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空间站和美国宇航局的飞碟 – 译学馆
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空间站和美国宇航局的飞碟

Space Station Science and NASA's Flying Saucer

虽然很多人不相信,但国际空间站
A lot of people don’t think of it this way, but the International Space Station is really
确实是个大型轨道科学实验室
a huge orbiting science laboratory.
第39期远征队的3名宇航员在188天的时间里,航行了3000多条轨道
And after 188 days, more than 3,000 orbits, and nearly 130 million kilometers traveled,
总计1.3亿千米的距离之后,重返地球
the three crew members of the space station’s Expedition 39 are back on Earth — and they
他们有了很多科学发现。
have a lot of science to share.
第39期远征队加速了ISS(国际空间站)关于太空对人类的影响任务的完成
Expedition 39 accelerated the ISS mission of improving our knowledge of how space affects
并且不仅仅是闭门造车,而是当他们在太空中时
humans — and not just by trying it out for themselves, but by continuing research while
接着研究。
they were up there.
例如,在上周和宇航员一起被送回地球的货物中
For example, among the cargo that returned to Earth with the astronauts last weekend
有专门的人体免疫细胞样本,T细胞
were samples of specialized human immune cells: T-cells.
T细胞是能够首先发现感染并开启防御
These are the white blood cells that first recognize an infection and start your body’s
反应的白细胞。
defensive response.
但之前的研究发现,T细胞在低重力的环境中活跃性下降
But previous research has found that the activity of T-cells slows down a lot in microgravity
特别是在其衰老期,并且已经证实了自从太空任务之后
— much as it does in old age — and astronauts themselves have proven to be more vulnerable
宇航员变得更易感染
to infections during and after their missions.
因此,ISS-39的队员用10个T细胞样本进行了试验
So, the crew of ISS-39 conducted an experiment using 10 samples of T-cells. They put some
他们将一部分样本放入离心机来模拟地心引力,让另一部分漂浮在孵化器内
in a centrifuge, to simulate Earth-like gravity, and left others to basically float in an incubator.
这些样本现在已经返回了地球,将用于研究不同环境对其结构
Now they’re back on Earth, where they’ll be studied to see how these different environments
的影响
affected their structure.
‘‘龙’‘飞船胶囊也带回了成百上千的,用于分析其成长的细菌样本
The Dragon cargo capsule also returned with hundreds of samples of bacteria, whose growth
可怕的是,有些细菌比如沙门菌变得
will be analyzed. Because some bacteria — like Salmonella — have returned from space more
比发射时更为致命。如果我们想要
virulent than when they went up, which is kinda scary. And if we’re going to understand
了解和预防疾病,不管在太空还是在地球,我们需要弄清楚原因。
and prevent diseases both in space and on Earth, we need to figure out why.
第39期远征队在太空中也研究了 蛋白质结晶在太空的生长,
Expedition 39 also studied how protein crystals grow in space, how mixtures of liquids known
和以乳胶为例的液体混合物 在太空的表现,以及如何在未来任务中最好地使用
as emulsions behave in low gravity, and how future missions might make the best use of
像R2这种的实验性仿真机器人
robots, like the experimental humanoid robot, R2.
因此,对ISS(国际空间站)的激点,不再仅限于大卫鲍伊的专辑封面和愤怒的小鸟
So, the excitement of the International Space Station is not limited to David Bowie covers
ISS和他们一样赞。ISS意味着科学。
and real life Angry Birds, as awesome as those things are. ISS equals science!
未来NASA准备测试一项很可能有助于登陆火星的
Looking ahead, NASA is about to test a new technology that’s probably going to help
新技术
us land on Mars one day.
6月2日夏威夷的Kauai岛有可能举行首次
On June 2nd, the Hawaiian island of Kauai will hopefully host the first landing of the
低密度超音速减速器(LDSD)的着陆,LDSD简单来讲就是有着充气圆环
Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator, or LDSD, which is basically a big flying saucer tricked
的大型飞碟
out with inflatable rings.
自从20世纪70年代海盗号在火星登陆,NASA一直以来都
Ever since the Viking landers of the 1970s, NASA’s pretty much been using the same unchanged
运用降落伞来使航天器着陆
technology for landing spacecraft: parachutes.
降落伞一直以来也表现得很好,但是我们已经到了
And parachutes have served really well. But we’ve gotten to the point that we want to
建造包括载人飞船在内的,更大 更重型的航天器的时刻
start building larger, heavier spacecraft — including ones carrying people — and landing
我们需要更温和的着陆
them more gently.
在火星着陆非常难办,因为火星的大气层没有地球稠密
And landing on Mars is tricky, because its atmosphere is less dense than Earth’s, so
因此,普通的摩擦和降落伞是远远不够的。同时重型航天器要想在月球登陆
simple friction and parachutes aren’t going to be enough. While we’ve managed to land
在几乎没有大气层的月球,使得登陆时的重力
heavy craft on the moon, which has almost no atmosphere, it also has very little gravitation
非常小。
to work against.
因此NASA的工程师认为,LDSD将是在火星着陆的理想形态
So, NASA engineers think that the LDSD — whose design was inspired by a Hawaiian puffer fish
其灵感来自于夏威夷的河豚鱼
— might be the right shape to meet the challenges of landing on Mars.
大约一星期之后,LDSD将会被运至55千米的高空然后被抛下
In about a week, the LDSD will be carried to an altitude of 55 kilometers, and then
当其速度达到3.5倍声速(声速340m/s),LDSD的圆环将会膨胀
dropped. When its speed reaches around three and a half times the speed of sound, its ring-shaped
充分减速之后,降落伞将会展开
decelerator will inflate, slowing it down enough that THEN, a parachute will deploy
将其送入海平面。
to carry it to the ocean’s surface.
最后,很高兴告诉你开普勒之死的报告是被夸大了的。
Finally, I’m glad to tell you that reports of Kepler’s death are exaggerated!
开普勒太空望远镜 曾经是探索系外行星的 唯一且最重要的工具
The Kepler Space Telescope has been the single most important tool in the study of exoplanets,
既然你诚心的发问了,那我就大发慈悲的告诉你 系外行星是指太阳系之外的
and, since some of you have been asking, an exoplanet is a planet outside of our solar
行星。
system.
自从2009年发射以来,开普勒望远镜发现了960多个外星世界
Since its launch in 2009 it’s found more than 960 confirmed alien worlds.
但在去年春天,其失去了四个反应轮的第二个轮子
But last spring, Kepler lost the second of its four reaction wheels, the devices that
这是用来重新定位的传感器,导致开普勒几乎不能使用了,
allowed its sensors to be re-positioned. This made the telescope pretty much unusable, even
即使其余的设备都能正常运行
though the rest of the equipment works perfectly fine.
值得感谢的是,上周NASA给了kepler一个修改后的新任务K2
Thankfully, last week, NASA approved a new, adapted mission for Kepler, called K2, which
这将使kepler能通过使用太阳能重新服役
will put the telescope back in service by using the power of the sun.
太阳光子的强烈轰炸给kepler施加了压力
The constant bombardment of photons from the sun exerts pressure on Kepler. And NASA has
NASA算出了kepler平衡压力的准确平衡点
calculated the exact position needed to keep Kepler balanced against that pressure.
只有重新定位航天器,才能使其与航天轨道平行航行
By reorienting the whole craft so that it’s parallel to the plane of its orbit, it’ll
在此之前kepler将保持稳定,进行为期93天的对太空斑点的研究
stay steady enough to study patches of space for 83 days at a stretch, until it has to
直到重新平衡太阳辐射压力
be re-balanced against the pressure of the sun’s radiation.
kepler将在5月30日再次运行,至少还有2年的行星探索期
Kepler should be up and running again by May 30, with at least another 2 years of planet-hunting
在此之前
ahead of it.
哥们,太空令人惊奇!
Space, guys! It’s amazing!
多谢收看这周的太空新闻
Thanks for joining me for this update of this week’s space news!
如果想要和我们一起探索太空,点击subbable.com/scishow
If you want to keep exploring the universe with us, check out subbable.com/scishow to
支持太空科学秀。不要忘了去youtube.com/scishowspace
learn how you can help support SciShow Space. And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishowspace
订阅我们!
and subscribe!

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