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应该相信第一印象吗? – 译学馆
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应该相信第一印象吗?

Should you trust your first impression? - Peter Mende-Siedlecki

Imagine you’re at a football game when this obnoxious guy sits next to you.
假如你正在现场看足球比赛 身边坐了个讨厌的家伙
He’s loud, he spills his drink on you,
他吵死了 还把饮料撒在你身上
and he makes fun of your team.
而且还取笑你支持的球队
Days later, you’re walking in the park
一段时间后 当你在公园漫步时
when suddenly it starts to pour rain.
突然下起了倾盆大雨
Who should show up at your side to offer you an umbrella?
是谁把伞送到了你身边?
The same guy from the football game.
正是看球赛时坐你旁边的那个家伙
Do you change your mind about him based on
你会因为这次碰面而对他改观吗?
this second encounter, or do you go with
或者已经先入为主
your first impression and write him off?
维持最初的印象?
Research in social psychology suggests
社会心理学研究表明
that we’re quick to form lasting impressions of others
我们会因他人的行为
based on their behaviors.
迅速建立起对他的印象
We manage to do this with little effort,
我们会因为一些恶言恶语 笨拙的举止等
inferring stable character traits from a single behavior,
简单的行为很武断地
like a harsh word or a clumsy step.
定义他人的性格特点
Using our impressions as guides,
我们会基于对他人的印象
we can accurately predict how people are going to behave in the future.
准确预测他人的行为
Armed with the knowledge the guy from the football game was
固执着球赛上那个家伙是个混蛋的第一印象
a jerk the first time you met him, you might expect more of the same down the road.
你可能 会认为他还会做类似的事
If so, you might choose to avoid
若如此 在下次见到他的时候
him the next time you see him.
你可能会绕路走
That said, we can’ change our impressions
也就是说 我们不会因为新的经历
in light of new information.
改变对他人的第一印象
Behavioral researchers have identified
人类行为研究者发现
consistent patterns that seem to guide
大脑的一致性模式决定了
this process of impression updating.
这个印象刷新的过程
On one hand, learning very negative,
一方面 它会更倾向学习关于他人的
highly immoral information about someone
消极的 不良的信息
typically has a stronger impact than learning very positive, highly moral information. So,
而不是积极的 得体的信息
unfortunately for our new friend
很遗憾 对于球赛上的
from the football game,
这个新朋友
his bad behavior at the game might outweigh his good behavior at the park.
他在球赛上的恶劣行为会比他在公园的助人行为更引人注目
Research suggests that this bias occurs
研究表面 这种偏见的产生是
because immoral behaviors are more diagnostic,
因为不良行为更能显露出
or revealing, of a person’s true character. Okay,
或更能暴露出一个人的真实性格
so by this logic, bad is always stronger than good
根据这个逻辑 在印象刷新过程中
when it comes to updating. Well,
不良行为比助人行为更让人印象深刻
not necessarily.
然而 这并不是绝对的
Certain types of learning don’t seem to lead
一些类型的学习方式
to this sort of negativity bias.
并不会导致消极偏见
When learning about another person’s abilities and competencies,
比如在认识他人的能力和本领方面
for instance, this bias flips.
这种偏见就不存在了
It’s actually the positive information that gets weighted more heavily.
人们会更关注他人的积极信息
Let’s go back to that football game.
让我们回到那场比赛中
If a player scores a goal, it ultimately
假设有个球员进球得分了
has a stronger impact on your impression of their
大家会对他的球技印象很深刻
skills than if they miss the net.
而不是他是否射偏
The two sides of the updating story are ultimately quite consistent.
这个印象刷新的故事的两方面其实非常相似
Overall, behaviors that are perceived
总体而言
as being less frequent are also the ones
在建立或刷新对他人的印象时
that people tend to weigh more heavily
发生频率更低的行为
when forming and updating impressions,
即极度不良行为或极端出众的行为
highly immoral actions and highly competent actions. So,
在人们心中的分量更重
what’s happening at the level of the brain
我们在刷新大脑印象时
when we’re updating our impressions?
大脑是如何运作的?
Using fMRI, or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging,
通过FMRI 即核磁共振
researchers have identified an extended network of brain regions that respond to new information
研究者发现 回应新信息的大脑扩展区域
that’s inconsistent with initial impressions.
与第一印象区域并不一致
These include areas typically associated
这些关联区域包括
with social cognition, attention, and cognitive control.
社会认知 注意 认知控制 此外
Moreover, when updating impressions
但大脑基于他人行为
based on people’s behaviors,
刷新印象时
activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus
前额叶和颞上沟的活动
correlates with perceptions of how frequently those behaviors occur in daily life.
与该行为在日常生活中的频率相关联
In other words, the brain seems to be tracking low-level,
换言之 大脑似乎在记录低水平的
statistical properties of behavior
数据化的行为
in order to make complex decisions
以此根据他人的性格
regarding other people’s character.
做复杂的判断
It needs to decide is this person’s behavior typical
它需要去判断 这个人的行为是否典型
or is it out of the ordinary?
或者只是偶尔为之
In the situation with the obnoxious-football-fan-turned-good-samaritan,
这个讨厌的足球粉丝变成好心人的事件中
your brain says, “ Well, in my experience,
大脑在说 “嗯 以我的经验
pretty much anyone would lend someone their umbrella,
世上任何人都会给人送伞
but the way this guy acted at the football game,
但这家伙在球赛上的行为
that was unusual.”
不太常见”
And so, you decide to go with your first impression.
因此 你对他的印象并没有改变
There’s a good moral in this data:
这个数据上记录了助人行为
your brain, and by extension you,
但你的大脑 乃至于你
might care more about the very negative,
可能会更在意别人做的消极的
immoral things another person has done compared to the very positive, moral things,
不良的事情 忽略积极的 品行端正的事情
but it’s a direct result of the comparative rarity of those bad behaviors.
不过这个相对较少的不良行为是直接对比的结果
We’re more used to people being basically good,
我们更适应表现良善的人
like taking time to help a stranger in need.
比如会花时间去帮助陌生人的好心人
In this context, bad might be stronger than good,
在这个情境中 不良行为比助人行为更显眼
but only because good is more plentiful.
仅仅是因为助人行为更常见
Think about the last time you judged someone
想想自己上次根据对方行为
based on their behavior,
评判某人的时候
especially a time when you really feel like you changed your mind about someone.
尤其是在你开始对某人改观的那一刻
Was the behavior that caused you to update
是否因为对方做出了你期待的行为
your impression something you’d expect anyone to do,
或是他为你做了非比寻常的事
or was it something totally out of the ordinary?
才让你对他改观?

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我们对别人的第一印象容易改变吗?

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