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锡耶纳——意大利哥特式大教堂

Siena, Italy: Grand Gothic Cathedral

在锡耶纳有着条纹塔的
Siena’s 13th-centuryGothic cathedral,
十三世纪哥特式大教堂
with its striped tower,
是献给圣母玛利亚的 充满了艺术气息
is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and covered with art.
华丽的外观饰有密集的装饰
The richly ornamented facadebristles with ornamentation:
它醒目的拼画图案是由族长、先知、圣徒
Its striking mosaics framedby patriarchs and prophets,
以及滴水兽构成的
saints, and gargoyles.
虽然锡耶纳大教堂很宏伟
Grand as Siena’s cathedral is,
但它实际上是一个幻想失败的半成品
it’s actually the unfinished rump of a failed vision.
附近的佛罗伦萨开始建造大教堂后
After nearby Florence began building its huge cathedral,
骄傲的锡耶纳为了不被它的竞争对手超过
proud Siena, not to be outdone by its rival,
计划建造一座更大的教堂
planned to build an even bigger church…
实际上想要建造整个基督教世界最大的教堂
in fact the biggest church in all of Christendom.
但是锡耶纳崎岖不平
But Siena was so hillythere wasn’t enough flat ground
用来建大教堂的平地不够
to support such an enormous church.
该怎么做呢
What to do?
总之建造超大的教堂
Build the oversized church anyway,
通过在下面建造洗礼堂
and prop up the overhanging edge
来支撑突出的边缘
by building the Baptistery underneath.
我们如今看到的大教堂
The cathedral we see today
本来是计划中教堂的十字翼部或者侧厅
was intended only to be a transept, or wing,
从预想的中殿 即教堂的主要部分 分开
off the envisioned nave, or main part of the church.
这些高耸的大理石拱桥
These towering marble arches
暗示着视觉的广袤
hint at the immensity of the vision.
但拱桥是在锡耶纳解决空间问题之前建的
But the arches were as far as Siena got before construction problems
一场毁灭性的瘟疫破坏了这个项目
and a devastating plaguescuttled the project.
我站在那座未完成的教堂前面的部分
I’m standing atop what would have been the front of that church.
假设完工了的话
Had it been completed,
这个广场本来不是停车场
this square would have been not a parking lot,
而是教堂的中殿
but the nave itself.
想象一下 那是很有趣的
It’s fun to imagine that
如果锡耶纳宏伟的计划成功了
if Siena’s grandiose plans had succeeded,
我就会从这个大教堂中殿
I’d be looking straight down the nave
一直看到圣坛
of that massive church toward the altar.
已完工的部分仍然令人印象深刻
The resulting church is still impressive.
它从顶部到底部都装饰很好
It’s richly decorated from top to bottom.
共有172个头向下俯瞰
Peering down from above are 172 heads.
他们代表着从圣彼得时代到十二世纪
They represent the popes who reigned from the time
统治的教皇
of St. Peter to the 12th century.
精致的大理石地板上铺饰着圣经场景
The exquisite marble flooris paved with Bible scenes,
错综复杂的图案和不同的寓言
intricate patterns, and allegories.
这个代表锡耶纳
This one represents Siena
在意大利中心 它是“母狼乳婴”
as a she-wolf at the centerof the Italian universe,
环绕着一些次要的城市
orbited by such lesser lights
如罗马 佛罗伦萨 比萨等
as Rome, Florence, and Pisa.
那时最好的艺术家帮助装饰了锡耶纳教堂
The greatest artists of the day helped decorate Siena’s cathedral.
在这个小教堂 由多纳泰格雕刻的
In this side chapel,St. John the Baptist,
施洗约翰 穿着破布衣衫
carved by Donatello,wears his iconic rags.
而在高处 爱玩的天使悬荡着双脚
And high above, playful cherubsdangle their feet.
米开朗其罗雕刻的圣保罗的塑像
This memorial to the Sienese pope Pius II
是对出生于锡耶纳的教皇庇护二世的纪念
features a statue of St. Paulcarved by Michelangelo himself.
在另一个小教堂
And in another chapel,
能看见伦罗左·贝尔尼尼的作品
you’ll see why Lorenzo Bernini
明白他为什么被认为是最好的巴洛克风格雕刻家
is considered the greatestBaroque sculptor.
他的圣凯瑟琳沉浸于灵性的喜悦中
His St. Catherineis in spiritual ecstasy.
圣杰罗姆拥抱着十字架
And St. Jeromecaresses the crucifix
仿佛一个小提琴家迷失在神圣的音乐里
like a violinistlost in heavenly music.
其中的一个亮点是教堂的皮科洛米尼图书馆
A highlight is the church’sPiccolomini Library.
辉煌的壁画 它抓住了
Brilliantly frescoed, it captures the
感情洋溢和积极向上的十五世纪的精神
exuberance and optimistic spirit of the 1400s,
那是一个当文艺复兴开始 人文主义到来的时代
an age of humanismwhen the Renaissance was born.
这些壁画现在还是栩栩如生
The frescoes look nearly as vivid now
虽然它们已经有五百多年
as the day they were finished,over 500 years ago.
他们为诞生在锡耶纳的一个男孩庆祝
They celebrate the life ofone of Siena’s hometown boys —
他后来成为了教皇庇护二世
who became Pope Pius II.
每个场景都是拱门形状
Each of the scenes is framed with an arch,
就像是向现实世界开了一扇窗
as if opening a window into the real world.

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视频概述

虽然是半成品,但是锡耶纳大教堂还是吸引了世人惊奇的眼光,繁复而精美的艺术装饰,使其成为文艺复兴时期最具代表性的一座教堂建筑。

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审核员GL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KBSMSdQDdas

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