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东方哲学的六个主要思想 – 译学馆
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东方哲学的六个主要思想

Six Ideas From Eastern Philosophy

东方哲学
东方哲学的六个主要思想
Eastern Philosophy has always had a very similar goal to Western philosophy:
东西方哲学其实目的相似:
that of making us wiser, less agitated,
让我们变得更聪明 不那么烦躁
more thoughtful and readier to appreciate our lives.
更深谋远虑 更能欣赏生活
However, the way it has gone about this has been intriguingly different.
但是东西方哲学达到目的的方式有很大不同
In the East, Philosophy has taught its lessons
东方哲学的传授是
via tea drinking ceremonies, walks in bamboo forests, contemplations of rivers and ritualised flower arranging sessions.
通过茶道 漫步竹林 河流边沉思 插花仪式
Here are a few ideas to offer us the distinctive wisdom of a continent
以下观点展示了独特的东方智慧
and enrich our notions of what philosophy might really be.
用以丰富我们的哲学观念
ONE: Life is suffering
第一 生活即承受苦痛
The first and central ‘noble truth’ of the Buddha
佛教的第一真谛是
is that life is unavoidably about misery.
生命是无休止的苦痛
The Buddha continually seeks to adjust our expectations
佛持续寻求自我期望的调整
so we will know what to expect:
这样才会知道将发生什么:
sex will disappoint us,
性会让人失望
youth will disappear,
青春会消逝
money won’t spare us pain.
金钱不能缓解疼痛
For the Buddha, the wise person should take care to grow completely at home
佛教认为聪明人应该小心翼翼在家中成长
with the ordinary shambles of existence.
蹒跚学步
They should understand that they are living on a dunghill.
他们应该明白人生活在污秽中
When baseness and malice rear their heads,
当卑鄙和恶意抬头时
as they will, it should be against a backdrop of fully vanquished hope,
聪明人应该欣然接受 坦然面对
so there will be no sense of having been unfairly let down and one’s credulity betrayed.
这样就不会在面对不公平 轻信他人却被出卖时 感到痛苦
That said, the Buddha was often surprisingly cheerful
也就是说 佛陀经常极其乐观
and generally sported an inviting, warm smile.
经常带着善意而温暖的微笑
This was because anything nice, sweet or amusing that came his way
那是因为来临的任何美好 甘甜和惊喜
was immediately experienced as a bonus;
都被当作上天的褒奖
a deeply gratifying addition to his original bleak premises.
它在原本黯淡的前提下增加了令人深感欣慰的东西
By keeping the dark backdrop of life always in mind,
若将生命晦暗的背景牢记于心
he sharpened his appreciation of whatever stood out against it.
就能对一切不如意抱着感激的态度
He teaches us the art of cheerful despair.
佛陀教我们更积极地面对绝望
TWO: Mettā (pali): Benevolence
二 Mettā (巴利语):仁慈
Mettā is a word which, in the Indian language of Pali,
Mettā是印度巴利语中的一个词汇
means benevolence, kindness or tenderness.
意思是仁慈 善意或温柔
It is one of the most important ideas in Buddhism.
它是佛教的重要思想之一
Buddhism recommends a daily ritual meditation to foster this attitude
佛教强调通过日常冥想培养这种态度
(what is known as mettā bhāvanā).
也就是众所周知的mettā bhāvanā
The meditation begins with a call to think very carefully
冥想是在每天早上
every morning of a particular individual
专注思考一件特定的事
with whom one tends to get irritated or to whom one feels aggressive or cold
冥想适用于那些易怒 有攻击性或冷漠的人
and in place of one’s normal hostile impulses
我们应该用温和的语言
– to rehearse kindly messages like
代替那些有敌意的词汇
‘I hope you will find peace’
比如“我希望你找到平和”
or ‘I wish you to be free from suffering’.
或者“我希望你从受苦中解脱”
This practice can be extended outwards ultimately to include
这种练习可以向外扩展
pretty much everyone on earth.
适用于全世界的每个人
The background assumption is that our feelings towards people
背景假设是我们对人的感觉
are not fixed and unalterable,
不是固定和不可改变的
but are open to deliberate change and improvement,
但是对刻意的改变和改进持开放态度
with the right encouragement.
并给予正确的鼓励
Compassion is a learnable skill, the buddists tell us,
佛陀告诉我们 慈悲可以习得
and we need to direct it as much towards those we love
我们需要将慈悲指向所爱之人
as those we are tempted to dismiss and detest.
也指向那些我们试图放弃和憎恶的人
THREE: Guanyin
三 观音
Guanyin is a saintly female figure in East Asian Buddhism
观音是东亚佛教中的圣洁女性形象
strongly associated with mercy, compassion and kindness.
她慈悲为怀 富有同情心 一心向善
She occupies a similar role within Buddhism
在佛教中她的角色
as the Virgin Mary within Catholicism.
与天主教的圣母玛利亚相似
There are shrines and temples to her all over China;
中国到处都是她的神龛和寺庙
one, in the province of Hainan, has a 108 metre statue of her
中国海南省有一尊108米高的观音像
(it’s the fourth largest statue anywhere in the world).
是世界四大雕塑之一
Guanyin’s popularity speaks of the extent to which the needs of childhood endure within us.
观音的流行说明了童年需要在我们内心的持续程度
She is, in the noblest sense, ‘mummy’.
她是高贵的“人类之母”
Across China, adults allow themselves to be weak in her presence.
在中国 人们可在她面前流露脆弱
Her gaze has a habit of making people cry
她的注视往往使人潸然泪下
for the moment one breaks down isn’t so much when things are hard
此刻人们不是因生活的艰难而流泪
as when one finally encounters kindness
而是被观音的仁慈感化
and a chance to admit to sorrows one has been harbouring in silence for too long.
他终于有机会去吐露内心隐藏已久的悲伤了
Guanyin doesn’t judge.
观音不作评价
She understands that you are tired, that you have been betrayed,
她理解你很累 你一直遭背叛
that things aren’t easy, that you are fed up:
世事艰难 你疲惫不堪
she has a measure of the difficulties involved in
她对你遭遇的困难有自己的解决措施
trying to lead a remotely adequate adult life.
她引导你像孩子一样生活
FOUR: Wu Wei (Chinese)
四 无为
Wu Wei is a (Chinese) term at the heart of the philosophy of Daoism.
“无为”是道教哲学中的术语
It is first described in the Tao Te Ching,
《道德经》中提出了这个概念
written by the sage Lao Tzu in the 6th century BC.
该书于公元前六世纪由圣人老子写就
Wu Wei means ‘not making an effort’, going with the flow,
“无为”就是“不做努力” 顺其自然
but it doesn’t in any way imply laziness or sloth.
但并非懒惰和懈怠
It suggests rather an intentional surrender of the will
无为是一种屈服于意志的有意为之
based on a wise recognition of the need, at points,
是基于对需求的明智认知
to accede to, rather than protest against, the demands of reality.
重点是同意现实的需求 而非抗议
As Lao Tzu puts it, to be wise is to have learnt
正如老子所说 明智的做法是学习
how one must sometimes ‘surrender to the whole universe’.
有时候得向整个世界妥协
Reason allows us to calculate when our wishes are in irrevocable conflict with reality,
当个人愿望与现实发生不可避免的冲突时 理智会使我们权衡利弊
and then bids us to submit ourselves willingly,
然后命令我们自愿屈服
rather than angrily or bitterly, to necessities.
而非愤怒苦涩地死磕到底
We may be powerless to alter certain events
我们无力选择会发生什么
but, for Lao Tzu, we remain free to choose our attitude towards them,
但老子认为我们可以选择自己的态度
and it is in an unprotesting acceptance of what is truly necessary
不加抗议地接受必然会发生的事
that we find the distinctive serenity and freedom characteristic of a Daoist.
然后我们会发现道家独特的宁静与自由
FIVE: Bamboo as Wisdom
五 竹子即智慧
East Asia has been called the Bamboo Civilization,
东亚有竹子文化
not merely because bamboo has been widely used in daily life,
不仅因为竹子在日常生活中使用广泛
but also because its symbolic qualities have been described and celebrated
还因为在道家哲学中
for hundreds of years in the philosophy of Daoism.
其象征意义一直深受推崇
Bamboo is, surprisingly, classified as a grass rather than a tree,
令人惊讶的是 竹子被划分为草而非树
yet it is tall and strong enough to create groves and forests.
但竹子很高 足以成荫成林
Unlike a tree trunk, the stems of bamboo are hollow,
和树不一样的是 竹子的茎中空
but its inner emptiness is a source of its vigour.
但它的中空是柔韧的来源
It bends in storms, sometimes almost to the ground,
它在风暴中弯折 有时几乎垂及地面
but then springs back
但仍能恢复原样
We should, says Lao Tzu, ‘become as bamboo already is.’
老子说 做人当如竹
The greatest painter of bamboo was the Daoist poet, artist and philosopher
最伟大的竹子画家是清朝的道家诗人 艺术家
Zheng Xie of the Qing Dynasty.
和哲学家郑燮
Zheng Xie is said to have painted eight hundred pictures of bamboo forests
据说郑燮画了八百幅竹林图
and saw in them a perfect model of how a wise person might behave.
从这些图中可以看见智者的行为风范
Beside one pen and ink drawing of bamboo,
在水墨竹画旁边
he wrote in elegant script:
他写下了苍劲有力的诗:
‘Hold fast to the mountain, take root in a broken-up bluff,
咬定青山不放松 立根原在破岩中
grow stronger after tribulations, and withstand the buffeting wind from all directions’.
千磨万击还坚劲 任尔东西南北风
It was a message addressed to bamboo but meant, of course, for all of us.
字面上是写竹子 实际上是写人
SIX: Kintsugi
第六 金缮
Since the 16th century, Zen Buddhist philosophy in Japan
自十六世纪以来 日本的禅宗佛教哲学认为
has been alive to the particular beauty and wisdom of things which have been repaired.
被修复的事物有独特的美和智慧
Kintsugi is a compound of two ideas:
金缮是由两个词组成的复合词
‘Kin’ meaning, in Japanese, ‘golden’
“金”在日语中的意思是“黄金”
and ‘tsugi’ meaning ‘joinery’.
而“taugi”意思是“细木匠业”
In Zen aesthetics, the broken pieces of an accidentally-smashed pot
在禅宗美学中意外打破的瓷器
should never just be tossed away,
不应该被扔掉
they should be carefully picked up,
应该小心地将其捡起
reassembled and then glued together with lacquer inflected with a luxuriant gold powder.
重新组装 然后用胶水与华丽的金粉将其粘合
There should be no attempt to disguise the damage,
修复时不应该掩饰裂痕
the point is to render the fault-lines beautiful and strong.
重点是将裂痕变得美丽 明显
The precious veins of gold are there
上面宝贵的金线
to emphasise that breaks have a rich merit all of their own.
是为了强调裂痕本身是有灵魂的
It’s a profoundly poignant idea
这是一个深刻的想法
because we are all in some way broken creatures.
因为我们在某种程度上都是残缺的生物
It’s not shameful to need repair;
需要修补并不是可耻的
a mended bowl is a symbol of hope
修过的碗是希望的象征
that we too can be put together again
我们也能重塑自我
and still be loved despite our evident flaws.
尽管满目疮痍 但仍然值得被爱
We partnered with Skillshare today and they have given us an amazing offer to pass on to you.
本节目的合作伙伴是skillshare 它为你们准备了福利
The first 500 people to sign up using the link in the description will recieve a 2 month free trial.
前五百名通过简介中链接注册的用户 将获得两个月的免费试用
If you haven’t heard of Skillshare before it’s home to thousands of classes in Graphic design,
你还没听过skillshare吗 它拥有数千节课程
animation, web development, music photography, design and more.
内容有关图表设计 动画 网站开发 音乐摄影 设计等等
You can learn how to do just about anything.
你可以学习各种技能
In two month, you can easily learn the skills you need
两个月内你就能学会你需要的技能
to start a new hobby and or bussiness
就能开始一项新的爱好和事业
Is there a project you have been dreaming of completing but just aren’t sure if you have the skills to do it?
你有自己梦寐以求 却担心能力不够的事吗?
Why not start right now and sign up at the link below.
为什么不从现在开始学习 通过下面的链接注册吧

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六个东方哲学的思想帮你更加乐观地面对生活

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