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海绵城市

Sponge cities: a solarpunk future by 2030 | Future Explored by Freethink

Could we build incredible cities
只通过模仿大自然已经做的事
that act like giant sponges and save thousands of lives,
我们能打造一座像巨大海绵般运行的城市
all by just copying what nature does already?
并拯救成千上万的生命吗?
Let’s explore that.
我们来探讨一下
(upbeat music)
(背景乐)
So, here’s the problem:
现在有个问题:
Let’s say that it rains a lot,
假如下了倾盆大雨
and you live in a city that’s covered in concrete streets and buildings
而你住在街道和建筑都以混凝土
and other hard surfaces
和其他坚硬外壳覆盖的城市
where all that rainwater has nowhere to go,
雨水无处可去
so instead of seeping into the ground
此时它不像在森林或草地一样
like it would in a forest or a grassland,
能从地表下渗
it just kind of flows,
而是变成流水
which means it can easily overwhelm city drain systems
这意味着雨水能轻易淹没城市排水系统
and cause flooding,
导致洪水
from just small, annoying floods
从使通勤变得有点困难的
that make getting to work a little bit harder,
烦人的暴雨积水
all the way to huge floods that cost millions
一直发展到造成数百万
or even billions of dollars in damages.
甚至数十亿的经济损失的大洪流
And all of those manmade structures that we use
我们用的所有人造设施
like concrete gutters and drainage tunnels,
像混凝土排水沟和排水隧道
they’re all known as gray infrastructure, by the way.
顺便说说 它们其实都称灰色基础设施
Just remember that for later.
记住它 等会讲
Now, since 1995, flooding has killed over 157,000 people,
自1995年 洪水已害死超157000人
and it’s the leading natural disaster around the world.
它也是世界上主要的自然灾害
And seeing as climate change is turning our weather system
鉴于气候变化使天气系统
a little bit loopy,
变得不太规律
we’re gonna be facing a lot more extreme weather events in the future,
未来我们将面临更多极端天气事件
including more of that flooding,
包括更多的洪水
which is actually something
该结论是预先目睹
we got a sneak peek of just last year in 2021;
上年的洪水灾害后得出的
with floods across Europe that destroyed entire villages,
上年欧洲的洪水摧毁了整个村落
and parts of China experiencing
而中国的部分地区也
once in a millennia rainfall and flooding.
遭受了千年一遇的强降雨与洪水
I combine that with the fact that by 2050
现在 我结合到2050年
the world’s population living in cities
世界城市人口
is expected to almost double,
预计增长到近目前的两倍的事实
we’ve gotta figure something out.
我们得想法子解决问题了
So, what if we looked to nature for the solution?
倘若我们从自然寻找解决措施会怎样呢?
Instead of fighting against big old Mother Nature
我们不用非自然的手段
with unnatural solutions,
来战胜大自然
what if we could just work with it?
若与自然共生效果又怎样?
And what if I told you there’s an idea that does just that?
如果我告诉你现在就有这样的方法呢?
And it’s called ‘sponge cities.’
它就叫“海绵城市”
Here’s how they work:
这是工作原理:
Sponge cities use a lot of green architecture principles
海绵城市运用许多绿色建筑原则
to create spaces that are designed to absorb water
来打造像海绵一样
just like a sponge.
能吸水的空间
To do this, they use things like porous pavements and roads,
为此 建造者采用多孔透水的铺路面
tree planting, roofs that are covered in plants and soil
树植 以及有储水的植物以及土壤
that retain water,
覆盖的天台
huge green spaces filled with interconnected waterways,
布满交叉的水道 水槽和池塘的
channels, and ponds,
巨大绿色空间
and also areas that act like things
以及在水少时可当公园
like parks when it’s dry, but wetlands
在河流泛滥时却是湿地
when rivers just need a little bit of extra space to overflow—
的这一类地区
which is exactly how wetlands are supposed to work
而这也是我们人类
before they’re paved over and turned into cities
在湿地上铺路建城之前
in the first place.
湿地的原有工作原理
The system passively absorbs flood water
这套系统利用其海绵状结构
with its sponge-like structure.
能自动吸收洪水
And when this is combined with better gray infrastructure
而当它与更好的灰色基础设施
drain systems,
即排水系统结合时
you can create cities that can handle almost four times
雨水处理量几乎是普通城市四倍的城市
the amount of rainwater than normal cities are able to,
就打造好啦
and they can reduce flooding by around 50%.
这类城市能减少约一半的洪水灾害
But it also comes with a heap of other benefits.
并且还有一堆好处
The water that’s absorbed is also passively cleaned
被吸收的水也同时被净化
and can be slowly collected and stored away
在这过程中被收集储藏
for use by the cities,
供城市使用
which is really important
鉴于城市地区
seeing as urban areas actually struggle
对清洁水源供应的困难
with having access to clean water supplies.
这个用途的确很重要
Biodiversity is also increased
生物多样性也有所增加
with whole ecosystems flourishing within cities
因为和城市已有的野生动物一起
alongside the human wildlife that already lives there.
城市中的生态系统变得更加繁荣
And it can also have a massive impact
而这也对所谓的热岛效应
on what’s called the ‘Heat Island Effect,’
产生了巨大的影响
which is where cities generally get really hot,
该效应是指 城市通常都会变热
because that same infrastructure that can’t absorb water
因为 不能吸水的灰色基础设施
turns out to be really good at absorbing heat.
事实证明具有很好的吸热性
So the extra plants and green surfaces in a sponge city
所以海绵城市里另加的绿植和绿地
can keep cities cooler.
能让城市更加凉爽
And then on top of all of that,
而最重要的是
there’s also the huge impact that more green spaces have
更多的绿色空间也能很大程度上
on improving mental health and just overall well-being.
提升居民的心理健康和整体幸福感
So, if the idea is so good, where are all the sponge cities?
既然海绵城市这么好 那它们现在在哪呢?
Well, the idea of them was really pushed
海绵城市这个主意
by a Chinese architect called Professor Kongjian Yu,
是由中国的建筑师 俞孔坚教授提出的
who is inspired from old Chinese irrigation systems
他从中国古代 叫做鱼塘模式
called ‘mulberry fish ponds’—
的系统中得到启发
and he’s been bringing them to life for decades.
而他本人已实施该计划数十年
China already has 30 sponge city projects
中国现已有正在实施的
that it’s working on right now,
30个海绵城市项目
that aims to be completed by 2030,
计划到2030年完成
that’ll soak up and reuse 70% of urban rainfall.
将吸收并重复利用城市70%的降雨
And on the other side of the world,
而在世界另一端
there are places like Rummelsberg in East Berlin,
有的地方像东柏林的拉梅尔斯堡
which is an actual large scale example of a sponge city
现已成为拥有绿色天台类设施的
that has things like green roofs.
大规模海绵城市
And instead of storm sewer systems,
作为雨水排水系统的替代
they have these green channels called ‘swales’
这些地方也有叫做“洼地”的绿色设施
that let rainwater actually get into the ground
“洼地”让雨水下渗进地面
And now places like the U.S. and Indonesia
如今 像美国和印度尼西亚这些地方
are looking to adopt these ideas as well.
也在打算采用这些新概念
And it’s not surprising all of these places wanna give it a try.
这些地区都努力打造海绵城市 这并不奇怪
I mean, it leads to better lives
因为它不仅能预防严重的洪涝
while it’s also protecting against a really serious threat.
也能带给居民更好的生活
So it seems to me like a win-win all around.
因此从各方面看 这似乎是个双赢的局面
So obviously, I’ve gotta ask, “What’s the catch?”
显然 我还是会问:“有什么弊端?”
Well, to create a sponge city
打造一个海绵城市
either from scratch or retrofitting an existing city,
不管从头打造还是翻新现有的城市
you’ve gotta commit like 100%,
你都需要全身心投入
because it relies on all of these different systems
因为建海绵城市要靠
of green buildings and green spaces
绿色建筑和绿色空间的不同系统
and all of that other stuff actually working together
与其他事物共同配合
to actually stop flooding from wrecking a city.
才能真正避免洪水摧毁城市
And it’s also expensive.
而且建造花费昂贵
Like, look at China’s project,
拿中国的项目举例
their massive aim of 30 sponge cities
其建造30个海绵城市的大目标
is gonna cost at least one trillion U.S. dollars nationwide,
将在全国范围内花费至少一万亿美元
which is billions of dollars
每个海绵城市
for the individual cities themselves.
将花费数十亿美元
And this is over a period of like 10 or more years.
建设的过程将持续十年或更久
So to make all of the systems work together properly,
所以要让不同系统之间好好配合
you first need proper commitment to investing
你首先需要保证
that massive amount of money.
有足够大的资金投入
And then you need a bunch of different government units
接着还需要很多不同的政府部门
to collaborate properly,
一起好好合作
which you can probably guess
听到这 你也许就知道
isn’t the easiest thing to achieve.
建海绵城市并不容易
And Zhengzhou in China is a beautiful example of that.
郑州的实践就是一个很好的例子
that it’s one of china’s front runners in their sponge city projects
它是中国在海绵城市项目上的领跑者
but in 2021, when that freak, once-in-a-millennia rain hit,
但在2021年 千年一遇的大暴雨降临
it couldn’t cope.
它却无法应付
But that doesn’t mean that sponge cities don’t work,
可这并不意味着海绵城市没有用
because Zhengzhou is meant to be spending
因为郑州将花费
billions of dollars on becoming a sponge city.
数十亿美元在海绵城市建设上
But so far, it’s only spent millions,
但目前 它只花了几百万
which means it hasn’t really done enough yet
也就是说 它现在还没有到
to see the impact of the sponge city idea.
能检验海绵城市效果的地步
But something it did prove is
但它却能证明
that floods are really expensive.
洪涝损失巨大
Like if you were to hand an invoice
如果你要向政府部门
over to the government units for the cost of the flood,
上交洪水带来损失的清单
it would show that the overall damage from the floods
它将显示 洪水带来的全部损失
was worth as much as the estimated total cost
高达打造海绵城市
of turning it into a sponge city.
所预估的总花费
And that’s just for one flood.
而这仅仅只是一场洪水
So, it would probably have just been cheaper
所以如果从最开始
if they had just gone full throttle
就尽可能快地建好海绵城市
with the project from day one.
损失的资金还会更少
And that is a key lesson.
洪水让人们知道了这个教训
Even if these projects are expensive,
尽管这些项目开销巨大
they’re gonna prevent bad stuff from happening
它们也能预防
that can be even more expensive, and even deadly.
损失更大且更严重的灾难
Obviously, the best solution for climate change
显然 对气候变化
and things like flooding that’ll come with it
及其引起的如洪水等灾害最好的办法
is to just stop it and prevent it in the first place.
就是在最开始进行遏制和预防
But honestly, we might not do enough quick enough
但实话说 我们也许不能
for that to actually happen.
够快够充分地做好预防工作
So we do need to think about ways that we can adapt
所以我们很需要想好
to the things that are probably coming our way.
如何应对即将来临的灾害
So sponge cities show us that
因此 海绵城市告诉我们
we’ve still got a lot to learn about how we create our urban spaces,
在如何打造城市空间上 我们还有很多要学
and it shows that nature might have the solutions
它也告诉我们 大自然中也许有
that we are looking for,
我们要找的对未知问题
even for problems we didn’t know we could solve.
的解决方法
But for a lot of solutions,
但从很多的策略中
we’ve gotta commit fully to actually see the results,
我们需要实实在在地看见成效
which is a great lesson.
这也是很重要的经验
But if I’m being honest,
但实话实说
these sponge cities just look cool as hell
居住在这些海绵城市
to live in anyway.
简直酷毙了
So I say, let’s just build as many of them as possible.
所以我认为 我们需尽力建更多海绵城市
(upbeat music)
(背景乐)

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视频概述

气候变化导致了一系列的自然灾害,其中包括洪涝灾害。这些灾害给我们带来了巨大的损失,而我们要怎么应对这些灾害呢?如果与自然共生,效果又会怎样呢? 本视频基于该思路,给我们介绍了海绵城市。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

eadahhow

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtFxmrb16co

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