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SpaceX殖民火星计划!

SpaceX Plans to Colonize Mars!

如果你想退休的时候去火星休假那么你的梦想有可能会实现
If you’ve always wanted to retire to Mars, your dreams just got a little more realistic.
本周二 SpaceX公司宣布了移民火星的计划
On Tuesday, SpaceX announced its plans to colonize Mars!
当NASA正打算在2030年送一些宇航员拜访火星时 SpaceX公司的CEO伊隆.马斯克
While NASA is planning to send a few astronauts to visit Mars in the 2030s, SpaceX CEO Elon
宣布他的公司会在下个十年间把人送上那颗红色星球
Musk announced that his company will send people to the Red Planet within the next decade.
下面是他的计划:
Here’s their plan:
大约有100个人会被送到一个新的SpaceX发射系统进行发射升空 这个系统叫做
A crew of about a hundred people will blast off on a new SpaceX launch system called the
星际间运输系统 包括一个助推器和一个乘客舱
Interplanetary Transportation System, which consists of a booster and a crew capsule.
它会在几年之内投产
It’s set to go into production within the next few years.
助推器会由52个猛禽引擎提供能量 引擎使用甲烷和氧气作为燃料
The booster is powered by forty-two Raptor engines and uses methane and oxygen for fuel.
猛禽引擎提供的能量是SpaceX现在用的梅林引擎的三倍 并且
The Raptor engine is three times more powerful than SpaceX’s current engine, Merlin, and
刚刚在周一完成第一次点火测试
completed its first firing test on Monday.
一旦进入太空 助推器和乘客舱会分离
Once in space, the booster and crew capsule will separate.
助推器会回到地球在它发射的地方着陆:SpaceX的发射台
The booster will return to Earth, landing back where it started: On the launch pad SpaceX
从2013年租用至今–它同样也是阿波罗11号曾经使用的地方 助推器的第一使命
has been renting since 2013 — the same one used by Apollo 11, the first mission to land
就是把人送上月球
humans on the moon.
当载人航天器在轨道上时一个装满另外燃料的推进箱会
While the crewed spacecraft hangs out in orbit, a propellant tanker filled with extra fuel
将燃料装载进助推器
will be loaded onto the booster.
然后 它就会再次发射
Then, it’ll blast off again.
一旦进入轨道 推进箱会在指定地点和乘客航天器会合为其填充燃料 然后
Once in orbit, the tanker will rendezvous with the crewed spacecraft to fuel it, then
将会再一次返回地球
will return to Earth again.
在其升空之前 油轮将为航天器加油
The tanker will make anywhere between three and five refueling trips before the spacecraft
三到五次
is ready to go.
这似乎又需要增加几个步骤但是通过轨道燃料 运输系统可以
This may seems adding extra steps, but by fueling in orbit, the transport system can
使用小型二级火箭代替三级火箭这样就能做的更大
use a smaller two-stage rocket instead of a three-stage one that would have to be much
且经费更少
bigger and cost a lot more money.
加一次燃料 航天器抵达火星的巡航速度就能
Once it’s fueled, the spacecraft will head off to Mars, reaching a cruising speed of
超过十万千米每小时
more than 100,000 kilometers per hour.
大约四个月后 航天器将使用推进器减速后在火星
Around four months later, the spacecraft will land on Mars, using thrusters for a slow,
控制着陆
controlled landing.
如果能做到那将是很好的但SpaceX并不打算用这方法完成航行
It’ll be nice to have made it, but SpaceX doesn’t plan to make these trips one-way.
当航天器准备离开时燃料还留在火星表面呢
When the craft is to ready to leave, it’ll refuel on the Martian surface!
因为火星有大量的二氧化碳大气层和固态水它们会
Since Mars has a mainly carbon dioxide atmosphere and a lot of water ice, they’ll break down
被推进器中的小型植物分解为原料然后制作更多的甲烷氧气燃料去
these materials with a small propellant plant and create more methane and oxygen fuel to
推动航天器
power the craft.
而且火星的引力场比地球弱他们无须使用大型升压机去
And because Mars has much weaker gravity than Earth, they won’t need a big booster to
将其送入轨道
get it into orbit.
第一个火星载人飞船将在2023年运行并最终
The first manned flight to Mars could be as early as 2023, and eventually, Musk wants
发射成百上千艘飞船去建立一个百万人的殖民地
to send hundreds or even thousands of ships to build a colony of up to a million people.
当然 SpaceX公司需要在其能送任何人去火星之前
Of course, there are all kinds of challenges SpaceX needs to overcome before they can send
克服众多的挑战
/anyone/ to Mars.
首先 他们需要让发射系统运行包括着陆
For one thing, they have to get the launch system to work — including all those landings
和返航时的轨道燃料添加
and re-launches to refuel in orbit.
他们还需要在火星上建造推进燃料的工厂这样才能载人返航
They’ll also need to build that propellant plant on Mars so they can send people home.
所以在把想法实现之前他们需要做很多事
So there’s a lot that still needs to be done before any of this can become a reality.
但终有一天 你能坐着SpaceX公司的飞船前往火星旅行
But someday, you might be able to book a trip to Mars on a SpaceX ship.
而且他们的计划不止于火星 实际上航行系统也可以使用于
And they don’t plan to stop with Mars — eventually, the Transport System could also be used to
访问木星的卫星 例如木卫二
visit Jupiter’s moons, like Europa.
NASA在关于木卫二的演说中宣布他们发现了关于其表面的水羽流
Speaking of Europa, NASA announced Monday that they’ve found new evidence for water
的证据
plumes on its surface!
木卫二比我们的月球小一点但它有一个海洋 那是
Europa is a little smaller than our Moon, but it has an ocean that holds twice the amount
地球海洋总水量的两倍
of water as all the oceans on Earth combined.
这是在太阳系中除地球外最适合生命的地方
It’s one of the most life-friendly places in our solar system, besides Earth.
问题是 那海洋被几千米厚的冰层覆盖
Problem is, that ocean is covered in a sheet of ice that’s kilometers thick.
NASA希望有一天能在木卫二表面采集海洋样本但那需要通过
NASA hopes to someday land on Europa and takes samples from its ocean, but to get through
冰层 航天器将要携带贵重的钻孔器材
the ice, that spacecraft would have to carry heavy, expensive drilling equipment.
而贵重的器材意味着更多的火箭燃料也就意味着这任务需要更多经费
And heavy equipment means more rocket fuel, which means an even more expensive mission.
但在2012年 NASA观测到200千米高的水羽流喷发在木卫二的
But in 2012, NASA observed water plumes erupting more than 200 kilometers high near Europa’s
南极附近
south pole.
不幸的是 数据前后矛盾他们需要更多的研究去弄明白
Unfortunately, the data seemed inconsistent, and they needed more research to figure out
事情的真实性
exactly what they were seeing.
如果那些羽流的确存在那么我们无须带任何钻孔设备就能去到木卫二的
If these plumes did exist, though, we wouldn’t need any drilling equipment to get to Europa’s
海洋
ocean.
我们需要做的是飞到它的表面并将一个机器人投入水羽流中!
All we’d need to do is fly by the surface and drop a robot in a plume!
一次前往木卫二的任务就变得合理–也更现实
A mission to Europa would become much more affordable — and realistic.
星期五 NASA宣布他们找到了更多关于羽流存在的证据
And on Monday, NASA announced they’ve found more evidence these plumes really do exist!
当木卫二通过木星前方时 调查小组使用哈勃太空望远镜
The research team used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe Europa as it passed in front of
观测它
Jupiter.
他们不仅看到了羽流还是在2012年发现的同一地点
Not only did they see plumes, but they saw them in the same place the 2012 team did,
木卫二南极附近
down near Europa’s south pole.
数据难以确定的原因之一是羽流运行的
One of the reasons the data has been so hard to confirm is because the plumes don’t operate
不定期性
on a regular schedule.
在该团队在木卫二上观测的十次羽流活动里他们只看见了三次
Of the 10 times the team observed Europa looking for plumes, they only saw them three times.
NASA将继续使用哈勃对羽流进行观测并持续收集数据
NASA will keep observing the plumes using Hubble, and continue collecting data with
詹姆斯韦伯太空望远镜将在2018年发射
the James Webb Space Telescope once it launches in 2018.
而且虽然NASA不准备登陆木卫二一个飞行任务
And even though NASA isn’t ready to land on Europa any time soon, a fly-by mission
已经在初期计划阶段了
is in the early planning stages.
它将在21世纪20年代发射
It would launch in the 2020s.
如果NASA决定将任务提前那需要能够进行一次穿越木卫二
If NASA decides to move forward with the mission, it should be able to fly through one of Europa’s
羽流的飞行并在择机收集样本
plumes and collect a sample if the opportunity arises.
所以 哈勃和韦伯的数据和飞行任务的可能性这看起来似乎
So, between the Hubble and Webb data and the possibility of a flyby mission, it looks like
在未来几年我们将更加了解木卫二
we’ll be learning a lot more about Europa for years to come.
感谢收看SciShow Space视频辑当然也特别感谢你对我们
Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Space News, and thank you especially to our
在Patreon的赞助 没有它我们做不出SciShow Space
patrons on Patreon, who we could not do SciShow Space without.
每周会更新更多的新闻和你未来的太空假期旅行建议
And for more breaking space news every week, and travel tips for your future space vacation,
前往youtube.com/scishowspace订阅
go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe.

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视频概述

SpaceX一直是太空领域的佼佼者。近期,他们开始了殖民火星的计划。这计划能否成功呢?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

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【MR】拾月

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBXmUP3Jq8A

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