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负质量物质是否真的存在?

Since Mass Exists, Can There Be Negative Mass?

理论上 质量就是一个物体所包含的物质的量
By definition, mass is the quantity of matter that a body contains
但是会有负的质量存在吗
But could there be negative mass
这似乎是难以理解的对吧
That seems counter-intuitive right
你怎么可能会有一个负两千克的东西
How can you have negative 2 kilograms of something
负质量似乎违反了我们宇宙的规则
Negative mass seems deviate the laws of our universe
但是2014年一些研究者的计算表示
But, in 2014 a couple of exited researchers did some calculations
那是行得通的
and found out it was actually A-ok
宇宙可以存在负质量 只要这个质量不是固态的
The universe is fine with negative mass as long as that mass isn’t solid
如果它是流体状 就是可以的
If it’s a fluid you’re cool.
科学真有意思 所以根据计算 负质量可以存在
Science fun So negative mass can exist according to their calculations
一个不存在的理论上的流体将允许负质量的存在
A perfect fluid which doesn’t exist would allow negative mass to exist
而且不违反广义相对论
and wouldn’t defy the laws of General Relativity
我知道很复杂
I know that’s complicated
但我们先将它放一边
but let’s put a pin in that for a second
因为就在2017年
Because just recently in 2017
研究员用了一个超流体去创造一些带有负质量效果的东西
Researchers used a superfluid to create something with effectively negative mass
不管媒体怎么说
In spite of what the media is saying,
实际上 在大学的官方报道里
even actually in the university’s own press release
研究员也从来没说过他们创造了负质量
The researchers never said they created nagative mass.
而是说创造了负效果质量
Instead the actual paper says they created negative effective mass
实际上 他们制造出了看上去
What really happened decide understanded is they created the Bose-Einstein condensate
表现的与负质量极为相似
that behaves unexpectedly moving in a way that make it seem like
的玻色–爱因斯坦凝聚
or that’s similar to something with negative mass
但那并不是真正的负质量
but it doesn’t have negative mass
补充说明一下 这其实是科学媒体报道时出的问题
Sidebar this is actually a problem in science journalism
它总是一激动就会忽略其中的关键细节
it’s easy to get excited and miss the key detail
我们也在科学和新闻报道方面犯过这种忽略细节的错误
We’ve done it lots of people’ve done it
其实很多人都犯过这种错误
In science and in journalism details matter
这种错误非常普遍
And this is been said by you in commons
甚至评说员约翰•奥利弗也曾犯过这种错误
by other sides communicators even John Oliver
但科学是一门难度较高的学科
but science is hard
补充说明结束
End sidebar
再强调一遍
With that in mind again
科学家并不是创造了负质量物质
This isn’t negative mass
而是制造了玻色–爱因斯坦凝聚态
it’s a Bose-Einstein condensate
而这种凝聚态的性质跟负质量物质性质相似
that behaves as if it had negative mass
当这种超流体流动时
As and when the super fluid moves
它表现出的性质出乎人们的意料
it does so in an unexpected way
但是 这种物质确实还是有质量的
But, the stuff does have mass.
这种超流体由上万的铷–87组成
the superfluid was made of ten thousands rubidium eighty seven isotopes
因此 它是有质量的
So, it has the mass of that
在这一点上音速教授说的完全正确
Sonics professors say it’s right totally.
但是
But, come on.
我知道在这里看这个视频的人都是些书呆子
I know all of you nerds it’s out there are nerds
但是 你们可能也学不到 过冷的超流体被捕获时的表现有多诡异
But, you don’t tune in to learn about how a trapped supercooled superfluid behaved weirdly
因此 我们还是先把书本放下吧
So let’s just close a book on that
现在 记住我刚才强调的那一点
Now, remember that pin.
我们接着讲负质量物质
Let’s go and snap that back.
我们真的创造出了负质量物质会怎样呢
What if they’d created negative mass ?
会是怎样一种情景呢
What would that be like ?
负质量的物质会长什么样呢
What would that look like?
究竟会是怎么样的呢
all the what ?
说实话 没有人知道答案
To be honest, no body really knows
爱因斯坦在上个世纪早期首次提出了负质量的概念
Negative mass was first theorized by Einstein early in the last century.
并在此后不久 提出了广义相对论
while coming up in General relativity.
在十九世纪五十年代
a handful of essays published in the nineteen fiftys
科学家发表了为数不多的与负质量相关的论文
coined the idea of negative mass
因为与我们每天都能接触到的
as an opposite to positive mass
正质量物质相反
which is,have interact with everyday
这是一个科学意义上全新的概念
so, scientifically it’s a new concept.
根据其中部分论文的观点 负质量物质很可能也有动量 也和正质量物质遵循相似的物理规则
Some of the papers say something made of negative mass would probably still have momentum and be subject to similar limits of physics,
但是 它并不遵循牛顿第三定律
but, would also likely violate newton’s third law of motion
当你推负质量物质的时候 它反而会靠近你
if you push away it made of negative mass,it would move toward you
我阅读过一篇华盛顿大学的教授乔治·克莱莫在1986年发表的论文
but I read one 1986 article by George Cremer, a physic professor in University of Washington.
论文里对负质量物体的描述写的很好
and he describe it really well, like this,
想象一对质量数值相等但一正一负的物体放在一起
consider a pair of equal and opposite positive and negative masses placed close to each other
负质量的物体会被正质量的物体吸引
the nagetive mass is attractive to the possitive mass,
而正质量的物体会被负质量的物体排斥
while the positive mass is repelled by the negative mass.
因此 这两个物体之间会产生一个同一方向的力和加速度
Thus, the two masses will experience equal forces and acceleration in the same direction.
这违反了牛顿第三定律 似乎这个系统在没有外力参与的情况下有了加速度
In violation of the third law and the system of two will accelerate seemingly with out force.
负质量物体会以一个恒定的加速度追着正质量物体运动
The negative mass will trace the positive mass with constant acceleration.
如果你是个迂腐的人 可能会觉得负质量物质是不可能存在的
if you are pedantic, negtive mass would be impossible
因为没有质量就相当于什么都没有 但撇开迂腐的思想 负质量物质可能是
because no mass equals no matter at all, but pedantry aside, what negative mass seems to mean is matter out
物质脱离某种宇宙规则束缚的结果
of the constraints of one of the bonds of the universe.
毫无疑问 这种科学概念肯定是会令科学新闻报道者激动的 我只希望
It makes sense that something like this would excite science journalists, I just hope we
以后的发现能”正”一些呢
are positive next time.
好了 就说到这里吧
Okay, I’ll stop.
我们对粒子物理学了解越多
The more we understand about particle physics,
我们对这个宇宙本身的了解也就越多
the better we’re gonna understand the universes itself.
最后 要告诉你们 我们还有介绍黑洞和引力波
To that end, we do have a video about how black holes and gravitational waves could
如何可能帮助我们找到暗物质的视频供你观看
potentially help us find dark matter and you can watch it here.
观看这个视频是不是很烧脑呢
Does this video hurt your brain?
因为在我做这个视频的时候 就觉得真的好费脑筋的
Cause it totally hurt my brain while I was making it.
在评论区留言告诉我们吧 另外记得订阅我们来获取更多有趣内容哦!
Let us know down in the comments, make sure you subscribe for more Seeker
谢谢观看!
and thanks for watching.

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视频概述

负质量物质是否真的存在呢,如果存在它的性质又是如何,来看视频一起了解吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

梦梦猪

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DW7VBrKmLS8

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