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斯金纳的操作性条件反射理论

Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning is based on the idea
操作性条件反射的基本理念是
that we can increase or decrease a certain behavior by adding a consequence.
通过增加或减少固定的行为来达成某种后果
by adding a consequence.
我们能使确定的行为变多或变少
For example if a dog poops on a carpet
例如 如果狗狗在地毯上拉便便
we can either provide reinforcement so the dog does it again
我们能强化这种行为 使狗狗再次这么做
or punishments so the dog stops.
也能施以惩罚使狗狗不再这么做
Both reinforcement and punishment can either be positive or negative,
强化行为和惩罚都各有利弊
which means we have four possible ways to teach this dog a lesson.
即 在训练狗狗时 我们有4种方式供选择
We can draw the four options in a table:
我们可以把这4种方式列成表格
if reinforcement is positive
如果强化是积极的
we add something pleasant
我们就增加点奖励
like a cookie to increase the likelihood of a behavior.
比如为这个行为奖励个饼干
If reinforcement is negative
如果强化是不对的
we still want to increase the desired behavior
而我们还想让期望的行为变多
this time by removing something unpleasant
那此时就减少一些让狗狗不舒服的
like the leash.
例如皮带的束缚感
If punishment is positive
如果惩罚是正向的
we add an unpleasant response to decrease behavior.
就需要增加让狗狗不适的来减少这种行为
When punishment is negative
如果惩罚是负面的
we also want to decrease behavior
我们还是想让这种行为减少
now by removing something pleasant
那就要拿走像是舒适的毛毯这种让狗狗开心的东西
like the comfy carpet.
像是舒适的毛毯
If we stop any sort of manipulation
如果我们不再施加任何影响
the conditioned behavior will eventually disappear again.
这种条件性行为最终就会消失
This is called extinction.
这就叫做消退
Operant conditioning was first studied by Edward L. Thorndike
爱德华·桑代克是最先研究操作性条件反射的
and later made famous by the work of B.F. Skinner.
之后斯金纳让他发扬光大
Skinner believed that organisms are doing what they do naturally
斯金纳坚信生物会遵循本能做事
until they accidentally encounter a stimulus that creates conditioning
直到它们偶然遇到了一个刺激
which results in a change in behavior.
这个刺激会导致行为发生改变
To test this he placed a rat inside an operant conditioning chamber
为了测试这一观点 他把老鼠放进了反应调节室里
which later became known as the Skinner Box.
后世称其为斯金纳箱
Among other things inside the box
在箱中的其他东西中间
was a lever that would release food when pressed.
是一个按压后会流出食物的控制杆
Conditioning happens in a three-term contingency
在三项相倚中条件作用出现了
today known as the ABCs of behavior.
这在如今又被称为行为学基础
A stands for antecedent:
A代表了前因
the rat accidentally hits the lever that triggers the release of food.
老鼠偶然击中操作杆使食物流出
B stands for behavior and refers to the response:
B代表反应行为
the rat keeps pressing the lever.
老鼠会不停地按操作杆
C stands for consequence:
C代表结果
food keeps coming out.
食物会不停流出
The strength of the response to the conditioning
对条件产生的反射强度
depends on the schedule of reinforcement.
取决于强化的时间
If there is always food after pressing,
如果按压后总有食物
the rat behaves predictably.
老鼠的行为就可预测
If the food is released randomly
如果按压后随机出食物
the rat behaves erratically, like an addict.
老鼠的行为就不规律 像是成瘾
Skinner born in 1904
斯金纳生于1904
was a professor of psychology and subscribed to behaviorism.
是行为主义心理学的教授
He argued that you can only study behavior that is visible
他表明人只能研究到可见的行为
and anything happening only within the mind
而脑子中想的任何事情
is either a misconception or irrelevant to science.
是误解也无关于自然科学
He thought free will was an illusion
他认为自由意志是一种错觉
because behavior is either random
因为行为或是随机的 或是对周边环境的反馈
or a reaction to the environment.
要么是对周边环境的反馈
His work became the foundation for behavioral therapy,
他的研究是行为疗法
military drills, and animal training.
军事演习和动物训练的基础
You can try this classroom exercise on positive reinforcement:
你可以试着做个正面强化的课堂练习
one individual must exit the room.
一个人必须要离开房间
Now decide on a task which that individual will complete,
定下个此人能完成的任务
such as finding a particular book.
例如寻找一本指定的书
Then choose an honorable way of reinforcing that tasks
然后选一种体面的方式强化任务
such as clapping your hands.
例如拍手
Invite the person to come back into the room
邀请此人回到房间
and let them try and complete the task
然后让他们试着完成任务
but don’t give any instructions.
但别做出任何指示
Every time they are on the right track in regards to completing the task
他们每次有完成任务的有利迹象
clap your hands louder.
就大声的拍拍手
If they move away from performing the task
如果他们偏离了任务
逐渐减少拍手或不再拍手
Once the person understands what they are supposed to do
一旦此人知道了他们在做什么
let them explain the task.
想他解释一下这个任务
Did they get it right?
看他们理解对了吗
Sprouts videos are published under the Creative Commons license
铅绘心理的视频是在知识共享协议下出版的
that means our videos are free
即视频是免费的
and anyone can download edit and play them for personal use
任何人都能下载编辑播放它们用于个人
and public schools, governments and nonprofit organizations
公共学校 政府和非赢利组织
can also use them for training, online courses or designing new curriculums.
也能用它们做培训 线上教学或设计新课程
To help us stay independent and support our work
为了让我们能独立运营 为了支持我们
you can join our patrons and contribute
你可以给我们赞助或捐款
just visit: patreon.com/ sprouts.
访问网址pattern.com/sprouts.就行
Even one dollar can make a difference!
帮助不分大小 一美元也是好的
If you have deep insights into academic topics
如果你对学术话题有深远的见解
and want to help us explain complicated ideas in simple language
并想帮我们用简洁的话语解释复杂的理念
please contact us at www.sproutsschools.com
请在www.sproutsschools.com上联系我们

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视频概述

操作性条件反射

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ne6o-uPJarA

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