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睡眠专家揭穿13个睡眠误区

Sleep Experts Debunk 13 More Sleep Myths | Debunked

“Hitting Snooze will give you extra meaningful rest.”
“让闹钟晚点再响(Hitting Snooze) 你就能得到额外的有效休息”
Hitting the Snooze bar is one of the worst things you can do.
按赖床键(Snooze)是你能做的最糟糕的事情之一
“Sleeping positions don’t matter.”
“睡觉的姿势不重要”
No, wrong,
不 是错的
sleeping positions absolutely do matter.
睡姿绝对是重要的
“If you snore, you have sleep apnea.”
“如果你打鼾 就患有睡眠呼吸暂停症”
This one is critically important to all sleep physicians.
这一点对所有睡眠医生来说都至关重要
Hi, my name is Girardin Jean-Louis.
大家好 我是Girardin Jean-Louis
I’m a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences,
我是一名精神病学和行为科学教授
and my work focuses primarily on circadian and sleep health.
我主要研究昼夜节律和睡眠健康
And I’m Rebecca Robbins.
我是Rebecca Robbins
I’m an instructor in medicine at Harvard Medical School
我是哈佛医学院的医学讲师
and associate scientist at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
也是布列根和妇女医院的副研究员
In my research, I design behavioral interventions
在研究中 我设计行为干预方案
to give individuals the tools to improve their sleep and their health.
为人们提供方法 改善睡眠质量和健康状况
And today, we’re making an effort to debunk some common myths about sleep.
今天 我们将努力揭穿关于睡眠的一些常见误区
“It’s better to be a morning person than a night owl.”
“做晨型人比做夜猫子好”
So, one isn’t better than the other.
其实并没有优劣之说
We do have in our society both night owls and larks.
我们的社会中既有夜猫子也有早起鸟
There’s no question about that.
这是毫无疑问的
Both of them do very well in terms of their own personal livelihood.
就个人生活而言 两者都过得很好
The difference is that, for personal happiness to be a morning person,
不同之处在于 就当今的社会运转方式而言
because of the way society is structured, they tend to do much better.
晨型人往往个人幸福感会更高
We have sayings like “the early bird gets the worm,”
我们常说 “早起的鸟儿有虫吃”
and unfortunately that’s to the detriment, often, of evening people.
不幸的是 这种观念对夜型人来说很不友好
They really live in a morning person’s world
他们确实生活在一个晨型人的世界里
and often are forced to work on a morning person’s schedule.
经常被迫按照晨型人的时间表工作
So, what we hope to see happen is that people become aware of the kind of person they are.
所以 我们期待看到 人们能意识到自己是是哪种类型的
If you happen to be a morning person,
如果你碰巧是晨型人
do know that your performance is going to be much better in the morning.
要知道 你早上状态会更好
If you’re an evening person,
如果你是夜型人
your performance is going to be much better during the evening hours.
你在晚上状态会更好
“Sleeping positions don’t matter.”
“睡姿不重要”
No, wrong. Sleeping positions absolutely do matter.
不 是错的 睡姿绝对是重要的
We all, believe it or not, spend most of our time in one of three positions.
信不信由你 三种睡姿中 我们多数时候都维持一种睡姿
Most people are side sleepers,
大部分人喜欢侧着睡
the next most common is your back,
第二常见的是平躺着睡
and the least common is sleeping on your stomach.
最不常见的就是趴着睡
The key thing when it comes to sleeping positions
睡姿问题的关键在于
is to make sure that your spinal column is aligned and you are supported
当你用常用睡姿睡觉时 要确保在整个睡眠过程中
over the course of your sleep at night in your preferred position.
你的脊柱在一条直线上 全身都能得到支撑
I would only add that
我唯一想补充的是
if you happen to be somebody who has positional sleep apnea,
如果你碰巧患有体位性睡眠呼吸暂停症
the position at which you sleep does matter,
那么你的睡姿很重要
because if you are sleeping in a supine position,
因为如果你平躺着睡
it’s more difficult for you to breathe, therefore you snore a little louder,
你呼吸起来会更困难 因而呼噜声也会更大
and your bed partner may not really appreciate that.
你的同床人可能不太喜欢这一点
Now, pregnancy is a time where your sleeping positions also really matter.
怀孕期间的睡姿尤为重要
During pregnancy, you want to make sure you’re comfortable
怀孕期间 你要确保睡得舒适
and ideally on your side,
理想的睡姿是侧睡
so that the belly isn’t compressing down on top of you
这样肚子的重量就不会压在你身上
and that the baby’s protected.
也能保护胎儿健康
But the key thing for pregnant people is you want to be comfortable.
但其实对孕妇来说 只要舒服就是最好的
In whatever position you take,
无论你用哪种睡姿
make sure that you are supported with lots of cozy pillows.
记得要用很多舒服的枕头支撑你
“The cure for jet lag is not sleeping all night.”
“倒时差的诀窍是整晚不睡”
One of the common things that we hear people say is often,
我们常常听人们随口就说
“I’ll just stay up all night, and I’ll cure jet lag.”
“只要我熬个通宵 时差就倒好了”
And, of course, that’s not a cure for jet lag.
这样当然不可能倒好时差
You’re just sleep-depriving yourself so significantly
你只是严重剥夺了自己的睡眠
that of course you will fall asleep at any time the next day.
以至于你在第二天肯定会随时睡着
There really is no cure for jet lag,
倒时差没有捷径
but you can cope with some of the consequences
但是应对时差反应是有办法的
by making sure to walk outside in your new time zone as much as possible,
你必须要在新时区里尽量多出去走走
get natural light exposure.
接受自然光照射
If you’re traveling east,
如果你正向东旅行
do not wait until you get there and try to sleep-deprive yourself.
不要等你到那了 才试着不睡觉
You can start to prepare ahead of time.
你可以提前准备倒时差
So if you’re going to be going to Paris,
如果你准备去巴黎
you know it’s about five hours away, so what you do?
你知道时差约5小时 你会怎么做?
You begin to shift your schedule progressively,
你开始逐渐调整你的时间表
maybe four or five days before,
也许提前四五天就开始调整
so that by the time you get to Paris,
这样当你到达巴黎的时候
you are already in the Paris time zone.
你就已经适应巴黎时区了
And try to avoid alcohol.
尽量不要喝酒
Sometimes that can interfere with your ability to get healthy sleep.
有时候喝酒会干扰你获得健康睡眠的能力
Avoid any type of stimulant.
避免任何刺激性食品
Give yourself a few days, you will adjust naturally.
给自己几天时间 你会自然适应的
“Hitting snooze will give you extra meaningful rest.”
“让闹钟晚点再响 你就能得到额外的有效休息”
This is actually a myth.
这其实是个误区
Hitting the snooze bar is one of the worst things you can do,
按赖床键是你可以做的最糟糕的事情之一
because what you’re doing is, you’re robbing yourself of some of the best sleep.
因为这样做是在剥夺自己最好的睡眠时间
In the second half of the night is when we have most of our rapid-eye-movement sleep,
我们大部分的快速眼动睡眠都在后半夜
and that’s where we get a lot of the benefits cognitively of our sleep.
此时我们的睡眠对认知有很多益处
So if you’re hitting your snooze bar
所以如果你按下赖床键
one or two or three or, worse, more times,
一次两次三次 或者更糟 更多次
you’re interrupting some of that really valuable sleep when it comes to the standpoint of our cognition.
从认知的角度来说 你是在打断一些真正有价值的睡眠
Sleep fragmentation is really not good,
睡眠片段化真的不好
because it leads to all kinds of psychological problem as well as physical problem.
因为它会导致各种心理及生理上的问题
If you are sleep-fragmented,
如果你的睡眠是片段的
then you are more likely to have cardio-metabolic dysfunctions,
那么你更可能患上心脏代谢功能障碍
and your mood is not as positive as it should be.
也会更容易出现消极心态
Instead of hitting the snooze bar,
与其让闹钟晚点再响
the best thing is to sleep as late as you possibly can.
你最好睡得久点 尽可能晚点醒来
If you have to go to the office at 8 o’clock
如果你必须八点到办公室
and it takes you an hour to get ready,
起床到单位需要一小时
set your alarm clock for 7 o’clock
那就设七点的闹钟
and commit to not snoozing.
下定决心不要赖床
Get up at 7 o’clock and go about your day.
七点起床 然后开始你的一天
So if you find yourself having to hit the snooze button,
如果你发现自己不得不再赖会儿床
it tells you you really need to have a much longer period of sleep.
这就表明你真的需要更长时间的睡眠
So you may have to think about your lifestyle
所以你也许要反思自己的生活习惯
and see how can you incorporate more sleep in your daily routine.
看看如何在日常生活中安排更多睡眠
“Napping makes up for lack of sleep at night.”
“小睡能弥补夜间睡眠不足”
Napping is an interesting concept in our field.
小睡在我们的领域是一个有趣的概念
It does have its merit, it also has some of its drawbacks.
它确实有好处 但也有一些坏处
The ideal duration for a nap is actually about 20 minutes, so it’s quite short.
理想的午睡时长为20分钟左右 其实很短
So make sure to set an alarm, so you don’t sleep too long,
一定要设一个闹铃 避免睡得太久
which will cause you to wake up groggy
不然醒来时会头昏
and might affect your sleep that night.
还可能影响晚上的睡眠
If you’ve already had your seven hours,
如果你已经睡够七个小时
which is your core sleep needs,
满足了核心睡眠需求
there’s no point trying to do more.
就没有多睡的必要了
In fact, if you’re trying to do more, you could develop insomnia because of that.
事实上 增加睡眠时间可能让你因此患上失眠
“Taking melatonin will make you fall asleep immediately.”
“服用褪黑素能让你马上睡着”
It’s not going to be something that knocks you out right away.
这东西并不能马上让你睡着
Melatonin, we call it a neurotransmitter.
褪黑素 我们称为神经递质
It’s secreted in the brain,
它由大脑分泌
It’s associated with the transition to darkness in our environment.
在环境变暗后开始被分泌出来
And ideally, melatonin is a naturally occurring process,
理想状态下 褪黑素是自然分泌的
but melatonin can also be taken exogenously or as a supplement.
但褪黑素也能从外部获得或作为补充剂
If you’re taking short-acting melatonin substances,
如果你正服用短效褪黑素物质
it’s highly recommended you do that about two to four hours before bedtime,
强烈建议你在睡前的2到4小时服用
certainly not right before you go to bed.
不要等到睡前才吃
It takes a while before it becomes effective.
因为它要过一会儿才能生效
Most of the melatonin that’s available over the counter isn’t highly regulated,
大多数非处方的褪黑素没有得到严格监管
so unfortunately we don’t know its purity.
所以很遗憾其纯度不得而知
The other key thing is many people take far too much.
另一个关键点是许多人服用严重过量
So often you go to the drugstore
平时你去药店
and you see 10 milligrams, 20 milligrams of melatonin.
经常会看见10毫克甚至20毫克的褪黑素
That’s far, far too much. Much smaller doses are important.
这个剂量太大了 务必要大大减少
You will want to talk to your physician
你要咨询医生
to make sure that you pick the right type of melatonin for the problem that you’re having.
确保你选取了合适的褪黑素 能够对症下药
“If you pull an all-nighter, sleep as soon as possible.”
“通宵之后尽早补觉”
No, hopefully you’re not pulling all-nighters,
不对 希望你没有在通宵熬夜
because, again, sleep is so important night in and night out.
因为 再强调一遍 每晚的睡眠太重要了
But if you did get a night of either very insufficient sleep or maybe no sleep at all,
但如果你确实有一晚没睡好或压根没睡
this is a myth, in some ways,
这种情况基本无解
because we don’t want to just binge-sleep as soon as you’re absolutely able to.
因为我们不想你一旦条件允许就疯狂补觉
What you want to do is actually get back to your normal routine as fast as possible.
实际上你需要做的是尽快回到正常的作息
So that means maybe trying to push through the day
这意味着也许你要试着熬过这一天
and wait until your regular bedtime,
等到平时的就寝时间再睡觉
maybe taking a nap in the afternoon if you’re tired,
累的话 你可以在午后小睡一下
but trying to get back on your normal schedule as soon as possible,
你要争取尽快回到正常作息
not necessarily sleep as soon as possible.
而不是尽快补觉
That’s an excellent point.
这个观点很好
I would only add that, if you happen to be a young person,
我只想补充一点 如果你恰巧是个年轻人
that’s really true, a couple of days before you’re back on schedule.
你真的只需几天就可以恢复正常作息
But if you happen to be an older person in your 60s and 70s,
但如果您不巧是一位六七十岁的长者
it could take you up to a week to recover.
您可能需要一周才能恢复
So you have to think about, what am I doing? Do I have to do that?
所以得想想自己在做什么?是否必须?
Because there’s a price to pay,
因为这是要付出代价的
particularly if you happen to be an older person.
尤其是对年长者来说
“Dreams only last for a few seconds.”
“梦只持续几秒钟”
No, dreams don’t only last for a couple seconds,
不对 梦并不只持续几秒钟
they can be a couple seconds,
有的梦能持续几秒钟
they can be a couple minutes, and they can be longer.
有的梦能持续几分钟 甚至更长
We all dream four to five times a night,
我们每晚都要做四到五次梦
and it happens predominantly in rapid-eye-movement sleep.
这主要发生在快速眼动睡眠中
We believe about 80% of dreaming takes place then.
我们认为80%的梦都发生在这个时候
You could have a dream episode that lasts about five seconds,
你可能做了一个约五秒钟的梦
and when you are recounting what actually took place during the night,
当你想要回顾梦里究竟发生了什么时
you feel as if you had this dream for, like, two, three hours.
你感觉似乎做了2-3小时的梦
You could also have a dream that lasted 10 minutes,
你也可能做了一个持续十分钟的梦
and then you feel it really should have been about five seconds.
但感觉上它仿佛只有五秒左右
It has to do with the emotional content of the dream.
这与梦境中的情感内容有关
And, in fact, most people remember their dreams
实际上 多数人记得自己的梦
because of the thing that they see.
是因为他们看到的内容
If you see a loved one die in a car accident,
如果看见心爱的人因车祸去世
you gonna remember this.
你会记住这个梦的
There is no precise duration of dreams,
梦境没有确切的时长
we know less about their quantity and length.
我们对梦境的数量和长度也知之甚少
But what we do encourage is to have fun with your dreams.
但我们鼓励你把做梦当成一种乐趣
Talk to a loved one. Maybe keep a dream journal.
和爱人聊聊 也可以写梦境日记
“If you snore, you have sleep apnea.”
“如果你打鼾 你就有睡眠呼吸暂停症”
No, snoring is one of the most common symptoms of a condition called obstructive sleep apnea,
不 打鼾是阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停症最常见的症状之一
which is life-threatening,
这种病会危及生命
but the snoring doesn’t necessarily mean that you absolutely have this condition.
但打鼾并不意味着你绝对患有这个病
Many people snore and are completely healthy.
许多打鼾的人都很健康
Essentially, snoring or sleep apnea is really a mechanical problem.
本质上打鼾或睡眠呼吸暂停都是身体机能问题
That is, because of the excess weight on the upper airway,
也就是说 因为上呼吸道承载过重
you put too much pressure on your throat,
喉咙受到的压力过大
therefore the airway collapses either fully or partially.
导致气道完全或部分塌陷
That’s what snoring really is.
这是造成打鼾的真正原因
It’s you making an effort trying to keep the upper airway open.
打鼾其实是你在努力保持上呼吸道畅通
But if that snoring is coupled with excessive daytime sleepiness
但如果打鼾伴随着白天过度嗜睡
or if you’ve ever been told that you wake up over the course of the night
或者你得知自己曾在半夜醒来过
or stop breathing or gasp for air,
或曾停止呼吸 大口喘气
those could be signs of sleep apnea.
这些可能是睡眠呼吸暂停的信号
Sleep apnea is a very serious problem.
睡眠呼吸暂停是很严重的问题
Some people can actually die in their sleep.
一些人确实会在睡眠中死去
This one is critically important to all sleep physicians.
所有的睡眠医生都要高度重视这一问题
We do not want one more person to die of a heart attack or a stroke
我们不希望再有人因为本可解决的问题
because of a problem they could have fixed.
而死于心脏病发作或中风
So you really have to understand,
所以你必须明白
if that cardinal symptom of snoring shows up,
如果出现打鼾的主要症状
talk to a physician to make sure that you don’t have sleep apnea.
要告诉医生 确保自己没有睡眠呼吸暂停症
And if you do, we can actually help you breathe better, sleep better,
如果你患有该疾病 我们能帮你改善呼吸 改善睡眠
therefore have a very productive and long life.
从而提高生活质量 延长寿命
“Insomnia means you can’t fall asleep.”
“失眠意味着你睡不着”
It’s partly true, partly not so true.
这种说法半对半错
If you happen to be somebody who can’t fall asleep fast enough,
如果你碰巧是没办法很快入睡的人
then you have what we call sleep-onset insomnia, which is true.
那么你患有入睡障碍性失眠 这是对的部分
But you also have the other one,
但是失眠还有另一种情况
which is that you fall asleep OK
也就是说 你可以睡着
but you wake up multiple times throughout the night
但一整夜会醒来很多次
and you cannot go back to sleep.
然后就睡不着了
That’s sleep-maintenance insomnia.
这叫保持睡眠障碍性失眠
Now, insomnia is best treated with a healthcare provider,
最好让医护人员帮你治疗失眠
and there are pharmacological treatments,
你也可以接受药物治疗
but there are actually behavioral treatments that are incredibly effective,
但实际上有一种非常有用的行为疗法
and that’s called cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.
我们称之为针对失眠的认知行为疗法
So if you are not sure what to do,
如果你不确定该怎么做
we could contact your sleep physician.
我们可以联系你的睡眠医生
They’ll be able to guide you.
他们能为你提供指导
“If you can fall asleep anywhere and at any time,
“如果你随时随地都能睡着
it means you’re a ‘good sleeper.'”
说明你的睡眠很好”
No, this most definitely is a myth.
不 这绝对是种误解
Believe it or not, it actually takes time to fall asleep.
不管你信不信 睡着是需要时间的
The hallmark of a healthy sleeper
健康睡眠的标志
is actually what we call sleep latency,
其实要看睡眠潜伏期
or the time it takes you to fall asleep of about 15 or 20 minutes.
也就是在大约15到20分钟内睡着
If you’re falling asleep right away,
如果你秒睡
it generally is a sign that you’re not getting enough sleep.
通常表示你没有得到足够的睡眠
A good sleeper really is a person who can function throughout the day,
拥有良好睡眠的人 会高效地度过一整天
not fall asleep at inappropriate circumstances.
而不会在不该睡着的时候睡着
Most people need about seven to eight hours to function optimally.
多数人需约7-8小时睡眠才能达到最佳状态
But the fact that somebody might be a short sleeper, five, six hours,
但事实是一些人可能睡很少 只睡5-6小时
if they’re functioning optimally during the day,
如果他们白天状态良好
they can go home and spend time with the family,
回到家能与家人共度时光
walk the dog, play with the cat,
遛狗逗猫
then that person is a good sleeper.
那么这个人的睡眠就是好的
But if you find that you’re sleeping five hours,
但如果你发现 你只睡了5小时
when you’re at work you’re falling asleep, you can’t function properly,
结果上班时睡着了 不能正常工作
your mood is not what it’s supposed to be,
你的情绪也不太对劲
then you need to get a bit more sleep.
那么你需要增加睡眠时长
“More sleep is always better.”
“睡眠越多越好”
No, this is a myth.
不 这也是误解
More sleep is not always better,
多睡并不总是更好的
because in addition to getting sufficient duration, when it comes to sleep,
提及睡眠 除了获得足够的睡眠时间
consistency is critical.
睡眠的连贯性也很重要
So if you look at maybe sleeping in
如果你发现自己会睡过头
or extending your regular sleep times
或者睡眠次数比平时多
well beyond what you typically keep,
远超你平常的睡眠情况
then that’s going to throw your internal biological or circadian rhythm completely out of whack.
那么这将会彻底打乱你的生物钟和昼夜节律
So instead of sleeping in on the weekends or maybe binge-sleeping,
所以不要在周末睡懒觉 也不要睡得太多
the ideal thing is to get onto a schedule
理想方法是制定一个时间表
and try to keep it as close tag Monday through Monday as possible.
然后尽可能一周七天坚持按时间表来作息
What we don’t want people to do is to feel “I have to sleep eight hours.”
我们不想让大家觉得“我必须睡够8小时”
If you’re physiological for seven,
如果你的身体只睡7小时就够了
then that’s perfectly fine.
那7小时就挺好
If it’s six, that’s perfectly fine.
哪怕是6小时也一样
The question is, is it optimal for you?
问题是对你来说 这个时长是否足够?
“Nightmares and night terrors are the same.”
“噩梦和夜惊是一样的”
No, these two things are distinct.
不 其实两者是完全不一样的
A nightmare is, of course, a disturbing dream,
噩梦 当然 就是指令人不安的梦
and a night terror is actually something that we call a parasomnia,
而夜惊事实上是一种异态睡眠(parasomnia)
which refers to abnormal behavior that occurs during sleep.
指在睡眠中发生的异常行为
But it largely happens in children
但夜惊在儿童中更常见
and does generally go away around puberty.
通常在青春期左右症状消失
No, there are similarities with these two things,
确实 这两者间有相似之处
but the one difference is
但有一点不同
that a night terror can be very disturbing for the person who isn’t sleeping
如果一个醒着的人看见睡着的人发生了夜惊
to observe in a sleeper.
会觉得十分担忧
Anyone experiencing night terrors is thrashing about violently,
夜惊的人会剧烈地翻来覆去
and so it can be a little bit disturbing to watch.
所以看上去会有点令人担心
Nightmares tend to be a resultant(result) of things you have been exposed to during the day.
噩梦往往来源于你白天经历过的一些事
If you had watched a horror movie,
如果你看了恐怖片
some of those mentations can carry on during the night episode.
一些心理活动可能延续到晚上的梦境中
If you happen to be under significant stress, you’re not doing so well at work,
如果你正好感到压力很大 工作不太顺利
all of those can cause nightmares.
这些都可能让你做噩梦
One exception is the environment.
环境因素是一个特例
We find experimentally, when we manipulate the temperature, so we put sleepers under a heat blanket
在实验中 我们给睡着的人盖上加热毯 控制其温度
so we can make sure that they’re nice and toasty,
本想确保他们睡得温暖舒适
we actually see that their sleep fragmentation increases
结果发现 被试者的睡眠愈发碎片化
and the reports of nightmares as well.
做噩梦的人也更多
So make sure that your bedroom is on the cooler side.
所以你应该把卧室设在相对凉爽的房间
We generally recommend about 68 degrees Fahrenheit for an optimal sleeping temperature.
我们通常建议 最佳的睡眠温度为20摄氏度左右
Those sleep myths we talked about, maybe there are more,
除了以上这些睡眠误区 可能还有其他的
but at least for now we know
但至少现在我们知道了
these are the ones that are counterproductive to our health and well-being.
这些是不利于我们健康和幸福的做法
Let’s all have a good night’s sleep.
愿我们都一夜好眠
-Are we ready? -Go ahead, yeah, yeah.
– 准备好了? – 嗯嗯 你请便
All right.
好的
You’ve got to throw it up.
你应该把它扔到空中
– Should we both? Do you want some of these? – No, you do it.
– 来吧一起? 你想来点吗? – 不了 你来吧
You throw it.
你来扔
– There we go. – [Laughter]
– 扔喽 – [大笑]

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视频概述

关于睡眠,你是否存在一些错误认识,而你自己还没有意识到?本视频中,两位专家为我们普及了13个睡眠误区,提出了更科学的睡眠建议。快来看看吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Polaristear

审核员

审核员ED

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aoaec1Npjoc

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