ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

我们为什么会笑 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

我们为什么会笑

Sophie Scott: Why we laugh

大家好,今天我要跟大家讲讲「笑」。
Hi. I’m going to talk to you today about laughter,
我想从我记忆里第一次
and I just want to start by thinking about the first time
意识到「笑」这个概念开始讲起。
I can ever remember noticing laughter.
那是在我还是个小女孩的时候。 我应该是6岁左右。
This is when I was a little girl. I would’ve been about six.
我见到父母在做一些不寻常的事,
And I came across my parents doing something unusual,
那是他们正在笑。
where they were laughing.
他们笑得特别、特别夸张。
They were laughing very, very hard.
他们笑得躺到了地上。
They were lying on the floor laughing.
他们笑得尖叫了起来。
They were screaming with laughter.
我不知道他们在笑什么,但我想要加入。
I did not know what they were laughing at, but I wanted in.
我想成为他们中的一个,
I wanted to be part of that,
然后我就围坐在边上 跟着那样,“唬唬!”(笑声)
and I kind of sat around at the edge going, “Hoo hoo!” (Laughter)
顺带一提,他们笑的是
Now, incidentally, what they were laughing at
一首人们常唱的歌,
was a song which people used to sing,
那是根据火车上 厕所里的标语写成的歌
which was based around signs in toilets on trains
旨在告诉你,在火车上的厕所里
telling you what you could and could not do
哪些事能做,哪些不能做。
in toilets on trains.
当然,你必须记得英国人
And the thing you have to remember about the English is, of course,
拥有的那种高深莫测的幽默感。
we do have an immensely sophisticated sense of humor.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
当时,尽管,我对这种幽默感完全无法理解。
At the time, though, I didn’t understand anything of that.
我只是关注于笑声,
I just cared about the laughter,
然后实际上,作为一名神经学家, 我现在要回去研究它了。
and actually, as a neuroscientist, I’ve come to care about it again.
这真是一件奇怪的事。
And it is a really weird thing to do.
现在,我会播放一些真人发笑的片段,
What I’m going to do now is just play some examples
大家来听听那些人的声音, 想想它们有多奇怪,
of real human beings laughing,
以及笑声实际上是一个种多么原始的声音。
and I want you think about the sound people make and how odd that can be,
与其说它是一种语言,
and in fact how primitive laughter is as a sound.
还不如说是一种动物式的叫唤。
It’s much more like an animal call than it is like speech.
所以现在我们来听一些笑声。 第一个很好玩。
So here we’ve got some laughter for you. The first one is pretty joyful.
(音频:笑声)
(Audio: Laughing)
然后是下一位朋友,我想他得呼吸一下了。
Now this next guy, I need him to breathe.
他的笑很有特点,就像……
There’s a point in there where I’m just, like,
你得来点氧气,伙计,
you’ve got to get some air in there, mate,
因为他听起来就快断气了。
because he just sounds like he’s breathing out.
(音频:笑声)
(Audio: Laughing)
这声音是未经编辑的;这就是他。
This hasn’t been edited; this is him.
(音频:笑声) (笑声)
(Audio: Laughing) (Laughter)
最后我们来听一位 女性人类的笑声。
And finally we have — this is a human female laughing.
笑可以把我们带入一种非常 奇怪的状态,就像在制造噪音。
And laughter can take us to some pretty odd places in terms of making noises.
(音频:笑声)
(Audio: Laughing)
她其实是在用法语说: “我的天,那是个啥?”
She actually says, “Oh my God, what is that?” in French.
我们都有点被她感染了。 我也不知道为什么。
We’re all kind of with her. I have no idea.
那么,为了理解「笑」, 你必须重新认识
Now, to understand laughter, you have to look at a part of the body
心理学家和神经学家通常 不会花太多时间去关注的部位
that psychologists and neuroscientists don’t normally spend much time looking at,
那就是胸廓。
which is the ribcage,
它看起来不是很厉害,
and it doesn’t seem terribly exciting,
但实际上,你每时每刻都在使用你的胸廓。
but actually you’re all using your ribcage all the time.
你随时都在用你的胸廓做的事——
What you’re all doing at the moment with your ribcage,
千万别停,就是呼吸。
and don’t stop doing it, is breathing.
所以你用肋间肌, 也就是你肋骨之间的肌肉
So you use the intercostal muscles, the muscles between your ribs,
来把空气吸入和排出肺部。
to bring air in and out of your lungs
这是通过胸廓的舒张和收缩来完成的。
just by expanding and contracting your ribcage,
而如果我把一条呼吸带缠在你的胸膛
and if I was to put a strap around the outside of your chest
然后观察它的运动,
called a breath belt, and just look at that movement,
你会看到一个相当温和的正弦曲线运动, 而那就是呼吸的过程。
you see a rather gentle sinusoidal movement, so that’s breathing.
你们大家现在都正在做这件事。别停。
You’re all doing it. Don’t stop.
在你开始讲话的同时,
As soon as you start talking,
你也开始用完全不同的方式进行呼吸。
you start using your breathing completely differently.
所以我现在正在做的事 有点像这张图上的曲线。
So what I’m doing now is you see something much more like this.
在讲话时,你可以很好地利用胸廓的运动
In talking, you use very fine movements of the ribcage
来把空气挤出去——
to squeeze the air out —
而实际上,我们是唯一一种 可以做这件事的动物。
and in fact, we’re the only animals that can do this.
这就是我们为什么可以讲话的原因。
It’s why we can talk at all.
然而,无论是说话还是呼吸 都有一个致命的敌人,
Now, both talking and breathing has a mortal enemy,
那就是「笑」。
and that enemy is laughter,
因为当你在笑的时候,
because what happens when you laugh
刚才那些肌肉全都开始频繁地收缩,
is those same muscles start to contract very regularly,
因此你就会产生这种 非常明显的锯齿状(运动图线),
and you get this very marked sort of zig-zagging,
而这个过程只会把空气排出你的身体。
and that’s just squeezing the air out of you.
这确实是一个发出声音的基本方式。
It literally is that basic a way of making a sound.
它具有相同的效果。
You could be stamping on somebody, it’s having the same effect.
你只是在把空气排出去。
You’re just squeezing air out,
而每一次那种收缩——哈! ——都使你发出了声音。
and each of those contractions — Ha! — gives you a sound.
所以当这些收缩都在一起发生时, 你就产生了这类痉挛,
And as the contractions run together, you can get these spasms,
这让你开始做出 (窒息声) 这样的反应。
and that’s when you start getting these — (Wheezing) — things happening.
我超擅长这个。(笑声)
I’m brilliant at this. (Laughter)
目前,说到关于「笑」的科学研究, 还不太多,
Now, in terms of the science of laughter, there isn’t very much,
但从现有的研究看来, 我们之前对「笑」的理解
but it does turn out that pretty much everything we think we know
全部都是错的。
about laughter is wrong.
所以没什么好奇怪的… 比如,有的人会说
So it’s not at all unusual, for example, to hear people to say
人类是唯一会笑的动物。
humans are the only animals that laugh.
——尼采认为,人类才是唯一会笑的动物。
Nietzsche thought that humans are the only animals that laugh.
但实际上,所有的哺乳类动物都会笑。
In fact, you find laughter throughout the mammals.
(笑这个现象)在灵长类动物身上 得到了很好的观察和描述,
It’s been well-described and well-observed in primates,
但你也可以在老鼠身上观察到,
but you also see it in rats,
而无论你在哪发现了它——
and wherever you find it —
人类,灵长类,鼠类——
humans, primates, rats —
你都会发现它们是伴随着「挠痒」之类的活动。
you find it associated with things like tickling.
这在人类身上也适用。
That’s the same for humans.
你会发现笑是在玩耍中发生的, 而所有的哺乳类动物都会玩耍。
You find it associated with play, and all mammals play.
而无论它在哪里发生, 发生时也总是与互动有关。
And wherever you find it, it’s associated with interactions.
所以Robert Provine, 在这方面进行大量研究之后指出
So Robert Provine, who has done a lot of work on this,
你和别的人在一起的时候, 比你一个人单独呆着
has pointed out that you are 30 times more likely to laugh
发笑的概率高出30倍。
if you are with somebody else than if you’re on your own,
而几乎所有的笑
and where you find most laughter
都发生在社交过程中, 比如与人交谈。
is in social interactions like conversation.
所以如果你问人类: “你会在什么时候笑?”
So if you ask human beings, “When do you laugh?”
他们会说遇到滑稽的、幽默的事,或是讲笑话的时候。
they’ll talk about comedy and they’ll talk about humor and they’ll talk about jokes.
如果你观察他们发笑的时机, 会发现那都是和朋友在一起的时候。
If you look at when they laugh, they’re laughing with their friends.
而当我们一起大笑时,我们 实际上很少是为某个笑话而笑的。
And when we laugh with people, we’re hardly ever actually laughing at jokes.
你笑了,可能是为了表达你理解了对方,
You are laughing to show people that you understand them,
你同意他们的观点, 你跟他们站在同一边。
that you agree with them, that you’re part of the same group as them.
你笑了,可能是为了表达你喜欢他们。
You’re laughing to show that you like them.
甚至可能是爱着他们。
You might even love them.
你在与人交谈的同时 做着所有的这一切,
You’re doing all that at the same time as talking to them,
而你的笑替你完成了 大量的这种情绪表达工作。
and the laughter is doing a lot of that emotional work for you.
Robert Provine 指出的一些事情, 就像你在这儿看到的,
Something that Robert Provine has pointed out, as you can see here,
就是我们发笑的原因。
and the reason why we were laughing
我们刚才听到的那些搞笑的笑声,
when we heard those funny laughs at the start,
以及我在看到父母狂笑的时候,为什么会想笑,
and why I was laughing when I found my parents laughing,
是因为,它其实是一个巨大的 行为上的传染效应。
is that it’s an enormously behaviorally contagious effect.
你可以从别人那里获得笑点,
You can catch laughter from somebody else,
而且这在熟人之间更容易发生。
and you are more likely to catch laughter off somebody else if you know them.
所以这依然是被社会环境所调控的现象。
So it’s still modulated by this social context.
你得把「幽默」放到一边,
You have to put humor to one side
而去考虑「笑」的社会意义。
and think about the social meaning of laughter
因为这是它的起源所在。
because that’s where its origins lie.
我非常感兴趣的一点是, 「笑」有多少个不同的种类,
Now, something I’ve got very interested in is different kinds of laughter,
我们有一些关于人类表达的 神经生物学的证据表明
and we have some neurobiological evidence about how human beings vocalize
我们可能只有2种类型的笑。
that suggests there might be two kinds of laughs that we have.
所以看起来,很有可能, 那种难以抑制的、不由自主的笑,
So it seems possible that the neurobiology for helpless, involuntary laughter,
就像我父母为一首愚蠢的歌 笑得躺在地上尖叫的那种笑,
like my parents lying on the floor screaming about a silly song,
可能与那种非常温和的, 你常遇到的那种社交性质的笑
might have a different basis to it than some of that more polite
有着神经神物学上的本质区别。
social laughter that you encounter, which isn’t horrible laughter,
但它依然是人们进行交际时的一种行为表现,
but it’s behavior somebody is doing as part of their communicative act to you,
是与人交互的一部分; 是他们选择的互动方式。
part of their interaction with you; they are choosing to do this.
在我们的进化过程中,我们 产生了2种不同的表达方式。
In our evolution, we have developed two different ways of vocalizing.
不自主的表达属于比较古老的一套表达系统,
Involuntary vocalizations are part of an older system
而自愿性地表达,就像我现在正在做的 这个演讲,则属于新的系统。
than the more voluntary vocalizations like the speech I’m doing now.
所以我们可以想象,「笑」实际上 可能来自于2个完全不同的根源。
So we might imagine that laughter might actually have two different roots.
我对这方面做了更细致的研究。
So I’ve been looking at this in more detail.
为了做这个,我们必须录下人们的笑声,
To do this, we’ve had to make recordings of people laughing,
首先我们得,想尽办法把人们逗笑,
and we’ve had to do whatever it takes to make people laugh,
然后我们再让同样的人, 去呈现装腔作势的、社交性质的笑。
and we got those same people to produce more posed, social laughter.
所以假设你的朋友讲了个笑话,
So imagine your friend told a joke,
你被逗笑了,因为你喜欢你的朋友
and you’re laughing because you like your friend,
但完全不是因为笑话很好笑。
but not really because the joke’s all that.
现在我来给你们演示一组这样的实验。
So I’m going to play you a couple of those.
我需要你们告诉我这个笑是真的,
I want you to tell me if you think this laughter is real laughter,
还是让你觉得装腔作势。
or if you think it’s posed.
它们究竟是不由自主的笑 还是故意发出的笑?
So is this involuntary laughter or more voluntary laughter?
(音频:笑声)
(Audio: Laughing)
你觉得这声音怎么样?
What does that sound like to you?
观众:装腔作势。 苏菲·斯科特:装腔作势?是的。
Audience: Posed. Sophie Scott: Posed? Posed.
那听听这个呢?
How about this one?
(音频:笑声)
(Audio: Laughing)
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我说过我很擅长这个。
I’m the best.
(笑声)(鼓掌)
(Laughter) (Applause)
我其实不擅长。
Not really.
这确实是个难以抑制的笑,
No, that was helpless laughter,
而实际上,为了录下这个, 他们只需要让我看着自己的朋友
and in fact, to record that, all they had to do was record me
听一段(我知道她肯定会笑的)录音,
watching one of my friends listening to something I knew she wanted to laugh at,
我立刻就笑成了这样。
and I just started doing this.
你会发现人们很擅长区分
What you find is that people are good at telling the difference
真笑和假笑。
between real and posed laughter.
对我们来说这是不同的两件事。
They seem to be different things to us.
有趣的是,我们发现黑猩猩 在某些方面与人非常相似。
Interestingly, you see something quite similar with chimpanzees.
黑猩猩在被挠痒时的笑
Chimpanzees laugh differently if they’re being tickled
和他们玩耍时的笑也是不同的,
than if they’re playing with each other,
这一点和我们很像,
and we might be seeing something like that here,
不自主的笑、被挠痒的笑, 与社交性的笑是不同的。
involuntary laughter, tickling laughter, being different from social laughter.
它们从声音上就有大不同。
They’re acoustically very different.
真笑声音更长。音调更高。
The real laughs are longer. They’re higher in pitch.
如果你笑得很夸张,
When you start laughing hard,
你就会用更大的压力将空气排出体外,
you start squeezing air out from your lungs
你在主动去做时 制造不出这么大的压力。
under much higher pressures than you could ever produce voluntarily.
举个例子,我唱歌时 绝不能将音调提到那么高。
For example, I could never pitch my voice that high to sing.
(笑的同时),你就产生了 这一类(锯齿状)收缩和怪异的呼啸声。
Also, you start to get these sort of contractions and weird whistling sounds,
所有的这些都表明, 真笑是极易被识别的,
all of which mean that real laughter is extremely easy,
或者说极易被感受到的。
or feels extremely easy to spot.
相反,装腔作势的笑, 想起来可能会有点假。
In contrast, posed laughter, we might think it sounds a bit fake.
其实,它不会。 实际上它是一个重要的社会线索。
Actually, it’s not, it’s actually an important social cue.
我们经常使用它, 我们选择在很多场合里发笑,
We use it a lot, we’re choosing to laugh in a lot of situations,
而且笑得让人觉得他真的被逗乐。
and it seems to be its own thing.
比如说,你会发现假笑中的鼻音,
So, for example, you find nasality in posed laughter,
那种“哈哈哈哈哈”的声音。
that kind of “ha ha ha ha ha” sound
那是你从未发出过的声音, 你在不由自主的笑声里做不到这样。
that you never get, you could not do, if you were laughing involuntarily.
所以这看起来真的是两件不同的事情。
So they do seem to be genuinely these two different sorts of things.
我们使用扫描仪来观察了
We took it into the scanner to see how brains respond
大脑在你听到笑声时的反应。
when you hear laughter.
进行这种扫描,是一个非常无聊的实验过程。
And when you do this, this is a really boring experiment.
我们只需要播放别人的真笑和假笑。
We just played people real and posed laughs.
我们没有说这是个关于笑的研究。
We didn’t tell them it was a study on laughter.
我们还会播放一些别的声音来转移注意,
We put other sounds in there to distract them,
而他们只需要躺着,听那些声音。
and all they’re doing is lying listening to sounds.
我们没叫他们做任何事。
We don’t tell them to do anything.
然而,他们在听到真笑和假笑时,
Nonetheless, when you hear real laughter and when you hear posed laughter,
大脑里的反应是完全不同的,
the brains are responding completely differently,
显著的不同。
significantly differently.
你看到的蓝色区域里,是听觉皮层,
What you see in the regions in blue, which lies in auditory cortex,
这是大脑内对真笑做出更多反应的区域,
are the brain areas that respond more to the real laughs,
并且看起来似乎…
and what seems to be the case,
当你听到有人不由自主地发笑时,
when you hear somebody laughing involuntarily,
你会听到你在别的环境中从未听过的声音。
you hear sounds you would never hear in any other context.
这一点是毫不含糊的,
It’s very unambiguous,
看起来这种新奇的声音是与大量的
and it seems to be associated with greater auditory processing
听觉过程有关的。
of these novel sounds.
相反,当人们听到假笑时,
In contrast, when you hear somebody laughing in a posed way,
你会看到这个粉色的区域,
what you see are these regions in pink,
也就是大脑内与心理有关的部分,
which are occupying brain areas associated with mentalizing,
用来思考别人在想什么。
thinking about what somebody else is thinking.
而我觉得这代表了,
And I think what that means is,
你用大脑扫描来做研究, 即使研究过程枯燥无谓
even if you’re having your brain scanned, which is completely boring
一点都不有趣,
and not very interesting,
当你听到有人笑得, “啊哈哈哈哈哈”
when you hear somebody going, “A ha ha ha ha ha,”
你仍然会试着去找出他们笑的原因。
you’re trying to work out why they’re laughing.
笑总是有原因的。
Laughter is always meaningful.
你总是试图去理解它在当前环境下的意义,
You are always trying to understand it in context,
哪怕,你已经清楚地知道, 在进行实验的时候,
even if, as far as you are concerned, at that point in time,
它们跟你没有任何的关系,
it has not necessarily anything to do with you,
你仍然想要知道 为什么那些人会笑。
you still want to know why those people are laughing.
然后,我们又有机会研究不同年龄阶段的人对
Now, we’ve had the opportunity to look at how people hear real and posed laughter
真笑和假笑有些什么反应。
across the age range.
这是我们与皇家学会共同进行的一个在线实验,
So this is an online experiment we ran with the Royal Society,
实验里我们只问人们两个问题。
and here we just asked people two questions.
首先,他们会听一些笑声,
First of all, they heard some laughs,
然后他们得回答:这些笑声 听起来有多真实或者多假?
and they had to say, how real or posed do these laughs sound?
真笑用红色表示, 假笑用蓝色表示。
The real laughs are shown in red and the posed laughs are shown in blue.
你可以看到一个陡峭的开端。
What you see is there is a rapid onset.
随着年龄的增长, 人们越来越擅长识别真笑。
As you get older, you get better and better at spotting real laughter.
六岁的孩子只能猜测真笑和假笑, 他们不能真的听出两种笑的不同。
So six-year-olds are at chance, they can’t really hear the difference.
年纪越大,越擅长。
By the time you are older, you get better,
但有趣的一点是,从这些数据中,
but interestingly, you do not hit peak performance in this dataset
直到三四十岁,你都找不到一个高峰点。
until you are in your late 30s and early 40s.
你不会因为度过了青春期就完全理解笑声。
You don’t understand laughter fully by the time you hit puberty.
你也不会因为头脑的成熟而完全理解笑声
You don’t understand laughter fully by the time your brain has matured
即使你的青年时期已经结束。
at the end of your teens.
你对笑声的学习,贯穿了 整个成年人生的前半部分。
You’re learning about laughter throughout your entire early adult life.
如果我们把问题反过来, 不再关心笑声听起来
If we turn the question around and now say not, what does the laughter sound like
像真笑还是假笑,而是去问
in terms of being real or posed, but we say,
听到这些「笑」, 你被多大程度地感染,
how much does this laughter make you want to laugh,
多想跟着一起笑, 我们就会发现另一番结果。
how contagious is this laughter to you, we see a different profile.
就是这样,人越年轻,
And here, the younger you are,
越容易跟着笑声笑起来。
the more you want to join in when you hear laughter.
别忘了我小时候在不清楚发生了什么 的时候,就已经跟着父母笑起来了。
Remember me laughing with my parents when I had no idea what was going on.
这确实是符合现实的。
You really can see this.
那么现在,所有人,无论老幼,
Now everybody, young and old,
都觉得真笑比假笑更有感染力,
finds the real laughs more contagious than the posed laughs,
但随着年龄的增长,它们 都变得不那么有感染力了。
but as you get older, it all becomes less contagious to you.
要么是我们的脾气随着自身衰老变坏了,
Now, either we’re all just becoming really grumpy as we get older,
或者,随着你对笑的理解加深,
or it may mean that as you understand laughter better,
你就越来越擅长做这个,
and you are getting better at doing that,
你不再单纯因为听到别人笑 就想跟着笑了。
you need more than just hearing people laugh to want to laugh.
你去要一些社会性的东西去激发它。
You need the social stuff there.
因此我们获得了一些很有趣的现象
So we’ve got a very interesting behavior
表明之前的很多假设都是不正确的,
about which a lot of our lay assumptions are incorrect,
但我逐渐发现「笑」还有更多含义,
but I’m coming to see that actually there’s even more to laughter
不止是一种重要的社交情绪。
than it’s an important social emotion we should look at,
因为人们在使用「笑」时,有着
because it turns out people are phenomenally nuanced
不同寻常的细微差别。
in terms of how we use laughter.
加利福尼亚的 Robert Levenson 实验室
There’s a really lovely set of studies coming out
做了一系列非常可爱的研究,
from Robert Levenson’s lab in California,
是关于情侣的纵向研究。
where he’s doing a longitudinal study with couples.
他把已婚夫妇双方 请到实验室来,
He gets married couples, men and women, into the lab,
他会和他们谈论一些很有压力的话题,
and he gives them stressful conversations to have
并用测谎仪监测,看他们受压的程度。
while he wires them up to a polygraph so he can see them becoming stressed.
于是你会看到两个人来到实验室里, 他对丈夫说:
So you’ve got the two of them in there, and he’ll say to the husband,
“告诉我一些你的妻子激怒你的例子。”
“Tell me something that your wife does that irritates you.”
你会看到结果是瞬时的——
And what you see is immediately —
只需要让这个念头在你头脑中 简单闪过一下,你和你的伴侣——
just run that one through your head briefly, you and your partner —
你可以想象到,随着实验的开始 每个人都感受到了压力。
you can imagine everybody gets a bit more stressed as soon as that starts.
你可以看到,人们 从生理上感到了更大压力。
You can see physically, people become more stressed.
而他发现了一个现象, 情侣们会通过「笑」来
What he finds is that the couples who manage that feeling of stress
控制这种受压的感觉, 通过「笑」这样的乐观情绪,
with laughter, positive emotions like laughter,
不仅是在笑的瞬间降低了压力,
not only immediately become less stressed,
可以发现他们从生理上感觉到了放松,
they can see them physically feeling better,
他们一起搞定了这个令人不快的状况,
they’re dealing with this unpleasant situation better together,
被试者正是那些
they are also the couples that report
在夫妻关系中拥有更高满意度的情侣
high levels of satisfaction in their relationship
而且这样的情侣在一起待的更久。
and they stay together for longer.
所以实际上,当你研究亲密关系时,
So in fact, when you look at close relationships,
笑是一条关于人们如何
laughter is a phenomenally useful index
共同调节他们的情绪 的非常有用的线索。
of how people are regulating their emotions together.
我们不止是相互发出笑声 来表现对彼此的喜爱,
We’re not just emitting it at each other to show that we like each other,
我们还在用笑来 让双方感觉舒服。
we’re making ourselves feel better together.
然而,我并不认为这种现象 是仅限于恋爱关系中的。
Now, I don’t think this is going to be limited to romantic relationships.
我想它很可能是所有亲密情感关系的特性,
I think this is probably going to be a characteristic
就像你和朋友之间的状态,
of close emotional relationships such as you might have with friends,
这解释了我的下一个要播放的内容,
which explains my next clip,
那是一个 YouTube 视频, 关于几个前东德的年轻人
which is of a YouTube video of some young men in the former East Germany
在制作视频,来宣传 他们的重金属乐队,
on making a video to promote their heavy metal band,
它非常硬汉, 气氛非常严肃,
and it’s extremely macho, and the mood is very serious,
我想让大家注意: 当事情出错的时候,
and I want you to notice what happens in terms of laughter
「笑」起到了什么作用,
when things go wrong
它发生的有多快, 以及它怎样改变了气氛。
and how quickly that happens, and how that changes the mood.
他很冷。他本来会被弄湿。 他穿着游泳裤,
He’s cold. He’s about to get wet. He’s got swimming trunks on,
还有一条毛巾。
got a towel.
冰。
Ice.
可能会发生什么?
What might possibly happen?
视频开始录了。
Video starts.
严肃的氛围。
Serious mood.
他的朋友已经开始笑了。 他们已经在笑了,笑得很夸张。
And his friends are already laughing. They are already laughing, hard.
他还没开始笑。
He’s not laughing yet.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他也开始这么做了。
He’s starting to go now.
他们全都倒了。
And now they’re all off.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他们笑到了地上。
They’re on the floor.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我喜欢这个视频的一点是 它原本全都是非常严肃的,
The thing I really like about that is it’s all very serious
直到他跳到了冰上, 而冰没有应声而破,
until he jumps onto the ice, and as soon as he doesn’t go through the ice,
但是当然,他也没有伤得头破血流,
but also there isn’t blood and bone everywhere,
所以他的朋友们开始笑了。
his friends start laughing.
想象一下,如果他是站在那里说,
And imagine if that had played him out with him standing there going,
“说真的,Heinrich,我觉得这里摔坏了,”
“No seriously, Heinrich, I think this is broken,”
我们不会觉得这个视频很有趣。 那会让人很压抑。
we wouldn’t enjoy watching that. That would be stressful.
或者,他一边笑一边拖着流血的腿四处跑,
Or if he was running around with a visibly broken leg laughing,
然后他的朋友说: “Heinrich,我想我们得立即去医院了,”
and his friends are going, “Heinrich, I think we need to go to the hospital now,”
那样也不会让人觉得好笑。
that also wouldn’t be funny.
事实就是,「笑」起作用了,
The fact that the laughter works,
笑把他的一个痛苦、尴尬、难办的处境,
it gets him from a painful, embarrassing, difficult situation,
变成了一个有趣的状况, 变成了让我们都很开心的状况,
into a funny situation, into what we’re actually enjoying there,
而我想这真是「笑」的一个很有趣的用处,
and I think that’s a really interesting use,
它实际上每时每刻都在发生。
and it’s actually happening all the time.
举个例子,我还记得类似的一件发生在
For example, I can remember something like this happening
我父亲葬礼上的事情。
at my father’s funeral.
当时我们不是 穿着内裤在往冰上跳。
We weren’t jumping around on the ice in our underpants.
我们不是加拿大人。
We’re not Canadian.
(笑声)(掌声)
(Laughter) (Applause)
这类(葬礼)活动总是困难的, 我有个亲戚遇到了点麻烦事、
These events are always difficult, I had a relative who was being a bit difficult,
我母亲又站错了地方,
my mum was not in a good place,
我还记得我在一切开始之前,正在
and I can remember finding myself just before the whole thing started
讲一个发生在20世纪70年代 情景喜剧里的故事,
telling this story about something that happened in a 1970s sitcom,
那时我想,在这个时候, 我不知道我干嘛要讲这个,
and I just thought at the time, I don’t know why I’m doing this,
然后我意识到我是在
and what I realized I was doing
我是在努力从哪想点什么有用的出来
was I was coming up with something from somewhere
让她和我一起笑一笑。
I could use to make her laugh together with me.
这是为了找点理由来笑的 一个非常基本的反应。
It was a very basic reaction to find some reason we can do this.
我们可以一起笑一笑。 我们能渡过这一段。
We can laugh together. We’re going to get through this.
我们会好起来的。
We’re going to be okay.
实际上,我们每个人 每天都在做这样的事。
And in fact, all of us are doing this all the time.
你做得太多以至于都忽略了它的存在。
You do it so often, you don’t even notice it.
每个人都低估了自己笑得有多频繁,
Everybody underestimates how often they laugh,
并且,当你和别人一起笑时, 你做的那些事情,
and you’re doing something, when you laugh with people,
真的让你进入到了古老的进化系统中
that’s actually letting you access a really ancient evolutionary system
那是所有哺乳动物演化来 制造和维持社会纽带的系统,
that mammals have evolved to make and maintain social bonds,
它还能明显地调节情绪, 让我们感到好受一些。
and clearly to regulate emotions, to make ourselves feel better.
这不是人类特有的—— 这真的是一种古老的行为
It’s not something specific to humans — it’s a really ancient behavior
「笑」确实帮着我们调节自身的感受, 并让我们感到好受一些。
which really helps us regulate how we feel and makes us feel better.
换句话说,在「笑」这一点上,
In other words, when it comes to laughter,
你和我,亲爱的,都只是哺乳动物。
you and me, baby, ain’t nothing but mammals. (Laughter)
谢谢。
Thank you.
谢谢各位。(掌声)
Thank you. (Applause)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UxLRv0FEndM

相关推荐