ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

用猪来培育人类器官? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

用猪来培育人类器官?

Should We Grow Human Organs In Pigs?

大家好 我是来自MinuteEarth的凯特
Hi – this is Kate from MinuteEarth.
单单在美国每天就有
In the United States alone,
22人在等待一个肾 肝 心脏 肺的移植中
22 people die every day waiting for a kidney, liver, heart,
而死去
or lung transplant.
显然没有足够捐赠者的器官供应
There simply aren’t enough donated human organs to go around,
我们又不能
and we can’t just go
随意去偷健康人的器官
around stealing them out of random healthypeople.
但是猪的器官粗略有着和我们人类器官
But pigs’organs have roughly the same structure and proportions
一样的结构大小 并且我们
as human organs – and we
每年要杀5亿这种生物作为食物
already kill half a billion of the creatures every year
所以为什么我们不能
for food – so why can’t we
就用他们的器官?
just use their organs?
这里有些原因
Here’s the thing –
我们的免疫系统是真的真的很擅长寻找并消灭
our immune systems are really, really good at seeking out and destroying
从我们身体外来的任何东西 所以哪怕是人对人的器官移植也会被排斥
anything foreign to our bodies, so even human-to-human organ transplants sometimes get rejected.
何况猪的器官
And pig organs are much foreign-er:
在它们的细胞表面上还有着高度
they have a super-conspicuous sugar molecule on the
密集的糖分子
surface of their cells
这相当于给人体器官抗体一个“打我”
that’s basically a “ fight me ” sign for humans’organ-rejecting
的示意
antibodies.
但是我们其实还是能设计
But we’ve actually been able to engineer
让猪的器官不带糖 所以
pigs whose organs don’t carry those sugars, so
假如我们能用
assuming we could take care
类似的方法解决猪器官“打我”的信号
of pig organs’other “ fight me ” signs in similar ways,
我们也许有一天能把猪的器官移植到人上
we might one day be able to transplant pig organs into humans.
但是基于猪的器官养殖有一个更激进的想法:在猪身上种植定制的
But there’s a far more radical idea for pork-basedorgan farming: grow customized human organs
人体器官 事实上
in pigs. Actually,
这不仅是一个想法
it’s not just an
在现实生活中它还是一个正在进行的实验
idea – it’s an ongoing experiment in real life. First,
首先我们建造一个不会长出
we engineer a pig embryo that
肾脏的猪的胚胎 然后
doesn’t grow its own kidneys. Then,
我们给它注射需要移植的人的干细胞 然后
we inject it with stem cells from the person needing a transplant. Then,
让改良猪胚胎长大
as the modified pig embryo develops,
那些人类细胞在这个孵卵器里也长大
those human cells grow inside the oinkubator
用病人自己的细胞建造一个健康的肾脏
into healthy kidneys made from the patient’sown cells.
至少 这还只是个计划
At least, that’s the plan.
迄今为止 我们
So far, we ’
自始至终只见过改良猪被注射了
ve only seen this experiment all the way through when the modified pig
其他猪的干细胞这种实验
embryos were injected with stem cells fromother pigs.
我们不知道这种方式造的
We don’t know whether it’ll actually work
人类肾脏是否真的有效
with human kidneys, because we’ve halted
因为仅四周后我们停止了所有
all experiments with the pig-human embryos after just four weeks
人-猪的胚胎实验 因为……
of development, because… some
一些人的干细胞在猪的身体里
of those human stem cells could develop
进化发育成其他人的器官
into other human organs elsewhere in the pig’s
这引发了很多伦理问题
body – which raises a lot of ethical questions,
比如我们怎么处理它们?
like what to do with them.
即使细胞不会迁移
Even if the cells don’t migrate
这些杂种的猪只用来生产鲜活的器官而已
and these hybrid pigs end up producing lots of live-saving organs,
我们应该给一只人造猪什么样的权利呢?
what rights do we give to a part-human pig,
尽管这个部分只是一个肾?
even if the part is just a kidney?
假如两个肾呢
What if it’s two kidneys?
两个肾 一个肝 一组肺
Two kidneys, a liver, and a set of lungs?
理论上我们能用一样的方式培养发育
In principle, we could use the same technology to grow human hearts,
人的心脏 人的脊髓
human spinal cords,
甚至是人的大脑 都在猪身体里
and even human brains – all inside of a pig.
到那个时候
And when we do,
我们怎么知道那只猪还是一只猪?
how will we know if that pig is still a pig?
《Minuteer Earth》的这一集部分是由Tab for a Cause支持
This episode of MinuteEarth is supported in part by Tab for a Cause.
如果你和我一样
If you’re like me,
你会在你的浏览器里打开很多标签页面
you open a lot of tabs in your browser.
Tab for a cause是一个浏览器扩展
Tab for a Cause is a browser extension
你每打开一个新标签会为慈善事业筹集资金
that donates to charity with each new tab you open,
这意味着很多钱是非营利的
which means lots of money for nonprofits
就像国际保护组织和人权观察
like Conservation International and Human Rights
不会花费你任何东西
Watch – without costing you a thing.
最后一次再提一下Tab for Cause
The last time we featured Tab for a Cause,
MinuteEarthings喜欢你们筹集
MinuteEarthings like you raised more than
超过10000美元 点击
$ 10,000 – click the link
简介的链接来帮助我们这次做得更好
in the description to help us do even better this time.
当你在下端看时
And while you’re down there,
会发现在订阅的按钮旁边有一个通知铃
will you find the notification bell next to the subscribe button,
点击它吧
and click on it?
油管已经改变了通知订阅者的方式
YouTube has changed the way it notifies subscribers,
这是最好的方法确保你
and this is the best way to make sure you
知道我们投的新视频
find out when we post a new video.
你也可以在你的手机或者平板电脑一样这样做
You can do the same thing on your phone ortablet.
如果你没有看到那个铃铛
If you don’t see the bell,
首先你要确认你是否订阅了我们
make sure you’re subscribed in the first place. Thanks,
感谢你们 下次再见
and see you next time!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

需要器官移植的人太多,而器官太少,假如用猪的器官呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

然默

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yh6rTKNwBJY

相关推荐