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我们应该抛弃标准化考试吗? – 译学馆
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我们应该抛弃标准化考试吗?

Should we get rid of standardized testing? - Arlo Kempf

我们所知的第一次标准化考试
The first standardized tests that we know of
是2000多年前的中国
were administered in China over 2,000 years ago
汉朝时期执行的考试
during the Han dynasty.
中国官员用考试来决定各种政府职位
Chinese officials used them to determine aptitude for various government posts.
考试科目包括哲学
The subject matter included philosophy,
农业
farming,
甚至战术
and even military tactics.
在接下来的两千年里标准化考试在全世界一直使用
Standardized tests continued to be used around the world for the next two millennia,
如今 考试被用在方方面面
and today, they’re used for everything
从法国评估消防员爬楼梯速度
from evaluating stair climbs for firefighters in France
到加拿大的外交官语言考试
to language examinations for diplomats in Canada
再到学校学生
to students in schools.
一些标准化考试评分
Some standardized tests measure scores
仅与其他考生结果相关
only in relation to the results of other test takers.
另一些根据考生与已定标准契合度评价表现
Others measure performances on how well test takers meet predetermined criteria.
所以消防员爬楼梯能力高低
So the stair climb for the firefighter
会比较所有其他消防员爬楼梯
could be measured by comparing the time of the climb
所用时间来评判
to that of all other firefighters.
这可能被大多数人叫做贝尔曲线
This might be expressed in what many call a bell curve.
或者依据设置的条件进行评估
Or it could be evaluated with reference to set criteria,
比如背负特定重量走一段距离
such as carrying a certain amount of weight a certain distance
爬指定数量的台阶
up a certain number of stairs.
相似的 一名外交官可能会与其他测试外交官进行比较
Similarly, the diplomat might be measured against other test-taking diplomats,
或用一套能证明不同语言熟练度
or against a set of fixed criteria,
等级的既定标准进行评估
which demonstrate different levels of language proficiency.
所有结果能用百分比这个东西来表达
And all of these results can be expressed using something called a percentile.
如果这名外交官是在百分之七十 那么有70%的考生分数比她低
If a diplomat is in the 70th percentile, 70% of test takers scored below her.
如果她的成绩在30% 则有70%考生成绩高于她
If she scored in the 30th percentile, 70% of test takers scored above her.
尽管标准化考试有时是有争议的
Although standardized tests are sometimes controversial,
它们仅是个工具
they’re simply a tool.
来做一个思维实验 假设标准化考试是一把格尺
As a thought experiment, think of a standardized test as a ruler.
格尺的有用性取决于两个方面
A ruler’s usefulness depends on two things.
第一个 我们要求它做的工作
First, the job we ask it to do.
我们的格尺不能测量外面的气温
Our ruler can’t measure the temperature outside
以及一个人唱歌的音量
or how loud someone is singing.
第二个 格尺的有用性取决于它的设计
Second, the ruler’s usefulness depends on its design.
如果说你需要测量一个橘子的周长
Say you need to measure the circumference of an orange.
我们的格尺正确的用途的确是测量长度
Our ruler measures length, which is the right quantity,
但是它没有被设计成手头具有灵活性的样子
but it hasn’t been designed with the flexibility required for the task at hand.
所以 如果标准化考试做了错误的工作
So, if standardized tests are given the wrong job,
或者设计不合理
or aren’t designed properly,
它们可能会以测量错误的东西而灭亡
they may end up measuring the wrong things.
至于学校
In the case of schools,
有考试焦虑的学生在一次标准化考试中
students with test anxiety may have trouble performing their best
可能很难展现他们的最佳水平
on a standardized test,
并不是因为他们不知道答案
not because they don’t know the answers,
而是因为他们感觉太紧张而不能展现他们所学过的知识
but because they’re feeling too nervous to share what they’ve learned.
有阅读障碍的学生
Students with reading challenges
可能会读不懂数学题
may struggle with the wording of a math problem,
所以他们的测试可能更好地反应映了读写能力
so their test results may better reflect their literacy
而不是计算技能
rather than numeracy skills.
还有例如对考试中包含不熟悉的
And students who were confused by examples
相关文化感到困惑的学生
on tests that contain unfamiliar cultural references
可能会考的很差
may do poorly,
更多的告诉我们考生的文化熟悉度
telling us more about the test taker’s cultural familiarity
而不是他们的学术学习
than their academic learning.
在这些情况下 考试需要不同的设计
In these cases, the tests may need to be designed differently.
标准化考试很难
Standardized tests can also have a hard time
评估抽象特质或技能
measuring abstract characteristics or skills,
像创造力 批判思维和合作能力
such as creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration.
如果我们设计考试不充分
If we design a test poorly,
或者让它做了错误的事
or ask it to do the wrong job,
或不是很擅长的事
or a job it’s not very good at,
结果可能不会是可靠有效的
the results may not be reliable or valid.
可靠性和有效性是理解标准化考试
Reliability and validity are two critical ideas
的两个重要方面
for understanding standardized tests.
为了理解两者之间的区别
To understand the difference between them,
我们可以用两个坏的温度计作比方
we can use the metaphor of two broken thermometers.
一个不可靠的温度计
An unreliable thermometer
在每次测温度时都会给你一个不同的读数
gives you a different reading each time you take your temperature,
可靠却无效的温度计会一直(比实际温度)高十度
and the reliable but invalid thermometer is consistently ten degrees too hot.
有效性还取决于对结果的精确解释
Validity also depends on accurate interpretations of results.
如果人们说考试结果反映他们不能做的
If people say results of a test mean something they don’t,
那么考试就可能存在有效性问题
that test may have a validity problem.
就像我们不指望格尺能告诉我们一头大象的重量
Just as we wouldn’t expect a ruler to tell us how much an elephant weighs,
或是它早餐吃了什么一样
or what it had for breakfast,
我们不能期待仅仅是标准化考试就能可靠地告诉我们一个人有多聪明
we can’t expect standardized tests alone to reliably tell us how smart someone is,
一名外交官解决紧急情况的能力大小
how diplomats will handle a tough situation,
或者是一名消防员原来有多勇敢
or how brave a firefighter might turn out to be.
所以标准化考试可能帮助我们在短时间内了解
So standardized tests may help us learn a little about a lot of people
一群人的一小部分
in a short time,
但是它们通常不能告诉我们一个人的更多的能力
but they usually can’t tell us a lot about a single person.
很多社会科学家担心考试成绩会致使考生
Many social scientists worry about test scores resulting in sweeping
失落和变得消极
and often negative changes for test takers,
有时还会造成长期的一生的影响
sometimes with long-term life consequences.
然而我们无法归咎于考试
We can’t blame the tests, though.
用对的考试去做对的事
It’s up to us to use the right tests for the right jobs,
以及合理解释结果取决于我们自己
and to interpret results appropriately.
关于这个话题如果你想了解更多的话
If you like to learn more about this topic,
我们强烈推荐一本名叫The end of average的畅销书
we highly recommend a best selling book called ‘The end of average’
作者是哈佛教授 托得·罗斯
by Havard professor, Todd Rose.
在这本书中 罗斯调查了对标准化考试的滥用
In it, Rose investigates the rampant misuse of standardized test
明确且紧迫
with clarity and urgency.
作者对这个问题提出了一个解决方案
The author proposes a solution to the problem.
你可以在Audible.com/Teded上免费下载这本书的音频版
You can download its audio version of this book for free on Audible.com/Teded.
每一次免费试听都鼓励Audible继续支持Teded的非营利性机构
And every free trial encourages Audible to continue supporting Teded’s non-profit mission.
我们对这个问题很感兴趣
We were very passionate about this issue.
我们感谢腾出时间读或听这本
And we’re grateful to any Teded community members
重要的书的Teded社区成员
who takes the time to read or listen to this important book.
感谢观看 谢谢支持
Thanks for watching and thanks for your support.
(音乐)
[music]

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学生饱受考试的“毒害”,我们应该抛弃标准化考试吗?

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