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感染皮肤藓的途径

So You've Got Ringworm--Now What?

你最有可能感染皮肤藓的途径是:
Here are some of the top ways you can get ringworm:
触摸 触摸 还是触摸
Touching, touching, and touching.
是的 通过触摸
So yeah, by touch.
而夏天意味着有更多可能
And summer means more opportunities to
触摸一些东西可能会使你得皮肤藓
touch things that might infect you with ringworm,
因为皮肤癣通常在较温暖的潮湿天气肆虐
because ringworm thrives in warmer weather that’s often damp, wet,
有些人可能会说……
some might say…
和它的名字相反 皮肤癣并不是一种蠕虫
Contrary to its name ringworm isn’t a worm.
它实际上由是真菌感染而引起的一种皮肤病
It’s actually a skin infection that’s causedby a fungus.
而且有几十种不同种类的真菌可以引起皮肤癣
And there are dozens of different fungal species that can cause it,
这些真菌中最为典型的
typically from one of these
有三种
three genera.
在美国
In the United States,
红色毛癣菌最近吸引了更多的民众聚焦
the species Trichophyton rubrum has more recently stole the spotlight,
成为了现在大多数皮肤癣的致病原因
now causing the majority of ringworm cases.
它们可以感染你身体的各个不同部位
They can infect different parts of your body.
所以……这就是皮肤癣
So…this is ringworm.
这也是
But so is this.
还有这个
And this.
还有股癣
And also jock itch.
好消息是
The goodish news is
虽然皮肤癣很容易传播但它带来的伤害
that although ringworm is easy to spread it’s less harmful than
比很多其他易传染疾病要少一些 像麻疹或埃博拉病毒
a lot of other highly transmittable diseases,like measles or ebola.
那是因为引起皮肤癣的真菌
That’s because the fungal species that
吃得是角质 而角质在体外
cause ringworm eat keratin and keratin is on the
它大部分用来组成你的头发和指甲
outside of you: it makes up much of your hair, nails,
和皮肤细胞
and skin cells.
幸亏它只处于这些区域
Because it’s limited to these areas
皮肤癣才不会更加深入皮肤
ringworm thankfully can’t get more than skin deep and,
去侵蚀你的内脏器官!
say, start eating your internal organs!
不过你可以想象那种恐怖景象有多疯狂吗?抱歉
But could you imagine how crazy that horrorfilm would be? Sorry,
跑题了
got off track.
不管怎么说……
Anyway…
角质是一种包含大量的半膀氨酸的基础性蛋白质
Keratin is a structural protein that containsa lot of cysteine.
这些半胱氨酸通过坚固的二硫键把角质分子结合起来
These cysteine molecules link keratin moleculestogether via strong disulfide bonds.
但是它们仍旧无法对抗引起皮肤癣感染的真菌
But they’re still no match for ringworm-causingfungi.
真菌释放的酶会阻断二硫键
The fungi produce enzymes that break apart the disulfide bonds,
把角质分解成
cutting keratin into
可供真菌吸收的多肽和氨基酸
peptide bits and amino acids that the fungisnack on.
那么如果你
So what do you do
很不幸地感染这种看起来很恶心的真菌的时候你该怎么办呢?
if you are unlucky enough to contract this gross looking fungus?
如果你询问医生疑似真菌感染的症状
If you go to your doctor for a suspected case of ringworm,
那么你可能会是这样:
here’s what you can expect:
首先 你的医生可能会打开对人体无害的黑光诱虫灯
For starters, your doctor might shine a totally harmless blacklight
来帮助诊断
on you for diagnosis.
有一些真菌会使得皮肤癣自然地发出荧光
Some fungi that cause ringworm naturally fluoresce,
幸亏有了化合物蝶啶
thanks to the compound pteridine, so they’re
它们可以很容易被辨别出来
easy to spot.
不过也有很多引起皮肤癣的真菌不会发出荧光
But many of the fungal species that cause ringworm don’t,
所以你的医生可能会
so your doctor might decide
从你的感染处刮下皮肤组织并把它
to scrape the skin from your infection and mix it
和氢氧化钾溶液混合
with a solution of a potassium hydroxide.
氢氧化钾溶液会溶解皮肤细胞
The potassium hydroxide dissolves skin cells,
但不会破坏真菌细胞
but won’t mess with fungal cells.
那是因为真菌细胞是
That’s because fungal cell walls are made
由氢氧化钾无法破坏的几丁质和
of chitin and other complex carbs that it
其他复杂的碳水化合物组成
can’t break down.
皮肤细胞溶解了以后
With the skin cells gone,
医疗保健提供者可以更容易地通过显微镜
it’s easier for your healthcare provider to spot the remaining
辨别剩下的真菌细胞
fungal cells under a microscope.
如果你得了皮肤癣 不用紧张—
If you do have ringworm, don’t stress —
有很多安全简单的治疗方案选择
-there are many safe, lowkey treatment options.
根据你感染的程度
Depending on how bad your infection is,
你的医生可能会让你用非处方药膏
your doctor might have you use an over-the-counter lotion,
像克霉唑
like clotrimazole.
克霉唑是一种抑制真菌的药—
Clotrimazole is a fungistatic drug —
它不能杀死真菌但可以阻止它继续生长
it doesn’t kill the fungus but stops it from growing
而且真菌最终会由于着你的皮肤细胞再生而脱落
and the fungus will eventually slough off as you naturally shed skin cells.
如果你的感染程度真的很严重 像这样
If your infection is really bad, like this,
你的医生可能会开药效强劲的处方
your doctor might prescribe something more hard-core,
比如口服版的杀菌剂特比萘芬
like the oral version of the fungicide terbinafine,
可以很快地杀死真菌
which quickly kills the fungus.
特比萘芬是通过阻断生成麦角固醇分子的酶来起作用的
Terbinafine works by blocking an enzyme responsible for making the molecule ergosterol.
麦角固醇对真菌来说是至关重要的 因为它可以使细胞膜保持稳定
Ergosterol is essential for fungi, becauseit stabilizes their cell membranes.
特比萘芬阻断了酶 意味着没有麦角固醇
Terbinafine blocks the enzyme which means no ergosterol,
也就意味着不稳固的细胞膜
which means an unstable cell membrane,
所以 在你反应过来之前真菌细胞就已经破裂了
and, before you know it, BOOM fungalcells bursts.
人们说一分的预防胜于十分的治疗
They say an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. So,
那么你要如何预防皮肤癣呢?
how do you avoid ringworm?
你要和真菌有直接接触才会得皮肤癣
You need to have direct contact with the fungus to get ringworm,
所以避免共用毛巾和床
so avoid sharing towels, bedding,
梳子 帽子还有其他形式的纺织品
combs, hats, and other articles ofclothing.
保持皮肤干燥和整洁 摸过宠物后洗手
Keep your skin dry and clean and wash your hands after petting fluffy.
如果你开始红肿 起疹子 结痂……
If you start to see a red, rashy, scabby… yeah,
嗯 认真的 去检查一下
seriously just go get it checked out. And,
还有 重要的是要
it’s very important to
从始至终遵照医生的处方
follow the treatment your doctor prescribes to the bitter end.
为什么?
Why? Well,
或许你已经听说过医院的“超级病菌”
maybe you’ve heard of hospital “superbugs.”
这些是可以对多重抗生素产生抗药性的细菌
These are bacteria that have built up resistanceto multiple antibiotics.
真菌也可以
Fungi can do the same thing.
抗真菌药的抗药性是一个问题
Antifungal resistance is a thing,
而且尽管癣菌的抗药性很少
and although resistance to ringworm fungi is rare and nowhere
并且远不及抗生素耐药性那么可怕
near as scary as antibiotic resistance,
不过 还是不要感染为好
it’s not something to be messed with. So,
所以 这个夏天如果你要打赤脚走过
this summer before you walk barefoot
池塘边或者穿着你踢过足球后汗涔涔的衣服
this summer before you walk barefoot
坐下来玩电子游戏 还是……算了吧
in your sweaty clothes after football practice,just…don’t.

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视频概述

感染皮肤癣的原因和治疗方法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG188******17

审核员

审核员BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oM3HlbVIw6A

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