未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

太空实验室:第一个居住在太空的美国人

Skylab: The First Americans Living In Space

每几个月就会有新的组员到达国际空间站
New crews arrive at the International Space Station every couple of months, so it seems
看上去我们已经解决了所有住在环地球轨道上会发生的事情
like we’ve got the whole living-in-orbit thing figured out.
然而美国的第一个空间站在发射时就解体了 并且其中一个宇航员有了反叛的情绪
But America’s first space station fell apart when it launched, had a crew rebel, and crashed
最终在美国宇航局可以拯救它之前就撞毁到地球上
back to Earth before NASA could save it.
它的名字是太空实验室 而且这个世界性的太空项目从住在空间站的三名工作人员身上
Its name was Skylab, and space programs worldwide learned a lot about how to keep astronauts
获得了很多关于如何保持宇航员开心 健康 而且高效工作的知识
happy, healthy, and productive from the three crews who lived on board.
苏联在1971年发射了人类第一座太空站 礼炮一号
Humanity’s first space station was Salyut 1, launched by the Soviets in 1971.
但是它执行的任务出现了一些问题 而且在那一年底礼炮一号就脱离了轨道
But the missions had some problems, and Salyut 1 was deorbited later that year after only
而且这个空间站只有一名工作人员
one crew made it on board.
两年后 美国打算用太空实验室来加入这场竞赛 它被发射于1973年5月14日
Two years later, the US got in the game with Skylab, which launched on May 14th, 1973.
太空实验室由土星四号B型火箭运输到太空 其内部非常适宜宇航员居住
Skylab was a Saturn IV-B rocket booster that was adapted so astronauts could live inside.
它比以往任何的载人航天器的内部空间都要大 给予了宇航员足够的空间去洗澡
It was much roomier than anything in space before, giving the astronauts room to shower,
睡觉 做实验 而且真实地体验了前所未有的微重力环境
sleep, do experiments, and really experience microgravity like no one ever had.
太空实验室的能源来自于两个大型的太阳能嵌镶板队列
Skylab’s power came from two large solar panel arrays.
而且它的护罩可以使其避免太阳辐射以及微流星体
And shields protected it from solar radiation and micrometeoroids – the bits of dust that
这些少量的太空灰尘会在经过大气层时变成流星 它们可以使没有保护的太空飞船变成
become shooting stars in Earth’s atmosphere and can turn an unprotected spaceship into
瑞士硬干酪
Swiss cheese.
当它发射时 问题从一个火箭上开始出现 其中一个护罩掉落了
But the mission got off to a rocky start when it launched: one of the shields fell off,
它撕裂了其中一个太阳能板 并堵塞了另一个太阳能板
which tore off one of the solar panel arrays and jammed the other one.
太空实验室可以这样进去轨道 但没有这些部件将不适宜人类在此生存
Skylab made it into orbit, but was uninhabitable without those pieces – it basically had
因为它基本上没有能源而且太阳可以使内部温度超过90摄氏度
no power, and the Sun heated the inside to over 90 degrees Celsius.
当第一个宇航员将在那个月底被送上空间站 美国宇航局必须想出办法
When the first crew was sent up later that month, NASA had to figure out how the heck
怎样在轨道上完成主要的修补工作
to do major repairs on something in orbit.
经过了多次的舱外活动 宇航员们修复了被堵塞的太阳能板
Over the course of several spacewalks, the astronauts fixed the jammed solar panel and
并安装了一个亮橙色的遮阳罩来冷却内部
deployed a bright orange sunshade to cool down the inside.
美国宇航局从这第一次的太空修补工作中学到了很多 因为这绝对不会是最后一次进行
NASA learned a lot from these first big in-space repairs, which definitely weren’t the last
类似的修补工作
of their kind.
举个例子 国际空间站需要常规的修补 而且哈勃太空望远镜
The ISS, for example, needs regular repairs, and the Hubble Space Telescope had a faulty
如果需要拍出清晰的照片必须要在太空中修补一个镜面的错误
mirror that needed to be fixed in space before it could take clear photographs.
当它变得适宜居住时 太空实验室的第一名宇航员马上进入其中并开始认真对待工作
Once they made it livable, Skylab’s first crew hopped on board and got down to business.
或者说 事实上 认真地去研究科学
Or, really, they got down to science.
在太空实验室需要做超过80个实验 包括生物 物理 天文学
More than 80 experiments were conducted on Skylab, including biology, physics, and astronomy
这些实验都是高校学生提出来的
experiments that were proposed by high-school students.
但也有专业科学家提出的实验 例如阿波罗望远镜的安装
But there were also experiments for professional scientists, like the Apollo Telescope Mount,
它是第一个观测到太阳的日冕有洞状的物体
which first detected things like holes in the solar corona.
它也是国际空间站监测太阳亮度和强度的太阳类设备的先驱者
It was the precursor to the ISS’s SOLAR instruments that monitor the Sun’s brightness
太阳的亮度和强度可以影响地球的气候
and intensity, which can affect climate down here on Earth.
另一个美国宇航局想知道的是人在太空中住几个星期或几个月
Another thing NASA wanted to know was how people’s bodies responded to being in space
身体会有什么反应
for weeks or months at a time.
礼炮一号的宇航员在太空呆了23天 这是当时的记录
Salyut 1’s crew was in space for 23 days, which was a world record at the time.
但是每个太空实验室的宇航员都超过了这个记录 最后一个宇航员在轨道上度过了
But each of Skylab’s crews blew past that record, with the final crew spending a full
完整的84天
84 days in orbit.
在微重力环境下过了这么多天 美国宇航局发现他们骨密度和身体质量减少了
With that much time in microgravity, NASA could see evidence of bone density and body
因为宇航员们的身体没必要去抵抗那么多的重力
mass loss, which happen because astronauts’ bodies don’t have to fight against gravity
和其他的压力
and other stresses as much.
现如今 宇航员们可以在太空中做某些常规的练习去抵抗这些问题
Nowadays, astronauts do certain regular exercises in space to combat this problem, but space
但宇航局还是在不断地研究方法去保持他们的健康
agencies are still researching ways to keep them healthy.
太空实验室最后的宇航员在1973年的11月进入其中 这离空间站被送上轨道只过去了短短几个月
Skylab’s final crew launched in November 1973 – only a few months after the station
而且宇航员们与他们上司之间的关系有些……复杂
was put in orbit – and they had a… rough relationship with their bosses.
他们在太空偷偷地生病 当没有医疗帮助时这可是个禁忌
They hid being sick in space, which is a no-no when you don’t have access to medical help.
而且在工作日要完成16个小时长的工作使得他们非常疲惫 所以他们不可能完成
And they were also exhausted by the long, 16-hour work days, so they couldn’t possibly
所有他们被命令需要完成的任务
accomplish all the tasks they were commanded to do.
最终 他们反抗了 关掉了与美国宇航局的所有交流整整一天
Eventually, they rebelled – turning off all communications with NASA for a day to
只是为了休息
relax.
当然 美国宇航局对此也很不高兴 而且这些宇航员之后再也没有去过
Of course, NASA wasn’t happy about this, and none of those astronauts ever went to
太空
space again.
但是这个事故也让美国宇航局上了重要的一课:
But the incident also taught NASA some important lessons:
在太空中工作可能会很慢 尤其是对那些之前没有去过太空的宇航员
Working in space can be slow, especially for astronauts who haven’t been there before,
而且你不能把人类当成机器人来对待
and you can’t treat humans like robots.
所以 未来的宇航员会获得一个更均衡的时间表
So, future crews were given much more balanced schedules.
但是当宇航员们在1974年返回地球之后 太空实验室一直保持空置的状态
But after that crew returned to Earth in 1974, Skylab stayed empty.
美国宇航局希望他们可以在1977年或1978年用早期的航天飞机运输更多的宇航员去空间站
NASA had hoped they could send up more astronauts on an early Shuttle mission in 1977 or 1978,
但是这个计划被延迟了
but the program got delayed.
另外 他们不理会研究者关于越来越多太阳活动的预测
Plus, they ignored researchers’ predictions about more solar activity – which expanded
即 太阳活动会导致地球大气层膨胀并开始向下拖拽太空实验室
Earth’s atmosphere enough that it started dragging Skylab down.
尽管那时美国宇航局考虑派遣一艘航天飞机把太空实验室推向一个更高更稳定的轨道
By the time NASA considered sending a Shuttle to push Skylab into a higher, stable orbit,
但是他们并没有时间去这么做了
there just wasn’t enough time.
所以在1979年7月11日 经过了5年的无人居住状态 太空实验室重新回到了大气层
So on July 11th, 1979, uninhabited for more than five years, Skylab re-entered the atmosphere
并且分裂开落到了澳大利亚和印度洋
and broke apart over Australia and the Indian Ocean.
太空实验室给未来的空间站 例如和平号空间站和国际空间站打下了基础
Skylab set the stage for future space stations like Mir and the ISS, and showed that people
也说明了人们确实可以在太空住一段时间并做重要的科学研究
really could live in space for a while and do important scientific research.
当然 只要你给他们足够的时间休息
As long as you give them time to rest, of course.
谢谢观赏这一期的科学秀空间 并且尤其感谢我们在Patreon上的赞助者
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space, and thanks especially to our patrons
是他们使得我们制作这个节目成为可能
on Patreon who help make this show possible.
如果你也想要赞助我们继续制作这样的节目 可以去patreon.com/scishow
If you want to help us keep making episodes like this, just go to patreon.com/scishow
了解更多的信息
to learn more.
而且别忘了访问youtube.com/scishowspace并点击订阅
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍了美国第一座宇宙空间站一生的故事,介绍了太空实验室上发生的问题以及对未来空间站的积极影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

WDM~^ω^~MDW

审核员

审核团Z

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SM1vXb6J7gE

相关推荐