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其实我们应该殖民金星而不是火星?

Should We Colonize Venus Instead of Mars? | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

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有许多人谈论要把人类送上火星。
There’s a lot of talk about sending humans to Mars.
但是没人说送人到金星。
But no one talks about Venus.
为什么呢?
Why not?
金星真的是一个人类殖民的更好的选择吗?
And could Venus actually be the better option
成为人类的居住地么
for a human colony?
音乐响起
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前往火星已经扎根于
Going to Mars has been a fixture in
我们的集体意识之中
our collective cultural consciousness
有很长一段时间
for a very long time.
它激发出了数之不尽的科幻电影和小说创作
It’s inspired more sci-fi movies and stories than I can count,
激发了迪士尼世界的骑行 一个关于火星的推特
a ride at Disney World, and a Twitter following for the Mars
罗浮汽车作为领航员几乎需要两百万多
Rover that’s almost two million strong.
与此同时 有关于金星的创作么
Meanwhile, Venus has inspired– what?
引用两个雷·布莱伯利
Two Ray Bradbury stories, a plant
吃飞虫的植物 或者剃须刀?
that eats flies, and a razor?
事实上 金星在太阳系中有着混乱的
Basically, Venus has the worst public relations
公共关系
team in the solar system.
这伤害了我们的姐妹星球
And that hurts our sister planet,
不仅在文化 媒体中 也在太空政策里
not just in culture and media but in space policy.
布什和奥巴马总统和中国政府
Presidents Bush and Obama and the Chinese government
都有火星载人的目标
have all outlined goals for manned missions to Mars.
荷兰的一个非盈利组织Mars One
The Dutch nonprofit group Mars One
甚至在国际竞争中
even held in international competition
寻找去往火星的单程的志愿者
to find volunteers for a one-way mission to the Martian surface.
但是 金星呢
But Venus?
没有一项载人计划 没有
No manned mission love– at all.
在某些方面 这很奇怪
Which is odd since in most respects,
事实上 金星是比火星更简单 花费更少
Venus is actually an easier and less costly
的火星殖民目标
colonization target than Mars is.
首先 金星离地球更近
For starters, Venus is closer to Earth.
这就是为什么我们先探测到金星
That’s why we sent probes to Venus long before we sent them
比起探测到火星和为什么我们能探测到更多的星球
to Mars and why we sent more of them.
这个取决于发射时限 往返时间
Depending on the launch window, the round trip
可以缩短30%-50% 这是一个重要因素
can be 30% to 50% shorter, which is a major factor
对于载人航天任务来说
for manned missions.
缩短飞行旅程时间意味着更少的失重和更少的辐射
Shorter trips means less weightlessness and radiation,
携带更少的食物和水
less food and water to carry, and thus
因此意味着更少的燃料和更少的花费
less fuel and lower cost.
这也是一个极大的优点
This would also be a huge advantage
在携带人和必需的设备去开拓
in moving the people and equipment necessary to actually
另一个生存之地 因为要牢记
colonize another world, because bear in mind,
在太空上不存在克雷格列表
there’s no Craigslist in space.
如果我们曾开拓了一个生存之地 我们将需要带着
If we ever start a colony, we’ll need to bring along
几乎所有需要的东西
almost everything.
因为这并不是一个短途旅行
And it’s not just the shorter trip.
这个星球本身也有一些重要的优点
The planet itself has some significant advantages
跟火星相比
over Mars.
它距离太阳更近 这就意味着
It’s closer to the sun, which means about four times
它能收到的太阳能火星上收到的太阳能多三倍
more available solar power than you have on Mars.
它也有厚厚的大气层 不是薄薄的层
It also has a thick atmosphere, unlike that wispy layer
就像在火星上一样
on Mars.
这就意味着能更好的防辐射
That means better protection from space radiation
和防止陨星袭击我们大胆的移民
and meteorites for our enterprising colonizers
和他们未来的城市
and their future cities.
它也意味着更多可利用的二氧化碳
It also means more available carbon dioxide
从二氧化碳中我们可以提取我们生存所必需的氧气
from which, in principle, you might extract oxygen.
但最大的障碍就是重力问题
But the real kicker is gravity.
金星的重力相当于地球的0.9 相当接近
Venus has about 0.9 Earth g’s– pretty close–
相比之下 火星的重力少于0.4
while Mars has less than 0.4.
我们都知道的是,长时间的低重力
And one thing we do know is that prolonged low gravity
对人类有害
is bad for humans.
怎么有害呢
How bad?
在地球的轨道上 宇航员的骨量丢失
In Earth orbit, astronauts lose bone mass
是那些人的10倍
at about 10 times the rate of someone
那些患有骨质疏松的人
with advanced osteoporosis.
没有人具体的知道火星的重力是多么有害
Now no one knows exactly how bad Martian gravity
对于人类来说 但可以确定的是
would be for humans, but it’s definitely not
它不会变好
going to be good.
在金星上 就比在火星上少很多顾虑
On Venus, that’s far less of a concern.
记住 我们正在讨论的是长期的移民计划
And remember, we’re talking about long-term colonization,
而不是一个参观
not just visits.
即使我们有科学的方法
Even if we have the technological means
来把水加入星球的表面 把氧气注入到星球的空气中
to add water to a planet’s surface and oxygen to its air,
改变星球表面的重力
changing the planet’s surface gravity
目前还不在我们讨论的范畴
is currently not even within the realm of discussion.
所以把其它星球地球化不太可能 如果人们不能在这居住
So terraforming seems silly, and if people couldn’t live there
几个月而相安无事
more than a few months without their bones falling apart.
理论上是金星的殖民地
A theoretical Venutian colony thus
似乎是我们要去的地方
seems to have a lot going for it.
那么为什么隧道的影像是金星?
So why then this tunnel vision for Mars?
表面上。
Surfacism.
好吧,疑问先说到这里,下面听我讲。
OK, I just made that word up, but hear me out.
自从有了航海探险开始。
Ever since the days of seafaring exploration,
我们才发现陆地
we’ve had an obsession with landing
就是在水面上的东西。
on the surface of things.
如果你不在上面插上旗子之类的东西,
If you don’t plant a flag on something,
否则那数量就无法统计
it’s almost like having gotten there doesn’t count.
那么我么要怎么做呢,
So what’s all this have to do with Venus, which
是否在金星上有固定的表面?
actually has a solid surface?
否则,人们不能在星球表面上着陆。
Well it does, but humans can’t land on it.
注意,还有关于温度的小问题。
See, there’s a teensy problem with temperature.
大量的二氧化碳聚集在金星表面产生了温室效应。
There’s so much CO2 on Venus that the greenhouse effect
这使得金星表面的温度达到了地狱般的450摄氏度
makes the surface hotter than hell– over 450 degrees
这个温度甚至超过了铅的熔点温度。
Celsius, well above the melting point of lead.
但是更大的问题是
But the bigger problem is the barometric pressure
空气的压强。
on the surface.
超过了地球压强的90个大气压。
It’s over 90 Earth’s atmospheres.
这就如同人们在金星陆地上承受的压力
That means that landing on the Venutian surface
等同于人类潜入海中1000米时所承受的压力。
would be like diving one kilometer underwater on Earth–
如此大的压力足以摧毁大多数的军用潜水艇。
far beyond the crush depth of most military submarines.
事实上,很多美国国家航空和宇宙航行局和苏维埃的探测器
In fact, most probes that NASA and the Soviets
在发射到金星表面的半空中便发生了聚爆。
sent to the surface of Venus imploded in midair.
我们吸取教训,并加固探测器
We learned our lesson and a few reinforced probes
设法达到金星表面并传送一些
did manage to touch down and send images of the Venetian
其表面的照片。
surface.
但是即便如此,这样的探测也只能持续大约2个小时。
But even those only lasted about two hours
然后—(聚爆声)—你懂得。
before– [SOUND OF AN IMPLOSION] –you know.
这点来看,表面问题确实是个问题
The point is– I think surfacism is a real bias.
这就表明我们不能在金星表面生存
And the fact that we can’t live on the Venutian surface
这或许可以解释为什么火星人为什么如此宣扬。
could help explain why Mars gets all the hype.
可能是他们意识到了这一点。
But maybe that’s sensible.
我是说,如果金星表面会杀死我们。
I mean, if a surface will kill us,
那也就没有办法到达那里了,不是吗?
there’s no point in going there, right?
不要这么快下结论。
Not so fast.
观察大约50公里或30英里
See, around 50 kilometers or 30 miles
的金星表面上方,会发现一些有趣的事情。
above the Venutian surface, some interesting things happen.
首先,它的温度降到了70度左右。
First, the temperature drops to only about 70 degrees Celsius.
当让,相对于地球表面这个温度,还是相当热的
That’s still super hot, but firefighting equipment on Earth
这样的温度,可以导致一场丛林火灾
can withstand proximity to forest fires with temperatures
那样温度将会达到2000度
that reach over 2,000 degrees Celsius.
在那样的高度他的压强同时
The pressure at that altitude also
也降到了,地球表面的一个大气压。
dropped to almost exactly one Earth atmosphere.
这意味着人类需要一种隔热服
That means humans would need heat-resistant clothing
一个氧气面罩,但是没有这种航天服能适应
and oxygen masks, but not spacesuits to walk around
那样的环境。
in that environment.
而且,还存在一个小问题
Granted, there’s the minor nuisance
就是在金星的空气中漂浮着大量的酸性物质。
of sulfuric acid floating around in the Venutian air,
虽然是可控制的。
but that’s potentially manageable.
即便是在那样的高度,大气压
And at that altitude, the atmosphere
对于大多数人还是非常沉重
is still dense enough for lots of stuff
就好像在气球里充满了氦气
to floae– like balloons filled with helium
或者是充满地球普通的空气
or maybe filled even with just regular Earth air.
施以适当的重力,
Throw in the favorable gravity, and it
才会使气压高于金星的气压
starts to look like the upper atmosphere of Venus
或许这与太阳系密切相关
might be the closest thing in the solar system
之于类似于地球这样的环境。
to an Earth-like environment.
或许会弄成一个可以居住的
So it might make sense to colonize
在金星上的云城市。
Venus with cloud cities.
我并不是凭空想象。
I am not making this up.
这是美国航天局分析并概念指出的
NASA Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate
这个计划还未揭示的概念蓝图。
has unveiled a conceptual blueprint for this scheme.
他们叫做高空金星运行
They call it the High Altitude Venus Operational
概念或者是HACOC——有意思的名字
Concept or HAVOC– interesting branding choice,
但是仍然很恐怖。
but still super awesome.
我们已经连线美国航天局的视频。
We’ve linked the NASA videos in the description.
你可以找打他们。
You should check them out.
但是这些仍然停留在概念上。
Now for the record, this is all still conceptual.
需要很久我们才会输送这样的人
We are very far from sending this guy
来引导我们去向金星的云城市。
to lead our Venutian Cloud City.
但是美国航天局提出了这样一个严肃的理念。
But NASA is taking the idea seriously.
目前为止,大量的数据
Right now, most of the chatter is still
还是没有表明金星有适合居住的
about using Venus as practice for colonies
地方–类似火星。
elsewhere– like Mars.
因为我们没有攻克金星表面的问题。
So we haven’t overcome surfacism just yet.
但会有改变的。
But this might change.
万有引力是唯一的能使尽享发生改变的因素。
The gravity issue alone might make Venus the go-to option
以使适合人类长期居住。
for long-term human habitation.
谁知道呢?
Who know?
一个世纪以来,如果我们知道
Centuries from now, if we learn how
如何我们能抽取出大量的碳从金星的表面。
to sequester enough carbon out of its atmosphere,
我们或许能在上门插几面旗子。
we might even be able to plant a flag or two.
那么你怎么想呢?
So what do you guys think?
金星是比火星更适合居住的?
Is Venus a better colonization option than Mars?
花2美分在论坛上,或许更好,推送他们。
Put your $0.02 in the comments– or even better, tweet them,
空白
#occupyvenus.
如果我们开始一个草根的运动。
If we start a grassroots movement,
我将告诉你们另一个关于太空时间的片段。
I’ll let you know on the next episode of ‘Space Time’.
上周,我问如何测量
Last week, we asked how you measure
宇宙的尺寸?
the size of the universe?
这有如下的问题要问
Here are some of your questions.
为什么我们的太空扩张的比光速
awtizme asked, how can space be expanding faster
还快假如光速是最快的速的的话?
than light if the speed of light is the ultimate speed limit?
我要通过两个方面回答你的问题。
I’m going to answer you in two parts.
首先,光速的限制
First, the speed of light speed limit
是指光到达太空的时间,并不是太空
is for things moving through space, not about expansion
本身在扩张。
of space itself.
第二,你是对的。
The second, you’re right.
我不能谈论太空
I shouldn’t be talking about space
是在以一定的速度在扩张。
expanding at a given speed.
我们可以通过复印机放大的设置
I should be talking about the size of the enlarge setting
通过复印机的按钮
on a photocopier button.
如果每秒按一次扩大扭。
If I hit enlarge once every second,
那么我们在纸上只能看到两个点
then there will always be two points on the page
那么,如果他们做够远
that– if they’re far enough apart to begin with–
这是光很快连接了他们
will end up more than one extra light second apart after I
通过复印机的按钮。
hit that photocopier button.
转换的想法是一个直觉的方式
lingwingzing commented that this was a pretty intuitive way
去理解膨胀
to understand inflation.
谢谢鼓励,但是还要谨慎。
Thanks for the compliment, but be careful.
我们谈论的是太空通常意义的扩张。
We’re talking about expansion of space in general.
膨胀指的是非常具体的扩张。
Inflation refers to a very specific expansion
空间的形成通常是发生在一瞬间。
of space that occurred in just the first few instances
大爆炸之后
after The Big Bang.
马丁1313就是哈勃
The Mattman1313 says that the Hubble Bubble
这可能转变那个想法
is a possible alternative to the idea
空间在扩张
that space is expanding at all.
那不是正确的
That’s not correct.
空间在扩张期间
Space is expanding– period.
通过哈勃望远镜,我们发现一个潜在的变化
What the Hubble Bubble offers is a potential alternative
目前的研究表明,空间在加速扩张
to the currently observed, accelerated expansion of space.
仔细观察
Look it up.
至于布伞登 斯皮尔,当然,我们总是
And to Brandon Spears, sure, we could always
帮助使用空间时间
use help here at ‘Space Time’.
就下没给我们有的哈雷望远镜
Like the Hubble Space Telescope, we’ve
有脏东西落在镜片上一样,就帮助我们清除掉它。
got schmutz on our lens too, so give it a wipe and help us out.
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