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声调语言

Sing like you mean it! - the Linguistics of Tonal Languages

It turns out that in some languages out there,
事实上在某些语言中
people sing when they speak!
人们“唱”着说话
So how does that work?
这是怎么做到呢?
原始语言
When you think of the sounds that you put together to make a word,
提到能构成一个单词的发音
vowels and consonants come to mind.
你会想到元音和辅音
And that’s good. Usually.
不错 通常都是这样
But to build words in tonal languages
但是在豪萨语和汉语普通话
like Hausa or Mandarin,
这些声调语言中构词的时候
you need another set of musical pieces
就需要另一种乐声一样的形式
called tones to make meaning.
即声调 来表达含义
Yes, these languages pay attention to higher and lower notes
是的 这些语言讲究高音和低音
like a singer or a musician.
就像歌手或音乐家一样
They don’t do this by requiring their speakers to have perfect pitch
但它们既不要求说话者有完美音准
and hit the same notes as everyone else every time.
也不要求人们每次都发相同的音高
Not everyone who speaks your language
毕竟不是所有说这种语言的人
will be a mezzo-soprano after all.
都能成为中高音歌唱家
So, if it’s not about the specific notes,
那么 既然不是有特定的音高
how do tonal languages use so many tones?
声调语言怎么能有那么多声调呢?
They pay attention to changes in pitch.
这些语言关注音高的变化
A syllable sung higher (háá) can mean something different
对同一个音节高音(háá)与低音(hàà)
than that same syllable sung lower(hàà).
表示的意思或许并不相同
Linguistically, we would count those as two different tones.
语言学上 称为两种不同的声调
Whether you’re high or low or just right in the middle,
不管个人的音调是高是低还是处在中间
you’re contrasting steady notes.
都和平稳的声调不大一样
These different pitches are called register tones.
这些不同的音高都被称为升降调
In the Bantu languages of Africa
非洲的班图语
and Athabaskan languages like Navajo,
和纳瓦霍语等阿萨巴斯坎语言的
the two basic register tones are a high tone and a low tone.
两种基本语调是高音调和低音调
Changes in pitch can get more dynamic,
而改变音调可以创造更多可能性
rising, falling, bouncing or staying level
就像普通话或者越南语
like they do in Mandarin or Vietnamese.
有升调 降调 转折调 还有平调
These tones are more about the shape of the tone,
以上两种语言更注重是音调的变化
not simply whether the note is higher or lower,
而不是简单的高音或低音
so they’re called contour tones.
因此它们常被称作轮廓调
In Mandarin, a syllable can be pronounced in four different contour tones.
普通话里 一个音节可以有四种不同的轮廓调
in Thailand there are five contour tones
泰国有五种轮廓调
Think you’ve mastered register versus contour tones?
你掌握高低调和轮廓调的不同了吗?
Well then, combine them!
那么把它们结合起来!
Mandarin may have four contour tones,
汉语普通话大致 有四种声调
but look to the south to see how Cantonese distinguishes
但是 看看中国南部的广东话有
a low rising tone from a medium rising tone.
低音升调和中音升调
Oh,and it also has a high level tone,
噢 它还有一个高音平调
which is different from a medium level tone and a low level tone.
以及与之相应的中音平调以及低音平调
Add in the low falling tone
再加一个低音降调
and you’ve got six ways to sing a Cantonese syllable!
一共六种轮廓调表达粤语音节
Notice that both register and contour tones are song and vowels
值得注意的是所有声调和升降调都是音符和元音
Consonants have your tongue blocking,
发辅音时要求舌头阻挡
smacking or pushing the airflow around,
冲击 或者推送气流
unlike the smooth, vibrating air characteristic of vowels,
不像元音中平滑 振动的典型气流
which makes them the perfect environment for sing-song tones.
这一特点使元音具有歌唱音调的最佳条件
Tones are an extra feature that tonal languages use to build words,
声调是声调语言构词时的另一特征
Rising, level and falling are as distinct
升调 平调 降调的不同
as /p/, /t/ and /k/ –
就像/p/ /t/ / k/不同一样
so speaking a word in a the wrong tone in one of these languages
因此将一个字的声调读错 在声调语言中
can sound as bad as putting a /k/ where it doesn’t belong.
听着就像在英文中听到乱发/ k/音一样不舒服
This makes tonality a notoriously difficult feature to pick up
这使得声调对于那些来自无声调语言地区的人
for people coming from a non-tonal language like English.
比如英语地区来说 非常难以学会
Much sympathy my friend!
真是同情我的朋友们
So keep your ears alert and practice, practice, practice.
因此仔细去听 然后练习 练习 练习
Thanks again for learning with me
再次感谢您与我一同学习
and subscribe for language!
想要学习语言 那就订阅吧!

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视频概述

英语语言是无声调语言,而汉语却有四种升降调,广东话有六种。分别都有哪些呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=foImPuD_bKc

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