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饮酒会导致癌症? – 译学馆
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饮酒会导致癌症?

Should You Worry About Alcohol Causing Cancer?

《科学秀》
SciShow
如果最近你有关注健康消息的话
If you’ve been paying attention to any health news lately,
你可能听说过美国临床肿瘤学会
you might’ve heard that The American Societyof Clinical Oncology
发布的有关酒精和癌症的官方声明
released an official statement about alcohol and cancer.
一些标题让人觉得如果人们关心自己的健康
Some headlines make it sound like everyone should just quit drinking now
他们现在就应该戒酒
if they care about their health.
但这没有那么极端 也只是老生长谈而已
But it’s not that extreme, and it’s notreally new information.
总的来说 声明中表达的是越来越多的证据证明
Basically, this statement is saying that there’sgrowing evidence
从长远来看 饮用太多的酒精对你有害处
that too much alcohol can be really bad for you in the long term.
听起来很有道理
Sounds pretty reasonable.
而且 非常清楚的是 如果你每隔一段时间
And, to be super clear, you shouldn’t panic
都和男孩们开瓶饮酒 也不要惊慌
if you crack open a cold one with the boys everyonce in a while.
多年来 科学家们一直在研究癌症的风险因素
Scientists have been looking at risk factors involved in cancer for years and years.
一份科学的声明仅仅是一群专家们
And a scientific statement just means thata group of experts
收集了大量的研究成果并对此发表了一篇综述
gathered up a bunch of research and publishedan overview of it,
同时提出了一些可以更深入研究的问题
while pointing out questions that could usea deeper look.
美国临床肿瘤学会用了几十年的癌症研究数据来提出他们的建议
The ASCO used decades of cancer research data to make their recommendations,
包括一堆综合分析数据或汇集分析研究
including a bunch of meta-analysis or pooledanalysis studies.
研究人员从其它论文中得出结果
These are where researchers take results fromother papers,
像是案例研究或实验室研究
like case studies or lab research,
并将数据嵌入统计模型 来寻找趋势
and plug the data into statistical modelsto look for trends.
正如2007年 研究人员发现酒精摄入
Like in 2007, researchers found that alcoholconsumption
是导致口腔癌或食道癌的
was a significant factor in cancers of areas
一个重要因素
like your mouth or esophagus.
2009年 世界卫生组织的一个分支机构支持了这些发现
Those findings were backed up by a branch of the World Health Organization in 2009.
2014年 世界癌症研究基金会在一份报告中
Liver cancer and drinking a heavy amount ofalcohol were strongly linked
指出肝癌与大量饮酒有很大的关系
in a 2014 report backed by the World CancerResearch Fund International.
2017年的一份总结中指出 如果你每天喝一杯酒
And in a 2017 review, breast cancer risk beforemenopause
更年期前的乳腺癌风险会增加5%左右
was found to increase by around 5% if youhave one drink a day.
举几个例子
Just to name a few.
问题是 一旦你喝了酒 你的身体会如何处理酒精
The problem is what your body does with thealcohol once you drink it.
乙醇被加工成一种叫做乙醛的分子
Ethanol gets processed into a molecule called acetaldehyde,
这种物质会干扰你的DNA
and that’s the stuff that can mess withyour DNA,
使你的细胞变异 从而导致癌症
make your cells mutate, and cause cancer.
对老鼠等动物的研究也证实了这一假说
Research on animals like rats and mice hasbacked up this hypothesis, too.
如果它们喝了含有乙醇或乙醛的水
They were much more likely to develop tumors
它们就更有可能长肿瘤
if they drank water with ethanol or acetaldehyde.
现在 大量的报告都证明过度饮酒
Now, a lot of these reviews provide evidenceagainst excessive drinking
和酗酒指的是一晚上饮用
and binge drinking, which is defined as consuming more than
超过四到五杯的酒
four or five drinks in a single night out.
不管你喝的是哪种酒 这都在增加你的患癌风险
No matter what type of alcohol, you’re increasingyour risk.
尽管这一声明讲得很清楚 但总体情况还是很复杂
But even though the statement seems pretty clear, the big picture is complicated.
我们仍然不确定单独摄入酒精会对癌症风险产生多大的影响
We’re still not sure how much alcohol consumptionalone affects cancer risk.
这些数据可能会受到吸烟等因素的影响
These statistics could be influenced by thingslike smoking,
甚至社会因素也会影响人们的酒量
or even sociological factors that affect howmuch people drink.
因此该声明还指出 我们目前的知识还存在差距
So the statement also points out that there are lots of gaps in our knowledge
只有更多的研究才能填补这些差距
that only more research can fill.
但现在 你知道了
But for now, you know the drill.
像培根或者其它与癌症有关的食物
Like bacon or any of the other foods that have beenlinked to cancer,
知道这些风险之后 你可以…
after understanding the risks, you can just…
做出明智的选择 过你的生活
make sensible choices and live your life.
现在 除了这些关于癌症的讨论
Now, besides all this talk about cancer,
我想我们都赞成 喝太多酒会让你
I think we can all agree that drinking too much can leave you with
第二天早上头疼的说法
one heck of a headache the next morning.
头疼很讨厌
And headaches just suck.
有些轻微的头疼是由于睡眠不足或长时间盯着屏幕造成的
Some of them are mild, caused by not enough sleep or staring at a screen for too long.
但有一些就很可怕了 像是偏头痛
But others can be aggressively terrible, likemigraines.
还有各种头部和脸部受伤
And with any sort of head or face injury,
你可能会觉得这比其它的疼痛更糟糕
you might just feel like that’s worse thanother kinds of pain.
这周 杜克大学的科学家们找到了一些证据
And this week, Duke University scientistsfound some evidence
证明任何额外的痛苦都不在你的脑子里
that any extra distress isn’t all in your head.
我的意思是
Well, I mean, it is.
它实际上是在你的大脑中 因为疼痛是你大脑发出的信号
It is literally in your head because painis signaling from your brain.
重点是:这与我们如何感知不同类型的疼痛有所区别
The point is: there could be a real difference in how we perceive different kinds of pain.
疼痛是由于大脑对危险信号的反应而产生的
Pain is produced by the brain in responseto nerves that signal danger.
就像你把手放在热的东西上 你的手部神经就会告诉你的大脑
Like, if you place your hand on somethinghot, nerves in your hand tell your brain
“啊 这里有很多热能 我觉得不好 ”
“yeah, there’s a—there’s a lot ofthermal energy here… I don’t think this is good.”
你的大脑就会把它转换成一种改变你行为的感觉
Your brain then translates that into a feelingthat might change your behavior,
像是快速缩回你的手啦
like pulling your hand away really fast.
实际上 这些危险信号主要通过两种途径
The thing is, there are two main pathwaysfor these danger signals
到达你的大脑:一组来自你面部的神经
to get to your brain: one set of nerves comefrom your face region,
另一组来自其它部位的神经
and the other set comes from everywhere else.
在这项研究中 该小组在老鼠的脸上和爪子中
In this study, the group injected some not-so-pleasant chemicals
注射了一些不太好的化学物质
into the face and paws of mice to test how they were
测试它们在这两种情况下的疼痛情况
experiencing pain in both cases.
他们发现把老鼠的脸弄得脏兮兮的
And they found that messing with the faces of mice
会在一片叫臂旁核的区域中发出更多信号
led to more signaling in a cluster calledthe parabrachial nucleus.
这是神经的中枢 通往扁桃腺区域
That’s a hub of nerves that leads to regionslike the amygdala,
它是负责处理大脑中情绪和本能的部分
a part of the brain responsible for processingemotions and instincts.
最终 似乎所有的危险信号
Eventually, it seems like all danger signals
都被臂旁核处理过
get processed by the parabrachial nucleus.
但引人注目的是 研究人员发现了一些
But what stands out here is that the researchersfound evidence that
老鼠面部的神经直接通向那里的证据
some of the nerves from the mouse faces wentdirectly there.
因此研究人员认为 这可能就是先前研究表明
So the researchers think this could be whyprevious studies in humans
脸部疼痛引起的扁桃腺激活或情感抑郁
have seen more amygdala activation or emotional distress
要比其它地方的疼痛更痛的原因
with face pain than pain in other places.
科学家和偏头痛患者都希望
Scientists and migraine-sufferers alike arehopeful that
这一发现能帮助我们拓宽痛苦的定义
this discovery will help expand our idea of pain
包括感觉不适和情感挫败
to include both sensory discomfort and emotional suck.
希望了解更多有助于治疗的方法
And hopefully learning more about that willhelp with better treatments.
感谢收看本期《科学秀》节目
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowNews.
如果你想更多地了解你的大脑
If you want to learn more about your brain,
并对性格测试到功能性磁共振成像原理有疑问的话
and have questions about everythingfrom personality tests to how fMRIs work,
我们有一个完整的频道 叫做SciShow Psych
we have a whole channel for you called SciShow Psych.
在youtobe.com scishowpsych里
It’s at youtube.com scishowpsych.
真的很不错 人们都很喜欢——包括“我”
It’s doing really well, people love it—including this person.
《科学秀》
SciShow

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饮酒会导致癌症?

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