爵士一踹
a force like wind or a kick from Sir Isaac Newton
然后 牛顿注意到万有引力也会使事物向下弯曲
Newton then noticed that gravity also curves the path of things downwards
所以他得出结论 万有引力一定是一种力
so he concluded that gravity must be a force
爱因斯坦有不同的想法
Einstein thought differently
他察觉到电梯引起的一种现象
he noticed a thing with an elevator
有一刻他意识到太空中的电梯加速上升时
there was a moment he realized an elevator out in space
会起到和地球上的万有引力一样的作用
accelerating up would act the same as gravity here on earth
大致来说 将万有引力视为一种力的观点是有问题的
Basically there was a problem with our theory of gravity as a force
那什么是万有引力呢
So what is gravity then
爱因斯坦猜想如果万有引力不是一个力
Well Einstein wondered what if gravity isn’t a force
而球在空中飞过所呈的弯曲的轨迹
but the curved trajectory of a ball flying through the air
实际上是直线
It’s actually straight
我必须先提前抱歉
I’m gonna have to apologize In advance
因为下面我要展示的实验曾经有一点点让我费解
because the demo I’m gonna show you broke my brain just a little bit
假设你住在赤道附近 然后你开始向东走
pretend you live near the equator and you start walking East
尽最大可能沿你的初始路径走直线
Trying to walk as straight as possible on your initial path
你可能认为你的路径会与赤道保持平行
you might think that you’d keep walking parallel to the equator
且永远走不到赤道 对吧 嗯
and never hit it. Right well
试试在地球仪上检验一下 像这样
try testing this on a globe try it like this
将一张纸的边缘沿着地球仪上的线压下去
line up the edge of a piece of paper
像这样 使它与一条纬度线平行
so it’s parallel with a latitude line and
然后继续笔直的压向它
and then keep pushing it down straight
模拟出你直行的轨迹
to simulate your straight path
它实际上最终会与赤道相交
and it’ll actually end up intersecting with the equator
什么
what
其实如果你在纸上描出
in fact if you draw the latitude line
你刚开始选的那条纬度线
you start it on on your paper
然后把纸铺平 这条轨迹线也会是弯曲的
and then flatten out the paper that path would look curved as well
所以 你的行走路线实际上是弯的
so your path actually curves
因为虽然你可能在走直线
because while you may be walking straight
但你脚下地表不是平的
the earth you’re walking on is not flat
无论侧边栏里的视频跟你说什么
No matter what any of those videos in the sidebar may tell you
这就是爱因斯坦提出的 万有引力不是一个力
That’s what Einstein proposed that gravity is not a force
而是引力场中的一个物体弯曲面
but an object curves in a gravitational field
出于同样原因 你直行的轨迹不是直的
for the exact same reason that your straight walking path ain’t straight
当你在非平面物体上直线移动的时候
Gravity is what happens
是万有引力作用出来的情况
when you’re moving straight on a non flat thing
只是在万有引力的情况下 那非平面不是地球
Only in the case of gravity that non flat thing isn’t the globe
是时空本身和时间
It’s space itself and time
这就对了 这就是宇宙的构造
That’s right! the fabric of the universe
大质量会使时空弯曲
Space-time is curved by large masses
就像地球表面呈曲线一样
just like the Earth’s surface is curved
好 我们带着这个想法回到黑洞
So let’s bring it back to black holes
看吧 无法回避黑洞
See they’re inescapable
当一个物体的密度逐渐变大
As an object gets denser and denser
运行在它周围的物体的轨迹线会越来越弯曲
the stuff moving near it will take curvier and curvier paths
当到达黑洞的密度水平时
And when you get to black hole level dense
物体的运行轨迹会极度弯曲
the path of an object takes gets so curved
永远无法从黑洞中走出来
It’ll never ever lead back out of the black hole
然后就消失了 永远
and then it’s gone forever
无影无踪 连封感谢信也没有 真没礼貌
without a trace not even a thank you note road
只是这不完全正确 物体并没有完全地消失
Except it’s not quite true that an object is completely gone
现在我们请出茸毛
and that’s where the hair comes in
很遗憾 虽然这个高密度黑黑的毛茸茸的大空间体听起来很可爱
Now unfortunately while a big dense fuzzy black space object sounds adorable
但它只是霍金作的一个隐喻
Stephen Hawking was only using hair as a metaphor
形容那些在物体掉进黑洞时
for the stuff that gets left behind
被留在后面的事物
when objects fall into a black hole
那叫茸毛干啥
Why call it hair,
好吧 设想太空中的一切是一堆
Well imagine everything in space is a bunch of
猜猜是谁的人物
Guess Who characters
很容易猜出他们都是谁
It’s easy to tell them apart
因为他们都有自己的特色和独特的发型
because they have their own distinguishing features and unique hairstyles
黑洞的情况则不是这样
Black holes on the other hand
只有很少的可区别的特质
only have a few distinguishing characteristics
你大概能猜到它们了
you may be able to guess some of them
质量 电荷和角动量
Mass electric charge and angular momentum
这些几乎就是粒子自旋所带的属性
That’s how much it’s spin has
除此之外 只剩莫可名状的 光秃秃一片
other than that they’re almost totally nondescript and bald
所以 当独特的可区分的对象
So when unique distinguishing objects
如星星之类的 或者马修·麦康纳
like star stuff or Matthew McConaughey
掉进黑洞 他们就消失了
fall into a black hole they disappear
留下一个稍稍大一点
leaving behind a slightly more massive
但仍然完美的寸草不生的黑洞
but still perfectly bald black hole
那些物体所拥有的一切特点
Everything unique about those objects
似乎都消失了 无影无踪 噗
is seemingly gone disappeared poof
几乎就像黑洞们在吸食着宇宙中的一切个性
almost as if black holes are sucking personality out of the universe
夺走了我们的马修·麦康纳的秀发
depriving us of Matthew McConaughey’s beautiful locks
但事情是这样的 量子力学的基本理念之一
but here’s the thing one of the fundamental ideas of quantum mechanics
是信息是无法被毁灭的
is that information cannot be destroyed
它可以变成两种不同形式 但就是不能被摧毁
it can be changed in two different forms but it cannot be destroyed
所以如果黑洞真的在消灭独特的信息的话
So if black holes really are destroying distinctive information
那么它们是在违背物理基本定律
then they are violating the fundamental laws of physics
正如我们所知
as we know them
黑洞理论有一个内在的矛盾
the theory of black holes has a built-in contradiction
被称为黑洞信息悖论
it’s known as the black hole information paradox
因此 为了尝试解开这个悖论
So to try and resolve this paradox
在这篇2018年的论文中 霍金和合著者提出
in that 2018 paper Hawking and his co-authors proposed
黑洞实际上并没有销毁
that black holes don’t actually destroy the information
落入其中的独特事物的信息
of distinctive stuff that falls into them
相反 他们提出了一个流程
but instead they proposed a process
这些还存在宇宙中的信息
where the information sticks around in the universe
会成为黑洞边界上的光子
as photons on the boundary of the black hole
也就是成为黑洞视界线的一部分
known as its event horizon
基本上来说 当马修·麦康纳陷入黑洞时
Basically as Matthew McConaughey is falling into the black hole
他还将能量非常低的粒子沉积在
he’s also depositing really low energy particles
黑洞视界线上
onto the black hole’s event horizon
在黑洞上留下毛茸茸的模糊的边缘
Leaving behind a fuzzy edge of hair on a black hole
“软”一词用于描述低能粒子
the word soft is used to describe the low energy particles
以区别于具有更多能量的硬粒子
to distinguish them from hard particles which just have more energy
由此 一个带有软毛的黑洞理论产生了
hence a theory of black holes with soft hair
霍金和他的合作者认为 这些软毛光子
Hawking and his collaborators think that these soft hair photons
可能是宇宙用来保存那些
maybe where the universe preserves its information
落入黑洞中的物体的信息的地方
from the stuff that falls into a black hole
所以 信息并没有被毁坏
So the information is not destroyed
只是悬在外面的边缘上
it just hangs out there on the edge
这大致就是霍金和他的合作者如何解释
And that is roughly how Hawking and his collaborators think
这些软毛的存在可以解决信息悖论的
that the existence of these soft hairs could solve the information paradox
这当然还有很多数学运算
there’s of course a lot of math, too
也欢迎虐待你自己
which you are welcome to treat yourself, too
现在是税季 就当休息了
it’s tax season you deserve a break
只是要清楚 这些问题远未得到解答
just to be clear these questions are far from answered
围绕黑洞的大部分研究都是理论上的
most of the research around black holes is theoretical
记住我们从来没有真正看到过黑洞
remember we’ve never actually even seen a black hole
我们只是间接地观察到了它们的存在
we’ve only indirectly observed their existence
但是尽管像软毛学说这样的理论
but while theories like this the soft hair theories
可以帮助解决信息悖论
could help solve the information paradox
他们不是最后的定论 这就是科学被完成的方式
they’re not the final say and that’s how science is done
由前人一点一点的积累成我们现在所知的科学
in bits and pieces that add to science as we know it
虽然也有例外
sometimes don’t
我认为斯蒂芬·霍金会很荣幸知道
I think Stephen Hawking would be honored to know that
还有和你一样的人 仍在绞尽脑汁研究他的理论
people like you are still wrestling with his theories
在霍金过世后 能够帮助传播他的学术研究
I’m honored to be able to help keep his scholarship alive
我倍感荣幸
after his passing
非常感谢观看
so thanks so much for watching and
还有学物理真快乐 即使内容真的很深奥
Happy physics thing even on the real deep stuff
我要感谢谷歌对 PBS 数字工作室的支持
I’d like to thank Google for supporting PBS Digital Studios
他们的移动应用科学期刊可以让你做笔记
their mobile apps science journal allows you to take notes
也可以记录光 动作 声音等科学现象
But also to record scientific phenomena like light motion sound
都可以在您的手机或平板或Chromebook上完成
all on your mobile phone or tablet or Chromebook
关于活动的想法 还有关于科学期刊的更多信息
for activity ideas but also more information about science journal
请访问G.CEO/sciencejournal
go to G dot CEO slash science journal
或使用详情栏中的链接
or use the link in the description
它是相同的链接 但
It’s the same link but…
你不必点击它 我的意思是 你可以点击
you don’t have to click it I mean you can click it
你不必输入它
you don’t have to type it
就到这吧 谢谢!
That’s all thank you

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

霍金关于黑洞的最新理论及对信息悖论的解答

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

東奇

审核员

审核员_BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SdySHadrYAA

相关推荐