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太阳耀斑和虚拟宇宙 – 译学馆
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太阳耀斑和虚拟宇宙

Solar Flares and a Virtual Universe

这里是科学秀新闻,我是Hank Green 。告诉我, 你喜欢太阳吗?
I’m Hank Green; this is SciShow News, and I’m wondering: Do you enjoy the sun? And
你享受它的存在吗?
the fact that it exists?
我也很喜欢太阳!尽管我不确定这是不是只是单相思
Me too! Although I’m not always sure the feeling is mutual.
比如说上周五月八日,太阳耀斑像一记重拳一样
Last week on May 8th, for instance, a big solar flare lashed out from the sun, practically
从太阳喷发出来
punching us in the face.
太阳耀斑 是太阳表面磁能的爆发现象
A solar flare, an explosive release of magnetic energy on the surface of the sun.
太阳的磁场非常复杂多变 一旦这些磁场相交
The sun’s magnetic fields are complex, intertwining, and ever-changing. And sometimes when those
其作用会产生并释放大量电子、离子以及原子
fields intersect, pressure builds and eventually releases jets of electrons, ions, and atoms
其能量超过百万亿吨炸弹同时引爆
— more energetic than millions of hundred-megaton bombs going off at once.
先前提到上周的耀斑只是较温和的一种,我们称之为“M级耀斑”
Last week’s flare was considered only a moderate one, a so-called M-class flare.
它的强度只有今年三月耀斑的十分之一
It was only a tenth as powerful as what happened back in March.
后者是能量最强的耀斑,我们称之为“X级耀斑”
That’s when we witnessed an X-class flare — the most energetic kind — and astronomers
据天文学家描述,上周的太阳耀斑是史上最完美观察到的一次
said last week that it was the best-observed solar flare in history.
3月29日,当耀斑发生时,四架太空望远镜以及一座地面观测站……
On March 29th, four different space telescopes and one ground-based observatory were all
全部把镜头对准太阳,这样一来他们能够观测耀斑的各种特征
trained on the sun when the flare happened, and together, they were able to monitor different
他们根据不同波长对其进行观测、成像,由此向人们展示史上最完整的…
features, observing it in different wavelengths, to give us a fuller-than-ever picture of a
太阳耀斑图片
solar flare.
感谢加利福尼亚国家太阳天文台的天文学家
Thanks to some excellent planning, astronomers with The National Solar Observatory in California,
日本Hinode卫星,以及所有的美国国家航天局的太空望远镜
Japan’s Hinode satellite, and a whole alphabet soup of NASA telescopes were able to coordinate
能够提前调整全部设备 对准被认为即将爆发太阳耀斑…
in advance to focus their instruments on the same, active region of the sun that was looking
的活跃区域
like it was gonna blow.
当前天文学家们正加紧分析本次观测的相关数据,并试图分析出本次耀斑的触发原因
They’re now studying that data to better understand exactly what catalyzes this release
同时期待能够预测出下次耀斑发生的具体时间
of pressure, and hopefully predict when the next one will happen.
太阳耀斑对我们不会造成很大的伤害,因为其辐射能够被大气层直接吸收
Radiation from a solar flare is absorbed in Earth’s atmosphere, so it doesn’t harm us
但是它可以影响大气层外的gps以及通讯信号
directly. But it can disturb things like GPS and communications signals, which circulate
对大气层外的宇航员的影响也是不言而喻的
in the outer atmosphere, not to mention astronauts in orbit.
所以我们只有更加深入了解太阳耀斑,才能更好地做准备
So the better we understand solar flares, the better we can be at preparing for them.
我们如果的科学水平已经可以很好地模拟一样东西——宇宙的形态
And here’s another thing we can now visualize better than ever: The formation of the universe.
这是首次人类能够通过建立一个基于网络的宇宙模型
For the first time, we can test all of the theories we have about how the universe formed
检验所有关于宇宙的形成的假说以及宇宙运行的
and the laws that govern it, by plugging them into a new, Web-based virtual model of the
规律
cosmos.
这是一个你单凭自己一人就能玩转的模型
A model that YOU can play with yourself!
上周哈佛史密森尼天体物理学中心带领一群物理学家
Last week a team of physicists led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
发布了他们耗费五年时间设计的复杂模型Illustris
released Illustris, a simulation so complex that it took the team five years to design,
其运算量相当于8000台台式计算机
and the calculations had to be run on the equivalent of 8,000 desktop computers for
三个月的量
three months.
除了酷炫的制图和动画,Illustris还是大量物理数据的形象化体现
More than just cool graphics and animations, Illustris is a working visualization of LOTS
通过这些数据我们可以得出他们是如何通过迄今为止对物理宇宙的认知
of physical data, which allows us to see how they play out based on our current understanding
完成这项工作的
of the physical universe.
没错 我们对宇宙知之甚少 但有些东西
Because there’s a lot we don’t know about the universe, but there’s also a lot that
我们相信我们确实知道
we think we DO know.
比如 我们认为宇宙始于大爆炸 在大爆炸发生瞬间后
Like, we think it started with a Big Bang. And fractions of a second after that, space
空间以超光速膨胀 引力波如大理石纹状震荡于时空中
itself expanded faster than the speed of light, marbling spacetime with shock waves of gravity.
暗物质开始在引力强的区域凝聚,进而形成一种网状结构
Dark matter began to clump where gravity was strongest, developing into a web-like pattern.
这便是Illustris开始模拟的时间——大爆炸后1200万年
This is where Illustris begins, a mere 12 million years after the big bang.
由此开始,Illustris相当精准地模拟展示宇宙至今的进化
From there it models the universe’s evolution — pretty accurately — to the present day.
你可以看到可见物质聚集于网中,恒星由氢氦云逐渐形成
You can watch visible matter collect into webs, stars form from clouds of hydrogen and
行星也逐渐开始形成
helium, and planets begin to form as well.
随着时间推移,超过41000个星系以我们熟知形状出现
As time goes on, more than 41,000 galaxies form in familiar shapes–spiral galaxies like
如我们银河系一样的螺旋状以及椭圆状
our own, and elliptical ones.
Illustris代表了宽达3.5亿光年的立方体空间
All of this happens in Illustris, which represents a cube of space 350 million light-years wide–large
天文学家认为它已足够表示已知宇宙的全部
enough, astronomers think, to be representative of the known universe.
Illustris给我们留下了非常近似于当前的宇宙
And it leaves us with a present-day cosmos remarkably similar to ours.
当然只能说是近似,不能说完全一致,其中还有令人疑惑之处
But only similar, not exactly the same, of course, and therein lies the beauty of the
如星系出现这类确切的细节,在Illustris中与所观察到的宇宙相比
simulation. Certain details, like how galaxies merge, are occurring differently in Illustris
还有所不同
than they do in the observed universe.
天文学家还没有完全梳理出具体原因
Astronomers have yet to comb through the simulation thoroughly enough to pinpoint the reasons
为什么会存在差异
for these discrepancies.
但有朝一日他们知道了原因后,我们将不断改善关于宇宙现有的理论
But when we do, these will let us refine our theories about the universe–places where
进而能够站在一个更近的视角去看宇宙,重新审视我们认为我们所知的一切
we can begin to look closer, and rethink what we think we know.
感谢收看这一期的科学秀:太空新闻,再次感谢我们的Subbable订阅用户
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space News — especially to our Subbable subscribers.
如果你希望继续探索宇宙,登录Subbable.com/scishow
If you want to keep exploring the universe with us, go to Subbable.com/scishow to learn
看看你能做些什么
how you can contribute.
如果你想与我们一起涨IQ,登录youtube.com/scishowspace
And if you want to keep getting smarter with us, you can go to youtube.com/scishowspace
订阅我们
and subscribe.

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