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抵御气候变化的奇思妙想

Space Mirrors and Other Weird Ways to Fight Climate Change

Today on Reactions: craziest ideas to combat climate change.
今天讨论的主题: 抵御气候变化的奇思妙想
Let’s do this.
让我们开始吧
First up: massive gigantic enormous space mirrors.
方案一:巨型太空滤镜
The Sun is constantly emitting all kinds of light —
太阳持续地发出各种光
including visible, ultraviolet, and infrared—
包括可见光 紫外线及红外线
which heat up the Earth.
这些光线使地球升温
A space mirror is designed to cast a small shade on the Earth
而太空滤镜的作用是遮挡一部分光线
and reduce the amount of light that hits our planet.
从而减弱太阳光使地球升温的效果
In one of the better known proposals,
有一个比较广为人知的提议
a mesh made of tightly packed, incredibly fine aluminum threads,
即使用高质量的铝丝编制成致密的网格
would be placed up into orbit
将其置于向阳侧轨道上
and filter out a tiny portion of the sun’s light.
从而遮滤小部分阳光
That doesn’t sound like much,
听起来这不会带来什么明显的改善
but the researcher who proposed the idea
但提出这一想法的研究人员认为
theorized that it should be enough to stabilize our climate
这应该足以使地球的气候稳定
because it would decrease the global temperature to what it was
因为它会使全球温度降低到从前的水平
when CO2 concentrations were much lower than they are today.
那时候的二氧化碳含量远低于现在
But the space mirror approach is easier said than done.
但太空滤镜方案说起来简单做起来难
The mesh would have to stretch over 1.5 million square kilometers.
它的网格必须延伸超过150万平方公里
That’s more than double the land area of… France.
这是法国国土面积的两倍多
[法式嘲笑]
Creating something that massive and getting it to space–
创造出如此巨大的东西并把它送到太空
and then maintaining it once out there–
然后要对其进行维护
that’s kind of unfathomable.
这让人难以想象
Plus, space mirrors would mostly control temperature
另外 太空滤镜可以大程度上控制气温
but there are other climate factors, like rain,
但其余的气候条件 例如降雨
that would still be different than what we experienced
与二氧化碳浓度失控前相比
before the amount of CO2 in our atmosphere was out of control.
还是会存在差异
To be fair, the scientist who proposed this
坦白而言 提出这一建议的科学家
said it would definitely be a last ditch effort.
表明这是最后的迫不得已之举了
Since then other space mirror proposals have popped up,
从此 其他的太空滤镜方案层出不穷
like launching trillions of super lightweight discs into space
比如将数万亿的轻质圆盘撒播于太空
that would redirect some of the sun’s rays so they don’t hit us.
将原照射到地球上的部分阳光反射掉
But that would also cost trillions
但这也会花费数万亿美元
and be really hard to get into space.
而且圆盘也很难发射进太空
So…no go
所以 没有施行
A little less crazy than solar mirrors
另一个不像太阳滤镜那么疯狂的提议
–seeding the ocean with iron.
在海洋中散播铁
Why? To increase phytoplankton growth.
目的?增加浮游植物的生长
Phytoplankton photosynthesize,
浮游植物进行光合作用
which means they use light to pull carbon dioxide from our atmosphere
这意味着它们利用光从大气中吸收二氧化碳
and react it with water to make oxygen as well as sugar,
并与水反应产生氧气和糖
which they use to grow.
进而生长
There are lots of steps in this reaction,
在这个反应中包括很多步骤
some of which need iron,
其中一些需要铁
so the hypothesis goes that adding iron to the ocean would mean more phytoplankton,
因此 假设增加海洋中的铁含量可以使浮游植物的数量增加
pulling out even more CO2.
从而吸收更多的二氧化碳
But the issue with just dumping iron is has it”s potential side effects,
但只是增加海洋中的铁含量 有其潜在的副作用
like an algal bloom,
例如水华
which happens when phytoplankton grow out of control and then begin to die.
当浮游植物因疯长而导致死亡时就会发生这种情况
When that happens the microbes that feed on phytoplankton debris
当这种情况发生时 分解浮游植物残骸的微生物
begin to suck up so much oxygen from the water that they create what’s called a “dead zone,”
开始从水中吸收大量氧 从而形成所谓的“死区”
and other critters otherwaters begin to suffocate
然后同水域的其他生物开始窒息
And if that weren’t enough, some of the microbes make methane and nitrous oxide,
此外 其中一些微生物会合成甲烷和氧化亚氮
which are potent greenhouse gases.
这些都是会造成严重温室效应的气体
So some computer models of iron fertilization have suggested that
因此 一些模拟增加海洋铁含量的模型表明
the potential cure is worse than the disease.
其潜在负面影响比温室效应本身更严重
And maybe my personal favorite climate change combating idea
也许在对抗气候变化的问题上 我个人最喜欢的想法
that’s a little weird but really awesome:
听起来有点奇特 但一定让人耳目一新:
feeding cows seaweed.
喂牛吃海藻
We have a ton of cows and they burp a lot of methane,
我们饲养很多牛 它们打嗝时会产生大量的甲烷
which is a much more potent greenhouse gas than CO2,
这是一种比二氧化碳更强的温室气体
although it sticks around in our atmosphere for shorter periods of time.
尽管它可以在大气中存留的时间较短
A few years ago a study by the UN FAO estimated
几年前 联合国粮农组织的一项研究评估
that the total annual emissions from animal agriculture
畜牧业每年甲烷的总排放
made up almost 15 percent of all human greenhouse gas emissions,
几乎占人类温室气体排放量的15%
and of that, 41 percent was attributed to cattle raised for beef.
其中41%来自饲养的肉牛
Knowing that people probably weren’t going to give up beef altogether, scientists asked:
科学家们知道人们不可能不吃牛肉 于是提出了这样的问题
How do we decrease the amount of methane cows are producing?
我们如何减少牛产生的甲烷量呢?
Maybe by putting them on a diet–a seaweed diet.
也许通过给他们调整食谱实现——海藻食谱
All the methane burped out by cows is produced in their gut by bacteria.
奶牛排出的甲烷都是由其肠道内的菌类产生的
Turns out that one particular type of seaweed, Asparagopsis taxiformis,
事实证明 一种特殊类型的海藻 海门冬
produces a compound called bromoform,
可以产生一种叫做溴仿的化合物
which messes with enzymes that would normally turn carbon dioxide and hydrogen
它与牛肠道中的酶混合后 通常能对二氧化碳及氢起到催化作用
into methane in a cow’s gut.
并将两者转化为甲烷
One study has shown that a solution of 2% seaweed
一项研究表明 2%海藻溶液
reduced methane gas production from
可以使试管中的牛胃液
some cow stomach juice in a test tube/by 99%.
产生的甲烷气体减少99%
But a lot more work needs to be done before this is ready for prime time.
但在实施该方案之前 还有很多工作要完成
Researchers also suspect
研究人员还猜想
that there’s a genetic component to how much methane a cow produces,
一头牛能产生多少甲烷是由基因决定的
which opens the door to even more possibilities
这在如何快速降低日益升高的全球气温问题上
as we try to figure out how to cool this rapidly warming planet.
为我们提供了更多的可能性
So although today’s video was about some weird ways to combat climate change,
因此 即使今天的视频内容是一些应对气候变化的奇思妙想
There are a bunch of less crazy things you can do now,
但你现在可以做一些不那么疯狂的事情
like support climate-friendly policies
比如支持一些有利于气候的政策
that will help us invest in renewable energy–
这将有利于我们将投资用于可再生能源
like wind and solar–
比如风能和太阳能——
and by doing so decrease the amount of fossil fuels we’re using.
这样做可以减少我们对化石燃料的使用
A big thank you goes to Miriam from Hot Mess for weighing in on this video.
非常感谢来自Hot Mess的Miriam参与这段视频的制作
Hot Mess is a show where they take a fresh look at climate change with a solutions-focused perspective
Hot Mess是一个使用全新视角看待气候变化问题并有行动力的节目
and aim to empower an ever-growing community concerned and engaged with climate issues.
它旨在使一个关心并参与气候改善问题的团体不断壮大
A little while back they even made a video about Space Mirrors,
不久前 他们甚至制作了一个关于太空滤镜的视频
that first crazy idea I mentioned.
即我提到的第一个疯狂的想法
Be sure to check it out!
一定要去看看哦!
See you next week!
下周见!

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视频概述

人类要如何抵御温室效应带来的气候变化?巨型太空滤镜?在海洋中散播铁?或者喂牛吃海藻?一起来看这些科学家们的奇思妙想!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-7fa4f

审核员

审核员PH

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9agoVDFJs8A

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