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学习中的间隔复习理论 – 译学馆
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学习中的间隔复习理论

Spaced repetition in learning theory

与大部分学生无异 我们可能在考前那晚突击
Like most students, you’ve probably crammedthe night before an exam.
然后发现 效果还不错 甚至非常棒
And after it, you probably did OK or maybe you even did well,
但是在考完试之后
but did you remember any
你真的还记得哪怕一丁点知识么
of what you learned after the exam?
一个有据可证的促进记忆的方法是
One evidence-based way to better remember what you
间隔复习
’ ve learned is through Spaced Repetition,
即 拉开学习新知识或练习新技能的时间间隔
or spacing out your learning and practice of new knowledge or skills.
虽然听起来新奇 但这个观点由来已久
Although this might seem novel, this is hardly a new concept;
它第一次被提出是在1885年
it was first described in 1885
提出者是德国心理学家赫尔曼•艾宾浩斯
by a German psychologist named Herman Ebbinghaus.
工作原理如下
Here’s how it works.
画一下你的记忆力
Say you plot your retention,
或者记忆保持量随时间变化的图
or how much you remember of something, vs. time.
在第0天 你学习新知识
Now you learn that something on day 0.
在不复习的情况下 遗忘曲线会是
Without reviewing it, the “ forgetting curve ” will look
指数型递减曲线
like an exponentially decaying curve,
看起来很可怕
which is kind of scary!
如果你增加时间间隔地复习(积极回忆更好)
If you review (or better yet actively retrieve)the material at increasingly spaced intervals
已学知识
after learning it,
那么 遗忘曲线就会开始变缓 你的记忆
then the forgetting curve starts to flatten out and you ’ ll get a lot
会保持更久
better longer-term retention. Now,
假设我们的目标是在适当的时间回忆材料
the goal here is to review the material at the right time.
那么复习我们即将学习知识
It turns out that the best time to revisit information
的最佳时机就是
that you are trying to learn is
在我们自然状态下即将遗忘的时候
right around the time you would naturallyforget it.
因为遗忘曲线大多遵循指数型曲线
Since forgetting typically follows this exponential curve,
保持记忆的技巧就是
the trick becomes timing your study
按照曲线规划你的学习时间 具体来说
sessions around it. Practically,
适当扩大
this means having more
复习
widely spaced intervals between study times for the
熟悉知识的间隔
material that you are more familiar with,
同时 缩短复习
and shorter intervals between study sessions
不熟的知识的时间间隔
for material that you are less familiar with.
虽然这个策略适用于所有领域的学习
While this strategy would be effective for all fields of study,
但它尤其适用于
it is especially important
医药领域的学生
for students in the medical field,
他们必须记住关键知识和技能
who have to retain key knowledge and skills in order
以对病人负责
to care for their patients.
有点骇人听闻的是
Kind of frighteningly,
一个研究表明 不间隔复习时
one study found that without spaced repetition, after one year
学医的学生一年后会忘记多达33%的知识
medical students forgot up to 33 % of their basic science knowledge,
两年后
and after two years,
高达50%!
more than 50%!
但如果学生或医生使用
But when students and residents applied
间隔复习策略
spaced repetition strategies in their studying, they
他们的知识储备比同伴显著提高
significantly outperform their counterparts,
一些研究表明约提高40%
with some studies showing close to 40 % greater
的学习效率
learning efficiency.
知道这个策略是一方面 但如何运用呢
Knowing about spaced-repetition is one thing,but what about applying it?
学生–尤其是医学院学生–必须记住
Students—especially those in the healthand medical fields—have to remember hundreds
成百上千“比特”的知识和技能
or even thousands of “bits” of knowledgeand skills.
因此 对他们而言
Because of this, it would be incredibly hard
记住每一个信息是极其困难的
for them to keep track of when they should
尤其当每个信息
revisit each piece of information—especially since each bit
都遵循
of information will follow
各自的学习曲线时
its own learning curve.
这就是为什么研究员和软件开发者
This is why researchers and software
一直致力于用电脑算法
developers are using computer algorithms to try to help
帮助学生最优化学习进程
students optimize their studying.
这些算法能够根据你
These algorithms help you learn
对问题的反应来对知识分类 从而高效学习
by sorting information based on your responses to questions—so
即 如果回答错了
if you get a question wrong,
他们会自动将该问题优先 以便重学
they will automatically prioritize that information for repetition
对于那些答对的 则适当减少重复
over the information in questions you answeredcorrectly.
通过这样
In doing this,
这些算法能极大减少学习时间总量
these algorithms can actually reduce your overall study time by making sure
正是通过保证你学习的时间
the time you are spending studying
不会被浪费在
for your exams isn ’ t wasted on studying information
学习已知知识上
that you can already reliably recall.
间隔复习最棒的优点是
One of the best parts of spaced repetition is
表明我们可以通过更高效率
that it suggests that we can gain a lot
而非更长时间 来学习更多知识
by studying smarter, not necessarily longer.
通过更有组织或计划
With just a little more organization or forethought on your part,
你可以学习
you can achieve a whole lot
更多
more.
也就是说间隔复习即
That said, spaced repetition means
让自己恰好
challenging yourself to apply your learning right at the
在即将遗忘的时候学习
point where you ’ re starting to forget it,
这有时候有点儿困难
and that can sometimes be kind of hard! So,
所以你只要知道 如果间隔复习法很吃力
just know that if a spaced repetition regimen feels difficult,
甚至沮丧时
even frustrating,
那可能意味着
that can mean that it ’ s doing
这个方法起作用了
exactly what it ’ s supposed to be doing.
好的 最后一点
Okay one final point.
在类似健康或药物领域 已有知识会因为新发现
In some fields (like health and medicine)certain knowledge may change relatively quickly
而迅速变化
because of new discoveries,
所以 保持知识更新
so it ’ s important to know the right new information, rather
比牢记错误 过时的知识重要的多
than remembering the wrong old informationfor a long time.
这就是为什么你应该保证
That ’ s why you should make sure
你用以间隔复习的方法也可以帮助你
that the tools you use to do the spacing are also designed
日新月异
to help you stay current.
开始学习吧!
Alright timeto get studying.

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视频概述

了解间隔复习理论,转眼忘?不存在的。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

德克萨斯土豆丝

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVf38y07cfk

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