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社会学:玛格丽特·米德

SOCIOLOGY - Margaret Mead

社会学
玛格丽特•米德
When we use the word ‘’modern‘’ to describe something,
当我们用“现代的”来形容某些事物时
it’s ususlly a positive.
这通常是一种肯定
We’re very appreciative and even a little smug about the miracles of
我们对现代科学 现代技术所创造的奇迹
modern science, modern technology,
乃至对现代观念所具有的优越性
and even the superiority of modern viewpoints.
高度赞赏 甚至有点自鸣得意
But what if in speeding towards a new and ever better future,
但如果我们在迈向崭新的更美好的未来时
we’ve left some important truths about ourselves behind?
忘记了某些有关我们自己的重要真理呢?
One of people who best help us to explore this problem is Margaret Mead,
玛格丽特·米德是最能帮助我们探索这个问题的人之一
perhaps the most famous anthropologist in the world.
她也许是世界上最著名的人类学家
Margaret Mead was born in the USA in 1901,
1901年玛格丽特·米德在美国出生
the oldest of five children.
她是五个孩子中最大的一个
Her father was a professor of finance and her mother was a sociologist.
她父亲是金融学教授 母亲是社会学家
After studying psychology as an undergraduate,
在大学学习心理学之后
Mead began a PhD in the relatively new field of anthropology.
米德开始攻读较新领域的人类学博士学位
Her supervisor Franz Boas
她的导师弗朗兹·博阿斯
was the founder of the discipline in the United States.
是美国该学科的创始人
Unlike earlier anthropologists who’d imagined that civilization was progressing in a linear fashion,
不同于早期的人类学家认为文明是线性发展的
from barbarism to savagery to civilization,
从野蛮到蒙昧到文明
Boas argued that the world was teeming with separate cultures,
博阿斯认为世上存在众多不同的文化
each with their own unique perspectives, insights, and deficiencies.
每种都有其独特的视角 洞察力及缺陷
The modern western world was not the pinnacle of human achievement
现代西方世界不是人类成就的巅峰
but simply one specific example of what humans could get up to.
而仅仅是人类文化的一个特定例子而已
Boas suggested that Mead travel for her field work to Samoa,
博阿斯建议米德前往萨摩亚——
a few tiny volcanic tropical islands in the center of the Pacific Ocean.
太平洋中部的几个热带火山小岛 进行实地考察
Mead was particularly interested in primitive communities,
米德对原始部落特别感兴趣
because she believed that such isolated cultures
她相信这种与世隔绝的文化
could serve as laboratories
可作为研究人类的“实验室“
that would reveal ways of living
来揭示现代世界
that the modern world had forgotten about but needed to remember.
已经忘记却需要记起的生活方式
Starting in 1925
从1925年起
and lasting until the beginning of World War II,
一直持续到第二次世界大战开始
Mead lived in Samoa in a highly authentic way for long periods.
米德在萨摩亚 以当地方式生活了很长时间
She learned the languages, dressed like a local,
她学习当地语言 像当地人一样打扮
and even carried babies around by having them cling to her neck.
甚至让小孩子抱紧脖子 背着他们到处走
Mead became fascinated by Samoan attitudes to sex in particular.
米德对萨摩亚人对待性的态度尤其着迷
In the book that made her name
1928年出版的
“Coming of Age in Samoa” published in 1928,
米德的成名作《萨摩亚人的成年》中
Mead describe Samoan culture as far more open and comfortable with sex
米德描述了萨摩亚文明在性方面相比现代美国
than the modern United States.
要更加开放 愉悦
Little children in Samoa knew all about masturbation
萨摩亚的小孩子了解有关自慰的所有事
and learned about intercourse and other acts through first-hand observation,
他们通过直接观察了解性交和其它行为
but thought of it as no more scandalous or worthy of comment than death or birth.
并不认为这比死亡和新生可耻或更值得多费口舌
Homosexuality was incidental but also not a matter of shame.
偶尔也会有同性恋 但不必羞耻
And people’s orientations fluctuated naturally throughout their lives
人们的取向在一生当中都会自然波动
without defining them.
而不被限定
This intrigued and inspired Mead
米德受这种性文化吸引和鼓舞
who herself led rather unconventional life,
生活不再因循守旧
simultaneously involved with successive husbands
她在不断更换丈夫的同时
and an ever-present female lover,
还始终与另一位有名的女性人类学家
another famous anthropologist, called Ruth Benedict.
露丝•本尼迪克特保持着恋人关系
Mead argued that the Samoan approach to sex
米德认为在萨摩亚的性生活方式下
made adolescence far easier for girls there,
那儿的女孩们青春期要轻松得多
because there was little pressure for them
因为她们几乎没有压力
to conform to particular kinds of sexuality.
去顺应特定类型的性意识
They were neither pressured to abstain from sex
她们既不被迫禁欲
nor to achieve particular milestones
也没有达成特定人生大事的压力
like having boyfriends or getting married.
比如交男友或结婚
Gradually, Mead got interested in gender roles
米德逐渐对性别角色产生了兴趣
and discovered that modern societies are far more rigid
她发现现代社会在这方面
in this area than primitive ones.
比原始社会要僵化得多
For example, Americans tend to think of men as productive, sensible and aggressive,
例如 美国人往往认为男性有效率 理智而好斗
while women are often told that they are more frivolous, peaceful, and nurturing.
而女性常被人说轻浮 平和 有爱心
But in her 1935 book
但是在她1935年出版的
“Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies’’,
《三个原始部落的性别与气质》一书中
Mead studied tribes in Papua New Guinea
米德研究了巴布亚新几内亚的一些部落
and recorded that in the Arapesh tribe
并记录了在亚拉伯部落
both men and women were peaceful and nurturing,
男女都是平和有爱心的
while among the Mundugumor tribe,
然而在芒杜古尔人部落中
men and women were both ruthless and aggressive.
男女都很残酷好斗
In short, Mead suggested that
简言之 米德认为
no gender traits are ever simply human nature.
性别特征并非人类固有的特性
They are all instead simply possibilities,
倒不如说它们都不过是人的潜能
which are either taught encouraged or shunned by any given culture.
为特定文化所鼓励或所排斥
Mead’s striking conclusion
米德最显著的结论是
is that it isn’t gender that makes women curl their hair or listen to people’s feelings,
性别不是女性卷发或善于倾听的原因
or race that makes some nations regularly attack their neighbors.
种族也不是某些国家经常攻击邻国的原因
Rather, it’s the social expectations and norms
准确地说 是缓慢发展了几个世纪的
that have developed slowly over centuries
社会期望和规范
and which have laid the groundwork for each individual’s psychological makeup.
为每个人的心理构成奠定了基础
’We must recognise’, she reminded her readers,
她提醒读者 “我们必须意识到”
’that beneath the superficial classifications of sex and race’
“在性别和种族的肤浅分类之下”
’the same potentialities always exist,
“某些相同的潜能永远存在
recurring generation after generation’
且一代又一代地出现”
’only to perish because society has no place for them’
“却因不为社会所容而只能消亡”
Mead herself learned so much from her anthropological subjects.
米德自己从人类学学科中学到了很多东西
She brought up her daughter according to some of the parenting ideas
她按照她所研究的原始人的某些育儿观念
of the primitive people she work with, like breastfeeding on demand,
养育她的女儿 比如按需哺乳
which she helped to popularize in modern-day America.
她助推了这一理念在现代美国的普及
During World War II, access to the South Pacific was impossible,
第二次世界大战期间 由于无法进入南太平洋
so Mead began to study more complex cultures like her own.
米德开始研究更加复杂的文化 比如自身文化
After the war, Mead worked for the US military,
战后 米德为美军工作
studying Russian responses to authority,
通过研究俄罗斯民众对执政者的态度
in order to try to predict what the Soviets might do during the Cold War.
以试图预测苏联在冷战期间可能做出的举动
She grew increasingly famous,
她越来越有名
traveling widely, giving lectures, and teaching at universities.
四处旅行 开设讲座 在大学教书
For fifty years, from 1928 until her death in 1978,
从1928年一直到1978年她去世的五十年里
she worked on and off for the American Museum of natural history in New York City
她间或在纽约市美国自然历史博物馆工作
as a curator for their special projects.
出任他们特殊项目的策展人
She wrote 20 books in all and was award 28 honorary degrees.
她总共写了20本书 并获得了28个荣誉学位
Mead’s work helps us to use the experiences of other nations and people
米德的作品让我们得以借鉴其他国家和人们的经验
as a storehouse of good ideas.
是人类精神文明的宝库
’’As the traveler who has once been from home
“正如一个游历四方的人
is wiser than he who has never left his own doorstep,’’ She suggested,
比不曾离开家门半步的人明智” 她说
“So a knowledge of another culture
“了解另一种文化
will always sharpen our ability to scrutinize our own more steadily.”
始终能不断强化我们审视自我的能力”
In doing so, she suggested we will always uncover and support
在此过程中 她建议我们始终发掘和支持
undeveloped human potential forgotten
人类在追求现代化的过程中
in our rush towards modernity.
忘却的未发展的人类潜能

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视频概述

如果人类在高度发展的现代化进程中,忘记了某些有关我们自己的重要真理,该怎么办?

听录译者

绿叶

翻译译者

Shirley

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FikUMyk4olw

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