ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

社会学:狄奥多·阿多诺 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

社会学:狄奥多·阿多诺

SOCIOLOGY - Theodor Adorno

Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was born in Frankfurt in 1903
狄奥多•阿多诺于1903年出生在法兰克福
into a wealthy and cultured family.
家庭富裕 文化底蕴深厚
His father, a wine merchant, was of Jewish origin but had converted to Protestantism at university.
父亲是酒商 出身犹太 大学时改信新教
Until his twenties, Adorno planned for a career as a composer,
在二十岁前 阿多诺都计划以作曲为生
but eventually focused on philosophy.
但最终选择专注于哲学
In 1934, he was barred on racial grounds from teaching in Germany.
1934年 由于种族问题 他被禁止在德国教书
So he moved to Oxford and later to New York and then Los Angeles.
因此 移居哈佛 后辗转去了纽约和洛杉矶
He was both fascinated and repelled by Californian consumer culture
他对加利福尼亚的消费文化又爱又恨
and thought with unusual depth about sun tans and drive-ins.
异常深入地思考了日光浴和汽车影院
Adorno was closely connected with a pioneering institute of social research
阿多诺与一家先锋社会研究所联系紧密
also known as the Frankfurt School
名为法兰克福研究所
which had been founded and funded by his friend Felix Weil.
由朋友菲利克斯·威尔资助建立
The institute aimed to develop a
该机构旨在从心理层面
psychological understanding of the problems thrown up modern capitalism,
理解现代资本主义造成的问题
especially the culture and mindset it generates.
尤其是它产生的文化和思维方式
Adorno drew attention to three significant ways
阿多诺把注意力放在
in which capitalism corrupts and degrades us.
资本主义腐蚀人类的三个重要途径

Adorno believed that the primary focus for progressive philosophers should be
他认为改革派哲学家应当优先考虑
the study of how the working and middle classes of developed nations think and feel
发达国家的工人和中产阶级的想法 感受
and in particular the manner in which they spend their evenings and weekends.
尤其是夜晚和周末的生活方式
Adorno had a highly ambitious view of what leisure time should be for.
阿多诺对休闲时间的意义的思考十分宏大
It was not to relax and take one’s mind of things.
他认为 休闲时间不是为了放松或专注个人事务
Free time should be our prime opportunity to expand and develop ourselves to reach after our better nature
空闲时间是自我提升 唤起良知
and to acquire the tools with which to change society.
获取改变世界的工具的绝佳时机
It’s a time when we might see films that can help us to understand our relationships with new clarity
这时我们可以通过看电影 更清晰地理解人际关系
or read books that give us fresh insights into politics
通过看书 用新的角度看待政治
or listen to music that gives us courage to reform ourselves and collective life
通过听音乐 鼓起勇气让自己和集体生活变得更好
But in the modern world, Adorno bemoaned that leisure has fallen into the hands of an
但在现代社会 阿多诺哀叹休闲已遭娱乐机器的毒手
omnipresent and deeply malevolent entertainment machine
这机器无处不在 恶意满满
which he called The Culture Industry.
他称之为文化产业
Modern films, TV, radio,
在阿多诺看来
magazines and now social media seemed for Adorno
现代电影 电视 广播 杂志 社交媒体
to be almost designed to keep us distracted,
在设计之初就是为了干扰我们
unable to understand ourselves
让我们无法思考自身
and without the will to alter political reality.
不再想要改变政治现实
So for example, the news will feed us a mixture of salacious nonsense and political stories,
例如 新闻用污言秽语和政治故事充斥我们的眼球
that scramble any possibility of understanding the open prison within which we exist.
使我们无法思考自身所处的开放式监狱
The cinema shows us the adventures of an alien invasion,
电影给我们看外星入侵的奇遇
while the real calamities of our world go unattended.
却对现实世界的自然灾害不闻不问
Pop music focuses relentlessly on the emotions around romantic love,
流行音乐不间断地强调浪漫的爱情
suggesting that happiness can only come from meeting one very special person,
暗示我们遇到命中注定才是真正的幸福
rather that awakening us to the pleasures of community and of a more broadly distributed human sympathy.
使我们意识不到集体 特别是人情带来的快乐
We wander through museum , galleries,
我们漫步于博物馆和美术馆
privately unsure what they really mean and why we should care.
却不知道它们的含义和意义
The Culture Industry likes to keep us like that,
文化产业让我们保持在这种状态:
distracted, pliant, confused and a bit intimidated.
注意力分散 易受干扰 浑浑噩噩 惴惴不安
Adorno perceptively described
阿多诺极具洞察力地
Walt Disney as the most dangerous man in America.
将沃特·迪斯尼描述为美国最危险的人

Because of the huge range of consumer goods available in modern capitalism,
因为现代资本主义中各种各样的消费品
we naturally suppose that everything we could possible want is available.
我们自然而然就以为想要的东西唾手可得
The only problem, if there is one,
但有问题的话 唯一的问题便是
is that we can’t afford it.
我们根本买不起
But Adorno pointed out that
但阿多诺指出
our real wants are carefully shielded from us by capitalist industry
我们的心之所向掩盖在了资本工业之下
so that we end up forgetting what it is we truly need
因此 忘记了我们真正需要的东西
and settle instead for desires manufactured for us by cooperations
反而满足于资本合作制造出来的欲望
without any interest in our true welfare.
不去在意真正的幸福
Though we think we live in world of plenty,
我们认为我们生活在资源丰富的世界
what we really require to thrive,
但我们真正应该去丰富的是
namely tenderness, understanding, calm, insight, community.
柔情 理解 冷静 洞察 群体精神
All these things are in painfully short supply and are utterly disconnected from the present economy.
这些都极度匮乏 与现代经济脱节
When they’re trying to sell something, advertisers show us the thing that we really want
广告商销售时 往往展示我们真正想要的
and then connect it to something we don’t actually need.
却悄悄换成我们不需要的
So we can see an advert showing
因此我们可以看到
a group of friends walking along a beach chatting amiably
广告里一群好友沿沙滩漫步 亲密交谈
or a family having a picnic and laughing warmly together.
家庭出外野餐 一起欢笑 温情脉脉
These adverts show us these things
广告向我们展示这些
because they know we crave community and connection.
是因为知道我们渴望集体生活和联系交流
But the industrial economy prefers to keep us lonely and consuming.
但是工业经济更想让我们孤独 疯狂消费
So at the end of the adverts,
因此在广告的最后
we’ll be urged to buy some 25 year old whiskey
我们被怂恿着买下25年的威士忌
or a car so powerful
或者功能强大的汽车
that no road will ever let us legally drive it at top speed.
哪怕根本不能合法地开到最高时速

Adorno was writing at the dawn of the age of the psychological questionnaire.
阿多诺写作时正值心理问卷时代开启之际
These were widely in use in the United States
心理学问卷在美国广泛应用
where they were measuring consumer attitudes and commercial behaviour.
用于衡量消费者心理和商业行为
Adorno was intrigued by the underlying concept of a questionnaire
问卷调查的基本概念吸引了阿多诺的注意
and so together with colleagues devoted himself to designing a rather different kind of questionnaire,
因此 他和同事精心设计了截然不同的问卷
one designed to spot fascists.
用于识别法西斯分子
The questionnaire that he designed asked contributors to assess their level of agreement with statements like:
问卷要求参与者评估对下列表述的认可程度
“Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn” and
“对权威的服从和尊重是儿童应当学习的重要品德”
“If people would talk less and work more, everybody would be better off” and
“说得少 做得多 人们才能变得更好”
“When a person has a problem or worry, it’s best for him not to think about it,
“有问题或烦恼 最好就不要去想
but to keep busy with more cheerful things”.
倒不如把时间全都花在快乐的事上”
Given the traumas Germany had just been through,
考虑到德国刚刚遭受的创伤
it is no surprise that Adorno gave his questionnaire
阿多诺如此在意这份问卷 这毫不意外
and what he called the F-scale, fascist scale, such attention.
他称之为F量表 即法西斯倾向量表
His team even sent the F-scale to every school in West Germany.
他的团队还把这份表寄给西德的各个学校
But a more widely applicable lesson to be drawn from this experiment
但从该实验中延伸出应用更广泛的教训:
is that psychology comes ahead of politics.
心理先于政治
Long before someone is racist, homophobic or authoritarian,
阿多诺巧妙地发现
they are, Adorno skillfully suggested,
在人们变得法西斯 恐同 独裁之前
likely to be suffering from psychological frailties and immaturities
他们很可能饱受意志薄弱 心理不成熟的折磨
which is the task of a good society to get better at spotting and responding to.
这是良好社会为发展必须针对解决的任务
Rather than leaving problems to fester so long
而不是任由问题恶化
that there’s eventually no way to deal with them,
以至于最终无法可解
other than through force.
只能诉诸武力手段
We should learn to understand the psychology of everyday insanity from the earliest moments.
我们应尽早学会理解平日里疯狂行为背后的心理
Adorno was a left-wing thinker
阿多诺是左翼思想家
who recognized that the primary obstacles to social progress are cultural and psychological
他发现社会进程的主要障碍在文化和心理层面
rather than narrowly political or economic.
而不是狭隘地认为在政治或经济层面
We already have the money, the resources, the time and the skills
我们已有金钱 资源 时间 技能
to make sure that everyone can sleep at a house,
可以确保每个人都能在家里安睡
stop destroying the planet,
停止毁坏地球
is given fulfilling job and feel supported by the community.
拥有充实的工作 在群体中获得支持
So the reason why we continue to suffer and hurt one another,
那我们为何还要继续受伤 伤害别人呢?
is first and foremost because our minds are sick.
首要原因便是我们病态的心理
This is the continuing provocation
狄奥多·阿多诺沉迷工作 冷静中富有激情
offered by the beguiling and calmly furious work of Theodor Adorno.
给我们留下了这个问题 等待我们去解决
Thank you so much for watching!
感谢您的收看!
If you like the videos we produce at The School of Life,
如果喜欢我们在生命学院频道的视频
then may we suggest you visit our friends over at a channel called Wisecrack.
推荐收看我们朋友的频道 俏皮娱乐
They, too, created wonderful videos
他们也创作了许多出色的视频
about philosophy, literature, cinema, psychology and more,
主题关于哲学 文学 电影 心理等
all with a cheeky twist.
里面都有神转折
So click here to visit their channel
点击这里 查看他们的频道吧!
and we highly suggest that you subscribe.
强烈推荐订阅哦!
You might especially interested in their show called 8-bit Philosophy.
你很可能会对他们的节目8-bit哲学感兴趣
Click here to watch their classic episode on
点击这里 查看他们的代表作
Plato’s allegory of the cave
《柏拉图的洞穴寓言》
as explained through the video game Selter.
该视频通过电子游戏Selter演示说明

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

本视频介绍了社会学家,哲学家狄奥多·阿多诺的理论,重点解释了他提到的资本主义让人们堕落的三个途径。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

庭亭

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4YGnPgtWhsw

相关推荐