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社会学习理论:班杜拉的波波玩偶打击实验

Social Learning Theory: Bandura’s Bobo Beatdown Experiments

What do you think? Can we only learn through direct experience,
你觉得呢?我们只能通过直接经验来学习
or also from studying others?
或许也能学习效仿他人?
Psychologist Albert Bandura came up with an interesting experiment
心理学家阿尔伯特·班杜拉想出了一个有趣的实验
to answer that exact question and form a theory.
来回答这个问题并形成了一个理论
Bandura came up with the social learning theory in the 1960s,
班杜拉在二十世纪六十年代提出社会学习理论
a time dominated by scholars who didn’t believe Bandura’s idea
但当时的权威学者都不认同他的想法
and argued that learning was always the result
他们认为学习一直以来
of classical and operational conditioning.
都是条件反射与操作性条件反射的结果
To prove that children can learn by mere observation,
为了证明孩子们仅通过观察也可以学习
Bandura came up with the Bobo Doll Experiments,
班杜拉构想出了波波玩偶实验
a set of controversial studies,
这是一系列有争议的研究
which involved preschool children, adult models
实验包括学龄前孩童 成年示范者
and a stand-up punch doll.
和一个立式拳击玩偶
In the first set of experiments,
在第一组试验中
the children were seated alone in a corner of the room.
孩子们独自坐在房间的一角
From there they observed an adult actor aggressively kicking
在那里他们观察到一个成年演员攻击性地踢打
and scolding a bobo doll for about 10 minutes.
并咒骂了一个波波玩偶大约十分钟
Afterwards, the same child was put into a new playroom
接着 这个小孩被安置在另一个游戏室里
where another adult deliberately frustrated the child
另一位成年人故意夺走孩子玩的玩具
by taking away the toys the child played with.
使得孩子心情沮丧
The frustrated child was then put back into the room with the Bobo doll
然后沮丧的孩子被送回到放着波波玩偶的房间
where Bandura and his team made the following 3 observations:
班杜拉和他的团队从房间里观察到以下三点:
1. Children who initially saw the adult punching the doll,
一、看到大人击打玩偶的孩子
often copied the behavior.
会经常模仿此行为
2. Boys were three times more likely to do so.
二、男孩这么做的可能性是女孩的三倍
3. Boys reproduced the behavior twice as often,
三、当男孩观察男性做此类动作时
if they observed a man do it compared to boys
他们模仿的可能性
who observed a female actor.
是观察女性时的两倍
Girls were also more influenced by same-sex models.
女孩也更容易受到同性示范者的影响
To find out if movies would have the same effect,
为了研究电影是否有同样的影响
Bandura let some children watch the model live,
班杜拉让一些孩子现场观看真人示范
and others watch it on video, or as a cartoon animation.
另一些则通过视频或是动画片观看
As all three groups showed similar responses,
由于三组都出现相似的反应
Bandura concluded that children imitate others
班杜拉总结 无论从哪见到这种行为
regardless of where they have seen the behavior.
孩子们都会去模仿他人
In the last variation of the experiments,
在最后的对照实验中
Bandura wanted to know if the children would act differently
班杜拉想知道 当示范者对玩偶的行为
when the models were reinforced or punished
受到鼓励或惩罚时
for their behavior towards the doll.
孩子们的行为是否会有所不同
Now, the children first saw the actor hit the doll,
现在 孩子们首先看见演员击打玩偶
and then observed another adult enter the room.
接着观察到另一个人进入房间
This second adult would then react to the actor.
第二个成年人会对演员的行为做出反应
These last results showed that it did not make much of a difference to the children
最后的结果显示不论攻击者是否被赞扬
whether the aggressor was praised or not.
孩子们并没有受到什么影响
However, the kids who saw that the model was punished,
然而 那些看见示范者被惩罚的孩子
displayed much less aggression later,
之后表现出的攻击性要小得多
an effect which was especially true for girls.
对女孩来说更是如此
In other words, seeing others being rewarded does
换句话说 看见别人获得奖赏
not necessarily motivate us to copy their behavior.
不一定促使我们模仿其行为
Seeing others being punished, on the other hand,
而另一方面 看见别人被惩罚
can significantly diminish our will to copy it.
会明显降低我们模仿的意愿
The fact that Bandura was able to prove that children also learn by observing others,
班杜拉能够证明儿童也可以通过观察他人来学习
was a breakthrough in psychology.
是心理学的重大突破
As a consequence of his findings,
由于他的发现
scholars and government officials argued
学者和政府官员认为
that we should ban violence in films and games.
我们应该禁止电影和游戏中的暴力行为
Others suggested that the Bobo Doll studies are not studies of aggression,
另一些人则认为 波波玩偶实验并不是关于攻击性的研究
but rather show that the children are simply motivated
而是表明孩子们的动机仅仅是
by the desire to please adults or act like them.
为了取悦成年人或模仿他们的行为
Bandura and his co-author Richard Walters later defined
班杜拉和他的合著者理查德·沃尔兹后来定义了
five key tenets of the Social Learning Theory:
社会学习理论的五个关键原则:
1. Learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social setting.
一、学习是一种发生在社会场景的认知过程
2. Learning can occur by observing a behavior and the consequences of such.
二、学习可以通过观察一种行为及其后果来实现
3. Learning can happen without an observable change in behavior,
三、学习不一定伴随着行为上的明显变化
because we may learn without displaying what we have learned.
因为我们不一定将学到的东西展现出来
4. Reinforcements play a role but are not entirely responsible for learning.
四、表扬的确有用却不是学习的决定性因素
5. Cognition, behavior, and environment all mutually influence each other —
五、认知 行为和环境相互影响——
a process called reciprocal determinisms.
这个过程被称为交互决定论
Bandura, who in college attended a psychology course only to kill time,
在大学里上心理学课程只是为了消磨时间的班杜拉
soon became passionate about the topic
很快对这个课题产生了热情
and then one of most cited psychologists in history.
并成为历史上被引用最多的心理学家之一
About reality, he said:
关于现实 他说:
“Most of the images of reality on which we base our actions
“我们行为所基于的大部分现实场景
are really based on vicarious experience.”
实际上是以替代经验为基础的”
What do you think?
你认为呢?
How much of your learning comes from observing others?
你的学习有多少是来自观察他人呢?
And if you learn socially, who are your greatest teachers?
若你在社交中学习 谁是你最好的老师?
This and all other Sprouts’ videos are licensed under the Creative Commons.
本视频和其他《铅绘心理》视频归创意大众所有
That means teachers from all around the world
这意味着世界各地的教师们
can use them in classrooms, online courses or to start projects,
可以在课堂 线上课程或开展课题时使用它们
and today, thousands already do!
而今天 已有成千上万人这样做了!
To learn how it works
如果想要知道这是怎么做到的
and download this video without Ads or background music,
并免广告和背景音乐下载该视频
checkout our website or read the description below.
登录我们的网站或阅读视频下方简介
If you want to support our mission and help change education
如果你愿意支持我们的工作并帮助改变教育现状
visit our Patreon, that’s patreon.com/sprouts.
请访问我们的Patreon 网址是patreon.com/sprouts

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视频概述

大人的行为就是孩子的学习榜样,孩子们是如何通过观察进行学习的呢?班杜拉的研究给出了答案。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Winnie

审核员

审核员ART

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XHIhkM1cAv4

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