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学习中的间隔复习理论 – 译学馆
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学习中的间隔复习理论

Spaced repetition in learning theory

Like most students, you’ve probably crammed the night before an exam.
与大部分学生无异 我们可能在考前那晚突击
And after it, you probably did OK or maybe you even did well,
然后发现 效果还不错 甚至非常棒
but did you remember any
但是在考完试之后
of what you learned after the exam?
你真的还记得哪怕一丁点知识么
One evidence-based way to better remember what you
一个有据可证的促进记忆的方法是
’ ve learned is through Spaced Repetition,
间隔复习
or spacing out your learning and practice of new knowledge or skills.
即 拉开学习新知识或练习新技能的时间间隔
Although this might seem novel, this is hardly a new concept;
虽然听起来新奇 但这个观点由来已久
it was first described in 1885
它第一次被提出是在1885年
by a German psychologist named Herman Ebbinghaus.
提出者是德国心理学家赫尔曼•艾宾浩斯
Here’s how it works.
工作原理如下
Say you plot your retention,
画一下你的记忆力
or how much you remember of something, vs. time.
或者记忆保持量随时间变化的图
Now you learn that something on day 0.
在第0天 你学习新知识
Without reviewing it, the “ forgetting curve ” will look
在不复习的情况下 遗忘曲线会是
like an exponentially decaying curve,
指数型递减曲线
which is kind of scary!
看起来很可怕
If you review (or better yet actively retrieve) the material at increasingly spaced intervals
如果你增加时间间隔地复习(积极回忆更好)
after learning it,
已学知识
then the forgetting curve starts to flatten out and you ’ ll get a lot
那么 遗忘曲线就会开始变缓 你的记忆
better longer-term retention. Now,
会保持更久
the goal here is to review the material at the right time.
假设我们的目标是在适当的时间回忆材料
It turns out that the best time to revisit information
那么复习我们即将学习知识
that you are trying to learn is
的最佳时机就是
right around the time you would naturally forget it.
在我们自然状态下即将遗忘的时候
Since forgetting typically follows this exponential curve,
因为遗忘曲线大多遵循指数型曲线
the trick becomes timing your study
保持记忆的技巧就是
sessions around it. Practically,
按照曲线规划你的学习时间 具体来说
this means having more
适当扩大
widely spaced intervals between study times for the
复习
material that you are more familiar with,
熟悉知识的间隔
and shorter intervals between study sessions
同时 缩短复习
for material that you are less familiar with.
不熟的知识的时间间隔
While this strategy would be effective for all fields of study,
虽然这个策略适用于所有领域的学习
it is especially important
但它尤其适用于
for students in the medical field,
医药领域的学生
who have to retain key knowledge and skills in order
他们必须记住关键知识和技能
to care for their patients.
以对病人负责
Kind of frighteningly,
有点骇人听闻的是
one study found that without spaced repetition, after one year
一个研究表明 不间隔复习时
medical students forgot up to 33 % of their basic science knowledge,
学医的学生一年后会忘记多达33%的知识
and after two years,
两年后
more than 50%!
高达50%!
But when students and residents applied
但如果学生或医生使用
spaced repetition strategies in their studying, they
间隔复习策略
significantly outperform their counterparts,
他们的知识储备比同伴显著提高
with some studies showing close to 40 % greater
一些研究表明约提高40%
learning efficiency.
的学习效率
Knowing about spaced-repetition is one thing, but what about applying it?
知道这个策略是一方面 但如何运用呢
Students—especially those in the health and medical fields—have to remember hundreds
学生–尤其是医学院学生–必须记住
or even thousands of “bits” of knowledge and skills.
成百上千“比特”的知识和技能
Because of this, it would be incredibly hard
因此 对他们而言
for them to keep track of when they should
记住每一个信息是极其困难的
revisit each piece of information—especially since each bit
尤其当每个信息
of information will follow
都遵循
its own learning curve.
各自的学习曲线时
This is why researchers and software
这就是为什么研究员和软件开发者
developers are using computer algorithms to try to help
一直致力于用电脑算法
students optimize their studying.
帮助学生最优化学习进程
These algorithms help you learn
这些算法能够根据你
by sorting information based on your responses to questions—so
对问题的反应来对知识分类 从而高效学习
if you get a question wrong,
即 如果回答错了
they will automatically prioritize that information for repetition
他们会自动将该问题优先 以便重学
over the information in questions you answered correctly.
对于那些答对的 则适当减少重复
In doing this,
通过这样
these algorithms can actually reduce your overall study time by making sure
这些算法能极大减少学习时间总量
the time you are spending studying
正是通过保证你学习的时间
for your exams isn ’ t wasted on studying information
不会被浪费在
that you can already reliably recall.
学习已知知识上
One of the best parts of spaced repetition is
间隔复习最棒的优点是
that it suggests that we can gain a lot
表明我们可以通过更高效率
by studying smarter, not necessarily longer.
而非更长时间 来学习更多知识
With just a little more organization or forethought on your part,
通过更有组织或计划
you can achieve a whole lot
你可以学习
more.
更多
That said, spaced repetition means
也就是说间隔复习即
challenging yourself to apply your learning right at the
让自己恰好
point where you ’ re starting to forget it,
在即将遗忘的时候学习
and that can sometimes be kind of hard! So,
这有时候有点儿困难
just know that if a spaced repetition regimen feels difficult,
所以你只要知道 如果间隔复习法很吃力
even frustrating,
甚至沮丧时
that can mean that it ’ s doing
那可能意味着
exactly what it ’ s supposed to be doing.
这个方法起作用了
Okay one final point.
好的 最后一点
In some fields (like health and medicine) certain knowledge may change relatively quickly
在类似健康或药物领域 已有知识会因为新发现
because of new discoveries,
而迅速变化
so it ’ s important to know the right new information, rather
所以 保持知识更新
than remembering the wrong old information for a long time.
比牢记错误 过时的知识重要的多
That ’ s why you should make sure
这就是为什么你应该保证
that the tools you use to do the spacing are also designed
你用以间隔复习的方法也可以帮助你
to help you stay current.
日新月异
Alright time to get studying.
开始学习吧!

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视频概述

了解间隔复习理论,转眼忘?不存在的。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

德克萨斯土豆丝

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVf38y07cfk

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