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社会学:马克斯·韦伯

SOCIOLOGY - Max Weber

社会学
马克斯·韦伯
Max Weber is one of the philosophers best able to explain to us
马克斯·韦伯是最能向我们解释
the peculiar economic system we live within called capitalism.
当下资本主义特有经济结构的哲学家之一
Born Erfurt in Germany in 1864,
1864年韦伯生于德国埃尔福特
Weber grew up to see his country convulsed
在他的成长过程中
by the dramatic changes of the Industrial Revolution.
韦伯目睹了工业革命给德国带来的巨变
Cities were exploding in size.
城市规模扩张
Vast companies were forming.
大型企业形成
A new managerial elite was replacing the old aristocracy.
资产阶级新贵取代了旧贵族阶级
Weber spent his life analyzing these changes
韦伯一生都在分析这场变革
and he developed some key ideas with which
他完善了一些关键思想
we can better understand
这使我们能更好地理解
the workings and future of capitalism.
资本主义的运作机制和未来发展
Why does capitalism exist?
资本主义为何会产生?
The standard view is that capitalism began
标准观点认为 资本主义的起因
as a result of developments in technology especially steam power.
是技术发展 尤其是蒸汽动力的发展
But Weber proposed something more interesting
但韦伯提出了更有趣的观点
that what actually made capitalism possible
他认为 让资本主义成为可能的
was a set of ideas
是一系列思想
and in particular religious ideas
特别是某些宗教思想
and not just any religious ideas.
而且并非任何宗教思想
Capitalism was created by Protestantism,
资本主义是由新教主义创造的
specifically Calvinism.
准确来说是加尔文主义
In his great work The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism, published in 1905,
在韦伯出版于1905年的著作《新教伦理与资本主义精神》中
Weber laid out some of the reasons
韦伯列出了一些理由
why he believed Protestant Christianity
即他认为基督新教对资本主义
had been so crucial to capitalism.
无比重要的原因
In Weber’s analysis Catholics have it relatively easy.
韦伯分析说 天主教徒能更轻松地摆脱罪恶
They were able to confess their transgressions at regular intervals
他们可以每隔一定时间就去找神父忏悔
and can be cleansed by priests.
神父可以免除他们的罪过
But no such purifications are available to Protestants
新教徒不相信这样能洗涤罪恶
who believe that only god is able to forgive anyone
他们相信只有上帝才能赦免人的罪恶
and he won’t make his intentions known until the day of judgment.
直到末日审判那天 他们才会敞开自己的心扉
Until then Weber alleged Protestants are left with heightened feelings of anxiety
韦伯认为新教徒精神上高度紧张并且一生怀有负罪感
as well as lifelong guilty desires to prove their virtue
还殷切希望向严苛 全知而缄默的上帝证明
to a severe all-seeing but silent god.
自己所拥有的优良美德
上帝青睐勤奋努力的人
In Weber’s eyes Protestant feelings of guilt were diverted into
韦伯眼中 新教徒心中的负罪感转变成了
an obsession with hard work.
勤奋工作的狂热
This was what he called the Protestant work ethic.
他称之为“新教徒的工作观念”
The sins of Adam could only be expunged through constant toil.
只有不断的繁重劳作才能将原罪消弭
Not coincidentally there were far fewer festivals and days of rest in Protestantism.
也难怪新教徒极少有节日和休息日
God didn’t like time off.
他们相信 上帝痛恨懒惰
所有工作都是神圣的
Catholics had limited their conception of holy work to the activities of
天主教意义上的神圣职业
priests, monks and nuns
仅限于神父 僧侣和修女
but now Protestants declared that work of any kind could be done in the name of God
但新教徒称 一切工作 包括面包师和会计师
even jobs like being a baker or an accountant.
都可以以神圣之名进行
This lent new moral energy and earnestness
这给予了人们道德上的动力与热情去工作
to all branches of professional life.
无论他们从事的是何种职业
更重要的是集体 而非家庭
In Catholic countries the family was and often still is everything.
在天主教国家中 家庭曾是并仍是比一切都重要的东西
But Protestants took a less benevolent view of family.
新教徒却不会这么宽容地看待家庭
The family could be a haven for selfish and egoistic motives.
家庭可能是自私和自我主义滋长的温床
For early Protestants
早期新教徒认为
one was meant to direct one’s selfless energies to the community as a whole,
人理应无私地将精力奉献给整个集体和公共领域
the public realm, where everyone deserved fairness and dignity.
在公共领域 人人都应得到尊重和公正的对待
世上不存在奇迹
Protestantism and eventually scientific capitalism turned its back on miracles.
新教主义和后来的科学资本主义都不相信奇迹
Weber called this the disenchantment of the world.
韦伯称其为“世界的觉醒”
So prosperity wasn’t to be thought of as something mysteriously ordained by God,
因此 成功不会被视作神赐的礼物
it could only be the result of thinking methodically, acting honestly,
而是经过长期缜密的思考 本分的行为
and working industriously and sensibly over many years.
勤奋努力而理智清醒的工作获得的
Without a belief in miracles
不再相信奇迹的人们
people turn to science for explanations and changes
开始寻求科学的解释与变革
which encouraged scientific investigation and discovery
这刺激了更多科学研究和发现的出现
and eventually technological booms.
并最终促进了科学技术的繁荣
Taken together these five factors created, in Weber’s eyes,
韦伯看来 正是这五个因素推动产生了
the crucial catalytic ingredients for capitalism to take hold.
促使资本主义成形的催化剂
Marx had argued that religion was the opium of the masses,
马克思主张说 宗教是民众的精神鸦片
a drug that induced passive acceptance of the horrors of capitalism.
是一种使人们被动忍受资本主义压迫的药物
But Weber turned this dictum on its head.
但韦伯彻底颠覆了这句著名论断
People didn’t tolerate capitalism because of religion.
人们不是因为宗教而容忍资本主义
They only became capitalists as a result of their religion.
恰巧是宗教使他们变成了资本主义者
如何让资本主义在世界范围内传播
There are about 35 countries where capitalism is now well developed.
如今 在约35个国家中资本主义高度发展
It probably works best in Germany,
德国的资本主义大概是最发达的
where Weber first observed it
在那里韦伯初次发现了资本主义
But in the remaining 161 nations
可以说 剩下的161个国家中
it arguably isn’t working very well at all.
资本主义并没有得到很好的发展
This is a source of much puzzlement and distress.
许多困惑和忧虑由此产生
Billions of dollars in aid are transferred every year from the rich to the poor parts of the world.
每年 富裕国家都将数十亿美元用于援助贫困地区
But a Weberian analysis tells us that these materialist interventions will never work
但韦伯式的分析告诉我们 唯物主义者的解释不会有用
because the problem isn’t really a material one to begin with
因为问题完全不在物质上
Instead certain countries for Weber
相反 韦伯认为 一些国家
fail to succeed at capitalism because they don’t feel anxious and guilty enough
没能实现资本主义的原因是人们不够焦虑和愧疚
They trust too much in miracles.
他们太相信奇迹了
They like to celebrate now rather than invest in tomorrow
比起投资未来 他们更喜欢享受现在
and their members feel it’s acceptable to steal from the community
人们接受挪用集体财物来使自己家庭富裕
in order to enrich their families favoring the clan over the nation.
将家族利益置于国家利益之上的思想行为
Today, Weber would counsel those who wish to spread capitalism
现在 韦伯会建议那些想传播资本主义的人
to concentrate on our equivalent of religion — culture.
把注意力集中在宗教的现代等价物——文化上
It’s a nation’s attitudes, hopes and a sense of what life is about
它代表国家对待事物的态度 期望和生命观
that produces an economy that either flourishes or flounders.
无论是繁荣的还是衰败的经济都从此产生
To reduce poverty, Weber would say one has to start at the level of ideas.
韦伯会说 缓解贫困问题得从思想开始
What the World Bank and the IMF should be giving sub-saharan Africa
韦伯式分析得出结论 国际银行和IMF
is not, in a Weberian analysis, money and technology
应当给予撒哈拉以南国家新的思想观念
but a new outlook.
而不是钱和技术
The decisive question for an economy should not be what the rate of inflation is
经济发展的关键不在于通货膨胀率
but what’s on TV tonight.
而在于电视节目内容
我们如何才能改变这个世界
Weber was writing in an age of revolution.
韦伯在社会变革中写作
He, too, wanted things to change
他同样期待着改变
but he believed that one first had to work out how political power operated.
他觉得我们首先要弄清楚政治是如何运作的
Weber believed that humanity had gone through three distinct types of power.
他认为人类政治文明经历了三个独特阶段
The older societies operated according to what he called traditional authority
较古老的社会由他称之为“传统权威”的人统治
where kings relied on folklore and divinity to justify their power.
那时君主的合法性来自于民间传说或神授
Then came the age of charismatic authority
接着是“富有人格魅力的权威”统治阶段
where a heroic individual, most famously Napoleon,
也就是英雄般的人物 最著名的是拿破仑
could rise to power with a magnetic personality
通过有吸引力的人格魅力掌权
and change everything through passion and will.
能利用激情和意志改变一切
However, Weber explained that
然而 韦伯说
we had now entered a third age of bureaucratic authority.
我们已进入第三阶段 即“官僚权威”
Bureaucracy achieves its power via knowledge.
官僚们通过广博的学识获得权力
Only the bureaucrats know how the stuff works
只有他们才知道世界是怎么运转的
and it will take an outsider years to work it out.
门外汉得花上几年才能弄明白
Most of us simply give up, usefully for the powers that be.
大多数人直接放弃 让政治家们处理就好
The dominance of bureaucracy has major implications for anyone trying to change a nation.
官僚们的主导地位暗示着那些想改造国家的人
There is often an understandable but misguided desire to think
一个尽管错误但可以理解的观点是
that one just has to change the leader.
只要换一个领导人就足够了
But in fact removing a leader almost never has the degree of impact that is hoped for.
事实上领导人的更替并不会达到预期效果
If we’re to get things to go better much of it will have to come through
如果希望能有更好的改变 我们需要
outwardly rather undramatic bureaucratic processes.
经历看起来不那么装腔作势的繁复手续
It will come through the marshalling of statistical evidence, patient briefings to ministers,
比如排列分析数据 耐心地向部长简略汇报
testimonies to committee hearings, and a minute study of budgets.
向听证委员会提供证据 仔细研究预算
Weber tells us how power works now
韦伯告诉我们现代政治如何运作
reminds us that ideas may be far more important
并提醒我们说 相比工具或金钱
than tools or money in changing nations.
思想或许更为关键
It’s a hugely significant thesis.
这个观点无比重要
With Weber’s guidance we learn that
在韦伯的指引下 我们认识到
so much which we associate with
那么多被我们认作
vast and impersonal external forces
与强大 非个人的外部力量相关的事物
is, in fact, dependent upon something utterly intimate
实际上依赖于对我们来说亲切至极
and perhaps more malleable:
或许也更具可塑性的东西
the thoughts in our own heads.
那就是我们自己内心的思想

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视频概述

主要介绍了马克斯·韦伯的社会学思想:资本主义是如何产生、如何发展的,以及他的思想对现代国家的启示。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Clio

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICppFQ6Tabw

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