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第一个火星任务应该全是由女性完成吗? – 译学馆
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第一个火星任务应该全是由女性完成吗?

Should the First Mars Mission Be All Women? | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

2013年标志着首次NASA的宇航员候选人中
2013 marked the first time that women made up 50% of the NASA
50%是女性
astronaut candidate class.
但是展望未来 NASA应该进一步发展吗?
But looking forward, should NASA try to go even higher?
第一个人类火星任务应该全都由女性完成吗?
Should the first human Mars mission be all women?
瞧 毋庸讳言 在《太空时间》节目里我们喜欢金星上
Look, it’s no secret that we here at “Space Time”
云城的构想
love the idea of cloud cities on Venus.
但是 除非我们的#占领金星#推特运动
But unless our #OccupyVenus Twitter campaign
能创造奇迹 最终人类
works miracles, humans will probably
首先登陆的可能是火星
end up going to Mars first.
问题是 哪些人类
The question is, which humans?
看 报纸 杂志中有一些文章
See, several articles in journals or in the press
问到 是否可能有一个火星团队
have asked whether it might make sense for a Mars crew
大部分甚至全部都是女人组成的
to consist mostly or even entirely of women.
这是一个有趣的提议 值得讨论
It’s an interesting proposal that warrants discussion,
但是我们需要首先了解一些事实
but we need to get some facts straight first.
今天 我要对各种论据的潜在数据
Today, I’m going to review some of the data underlying
进行回顾
the various arguments.
你们准备好了吗?
You guys ready?
好的
All right.
让我们先从生理学的论据开始探讨一下
Let’s start with the physiological arguments
对于月球之外的全女性任务
for all-female missions beyond Earth’s moon.
许多人想要成为宇航员 但是让我告诉你
A lot of us want to become astronauts, but let me tell
这并不容易
you, becoming one is not easy.
有很多因素让你不够资格进入NASA
Lots of factors disqualify you from NASA
目前 在还没开始的时候就有身高限制
before you even begin including, currently, height restrictions.
你的身高必须在4英尺11英寸到6英尺3英寸之间
You’ve got to be 4’11 to 6’3.
就是这样
That’s it.
对于首次登陆火星
In all likelihood, scrutiny will be even greater
检查甚至可能更严格
for the first manned trip to Mars,
因为我们不能让这些先锋们在离地球2亿英里的地方
because we can’t have these pioneers falling apart
分封瓦解
200 million miles from Earth.
因此从生理学上讲 对于宇航员们来说
So physiologically, what’s the biggest health concern
什么是最大的健康问题呢
for astronauts right now?
根据一份2014年的NASA研究报告
Well, according to a 2014 NASA study
从相关的描述来看 并不是骨质疏松
that we link in the description, it’s not bone loss.
而是 视力障碍 女性在这个方面
Instead, it’s an issue where women
好像很有优势
appear to have a big advantage– vision impairment.
一些男宇航员已经
Several male astronauts have experienced
被确认出现了视力问题
confirmed vision problems, often accompanied
并且在太空飞行过程中和太空飞行之后
by anatomical changes to the eye,
均伴有眼部结构的改变
both during and after space flight.
他们在轨道上的时间最多有六个月
All of them were in orbit six months or less,
比火星任务中任意方向的
which is a lot less time than the eight
八个月零重力
months of zero G in each direction
的时间都要少很多
that you’d have on a Mars mission.
现在 正在研究一些对策
Now, countermeasures are being studied,
但是任务很艰巨 因为出现这种现象的确切原因
but it’s tough, because the exact cause of the phenomenon
还未找到
isn’t entirely understood yet.
我们所知道的就是 目前为止 女性还没有出现过
What we do know is that so far no women have experienced
长期的视力问题
lasting vision issues.
既然对于火星任务来说 视力是非常重要
And since vision is a pretty critical faculty on a Mars
鉴于潜在原因的不确定性
mission, and given the uncertainty about underlying
视力可能会是全女性宇航员
causes, this might be a major checkmark in the pro-all women
一个重要的检查合格标志
column.
那么 从生理学角度来说 有没有哪些方面女性不如男性呢?
So are there physiological areas where women do worse than men?
当然有
Sure.
让我们看下NASA的同一个研究
Let’s look at the same NASA study.
在第一次处于零重力的环境时 女性更容易患有空间运动病
Women are more prone to space motion sickness when they first
不过很快就会恢复健康
hit zero G, but that goes away.
女性更容易患有尿路感染
Women get more urinary tract infections,
但是可以用抗生素治疗
but that can be treated with antibiotics.
在她们返回地球后
And women faint more easily from standing up too fast
女性快速站起时更容易头晕
once they get back to Earth, which
也许对于火星重力来说不是个大问题
may not be as big a deal in Martian gravity– still
尚不明确
unclear.
目前 这些问题还没有上升到
Now, none of these rise to the same mission
同视力障碍一样的战略高度
critical level as impaired vision.
然而 女性的确还有一个生理上的劣势
However, women do have another physiological minus
应该引起重视 那就是辐射
that does have to be considered– radiation.
女性因辐射引发癌症的风险
Women have about twice the risk of radiation
是男性的两倍
induced cancer that men do.
所以NASA允许女性
It’s why NASA allows women only half
一生中太空飞行的时间仅为男性的一半
as much lifetime space flight as it allows men.
毫无疑问 对于火星任务来说 辐射
Radiation would be a big issue for a Mars
是一个很大的问题
mission, no question.
然而 基于目前的屏蔽技术
However, given current shielding technology,
即使男性也可能超过允许的辐射安全
even men might exceed the allowed radiation safety
级别
levels.
辐射对于女性是不利的 那么 同时
So while it’s a negative for women,
想送任何人到太空 也许辐射风险
radiation risk might be one of those things
都是必须解决的
that you have to solve for everyone in order
问题之一
to send anyone.
不管怎样 缺少对视力问题的检测和对策
Anyway, absent to test for or countermeasures
女性可能还因此
for the vision problems, women may
会有一个生理优势呢
have a physiological advantage just because of that.
好了
OK.
心理适应方面怎么样呢
What about psychological suitability?
同一个NASA的研究中并没有报道 太空飞行时
Well, the same NASA study reports no sex-based difference
性别的不同会导致心理和行为的不同
in psychology or behavior during spaceflight.
他们把这归因于NASA宇航员经历的
They attribute this to the robust screening and training
肌肉筛查和训练
that NASA astronauts undergo.
然而 其他信息来源和太空计划
However, other sources and space programs
在这方面让女性有优势
tend to give women the edge in this category.
例如 据英国的卫报报道
For example, the British newspaper “The Guardian”
中国的航天官员说
reported Chinese space officials as saying
他们的女宇航员候选人在
that their female astronaut candidates exhibit better
沟通能力和独立性方面
communication skills and adapt better to isolation
比男宇航员更强
than the male counterparts.
在水星13的测试中
Similar results were found during testing of the Mercury
也有类似的发现
13.
1960年 一组女性
That’s a group of women who were put
经历了和男水星宇航员
through the same tests as the male Mercury astronauts
一样的测试
back in 1960.
顺便提一下 事件中的女性
Incidentally, the story of those women
以及随后的政治斗争
and the subsequent political battle
试图让这些女性成为美国宇航员
to try to have women admitted to the US astronaut corps
真是令人惊喜
is fascinating.
在PBS的”Makers”系列节目中有一集有所涉及
It’s covered in an episode of the PBS “Makers” series, which
我强烈推荐观看
I highly recommend.
在描述中有视频的链接
There’s a link to the video in the description.
总之 女性好像
Anyway, it looks like women might
在持续时间较长的任务中有一些心理方面的优势
have a slight psychological edge on longer duration missions.
但是 让我们假设 目前我们说的都不是事实
But let’s suppose that nothing we’ve said so far were true.
女性没有任何生理和心理优势
No physiological or psychological edges for women.
仍然还有一个论据认为女性比
There’s still another argument for preferring women
男性更适合较长时间的太空任务
to men on longer space missions–
也就是 把女性送到其他行星所需要的费用更少
namely that it costs less to send them to other planets.
怎么会那样呢
How come?
和食物有关
It’s about food.
当你可以重复使用空气和水的时候
While you can recycle air and water,
你需要把所有的食物一起
you need to take all the food mass with you
带到火星上
on a trip to Mars.
即使你想要种植物 也是这样
And that’s true even if you manage to grow plants.
和男性进行同样的活动时
Now, it turns out that women need less food
女性需要的食物更少
to do the same activity as men, so that
那就意味着 运输更少的量 需要更少的推进剂
means less mass to transport, less propellant, and thus
费用也就更少
lower cost.
现在 多年来这个论据已经被多次提出
Now, this argument has been made many times over the years,
其中包括一些NASA的雇员
including by some NASA employees.
但是 直到2014年年底才引起了更多关注
But it got a lot more attention in late 2014
当时作家凯特 格林在Slate上
when writer Kate Greene wrote an article to this effect
写了一篇相关的文章
in “Slate.”
格林是六个志愿者之一
Greene was one of six volunteers–
三个男的 三个女的 前四个月
three men and three women– in the first four months
在NASA筹建的High Seas做研究
study at High Seas, a NASA-funded, enclosed, isolated
High Seas在夏威夷的莫纳罗亚山上 与世隔绝
habitat on Mauna Loa in Hawaii that
在那里他们模拟了火星任务的各种条件
simulates aspects of conditions on a Mars mission.
格林注意到了 在这个团队里 尽管女性做了与男性类似的活动和运动
Greene noticed that the women in her cohort consumed about half
她们消耗的卡路里大约
as many calories as the men, despite comparable activity
只有男性的一半
and exercise.
这同现任和前任NASA分析师
This was consistent with what had
早先看到的结果是一致的
been seen earlier by current and former NASA analysts
这一点她在文章中提到了
that she cites in her article.
但是格林没有就节省量给出
But what Greene doesn’t give us is an actual numerical estimate
实际的数字估算 那么我粗略地计算一下
of the savings, so I did some rough math.
让我们看一下NASA火星任务的较长版本
Let’s consider the long version of a NASA Mars mission.
这是一个需要910天的往返旅行 并且有一年多的时间
It would be 910 days round trip with over a year on the Martian
在火星表面
surface.
不论什么原因 太空里和地球上需要的卡路里
For whatever reason, the calorie requirements
是基本相同的
in space and on Earth are basically the same.
那么 考虑一下 你摄入的食物后需要补充水分
So taking into account the water you need to rehydrate the food,
每个人每天大约吃掉一公斤食物
each person would eat about a kilogram of food per day.
那么对于这个往返行程 一个人的需要量
That’s about 1,000 kilos, or one metric ton,
大约是1000公斤或者一公吨
per person for the round trip.
那么如果用的全是女人 可以节省多少食物量呢
So how much food mass could you save if you used all women?
整个团队可能有四个人
Well, the crew would probably be four people,
不过 我们夸张一点 比如说六个人
but let’s say six just to high-ball it.
那就是6公吨的食物
That’s six metric tons of food.
我们的比较基准
I’m assuming our comparison baseline
是三个男人和三个女人
is three men and three women, replacing
再把所有的男人换成女人
all the men with women.
既然一公吨一天是对于两个性别来说的平均值
Since my one kilo a day is an average of both genders
我们仅仅把三个男人换成了三个女人
and since we’re only replacing the three men with women–
也是就一半人数 那你就可以去掉
that’s half the crew– you can knock out about a third
总食物量的三分之一
of your total food mass.
所以食物的节省量就是2公吨
So our savings would be two metric tons.
那么怎么根据食物节省量算出节省了多少美元呢
So how does that mass savings translate into dollar savings?
你需要计算出把那些食物从地球轨道运到火星轨道
To ballpark that you need to work out how much fuel it would
所需燃料以及返回地球时所需燃料
take to get that food from Earth orbit to Mars orbit and back,
然后再把食物的费用加上
and then estimate the cost of getting
从地球表面出发时使用的全部燃料
the food plus all that fuel off of Earth’s surface
的费用
to begin with.
现在 我算出了你大约需要50吨推进剂
Now, I worked out that you need about 50 tons of propellant
来运送这2吨食物
to move those two tons of food there
返回时你需要带
and to bring back the half ton or so you’d
大约半吨
need for the return trip.
为什么这么多
Why so much?
因为如果你加上燃料来运输你的有效负荷
Because as you add fuel to move your payload,
那么你就需要再加燃料来运输之前的燃料
you then need to add fuel to move that fuel
依此类推 所以航天飞行
and so on and so on– this is why space flight
才会有这么大的开销
costs so much money.
现在 我只是保守计算
Now, my number is conservative.
我假设的是我们不需要下降到
I assume that we wouldn’t need any fuel for the descent
火星的燃料 你会把返回时需要的食物
to Mars, that you’d leave all the food for the return
留在火星的轨道 那么你就把所有垃圾留在了
trip in orbit around Mars, and that you’d leave all your waste
火星表面
down on the Martian surface.
那么这会节省多少美元呢
So what’s the dollar savings?
按照今天的发射价格计算 会在5亿到
At today’s launch prices, it’d be between $0.5 billion and $5
50亿美元之间
billion.
我们的50公吨食物加上所需燃料
Our 50 metric tons of food plus food fuel
代表了整个任务大约5%到7%的量
would thus represent around 5% to 7% of the mission mass
也就是发射费用的5%到7%
and 5% to 7% of the launch cost, which might be 0.5% to 1%
估计占任务总预算的0.5%到1%
of the estimated total mission budget.
那算不上疯狂 但是也不能忽略不计
That’s not crazy, but it’s not entirely negligible either.
现在发射成本在降低 所以这些预测
Now, granted, launch costs are dropping so these projections
也会有所变化
could change.
但是尽管SpaceX设法将发射成本降到我刚才说的十分之一
But even if SpaceX manages to get those launch costs to 1/10
如果送入太空的全部是女人
of what I’ve quoted, we’re still talking
仍然能节省
a savings of hundreds of millions of US dollars
很多美元
if we sent only women.
所以我想最根本的问题是这个
So I guess my bottom line question to all of you is this.
设想一下 假如火星任务已经准备就绪
Suppose it turns out that by the time we’re ready for the Mars
我们可以控制辐射 但是不能控制
mission we can manage radiation but cannot manage the vision
视力问题
issues.
假设进一步的测试表明
And suppose that further testing shows
四到六个女人被困在一个黑洞的狭小空间里两三年
that four to six women locked in a tiny can in a black void
作为一个团队工作
for two to three years would work as a team
和男女混合的团队相比 两者都有较低的失控风险
with lower risk of flipping out as well as or better
或者是前者更低吗
than a mixed sex crew would.
如果那是事实 考虑到我们讨论过的
If all that turns out to be true, and taking into account
成本问题 是不是应该让全女性团队
the cost issues we discussed, should an all-female crew
执行首次火星任务呢
be given preference for the first Mars mission?
因为不要忘了 首次火星任务
Because remember, the first Mars mission
是要成功的
really needs to succeed.
所以 至少对我来说 似乎要谨慎地消除
So it seems, to me at least, prudent to eliminate every risk
任何你知道的并且能掌控的风险
that you know about and are able to manage.
但是 让我看看大家会说些什么吧
But let’s see what you guys have to say.
在评论里畅所欲言吧
Have at it in the comments, and feel free to point out anything
我漏掉的或者错的 都可以
that I missed or got wrong.
我会在下一期“Space Time”里
I’ll report on the evolving discussion on the next episode
播报展开的讨论
of “Space Time.”
上周我们的问题是 在科幻小说里
Last week we asked what the most realistic artificial gravity
最逼真的人造重力是什么
in sci-fi is.
大家有很多很棒的评论
You guys had a lot of really great comments.
如果我没有看到你的 不要难过
If I don’t get to yours individually, don’t feel bad.
我们时间有限
We have limited time.
很多人提到了我在节目里
A lot of you brought up sci-fi series
没有提到的科幻小说
that I did not mention in the episode.
让我依次浏览一下 《安德的游戏》
Let me run through these things in order. “Ender’s Game.”
我承认那篇小说好像很真实
I agree that the novel seems pretty realistic,
电影差些
the movie less so.
但是因为我没有具体数字
But since I don’t have any numbers,
便无法证实 《星际穿越》
I have no way to confirm this. “Interstellar”–
你猜怎么着 我还没有看过那部电影呢
guess what, I haven’t seen the movie yet
因为我没有自己的生活
because I have no life.
但是我具体看了看
But I looked at the specs, and the ship
飞船每分钟旋转五到六圈
rotates at five to six RPMs.
你一定注意到了科里奥利力
You would definitely notice a Coriolis force.
《与拉玛相会》是另一部小说
“Rendezvous With Rama,” which is another novel
作者是亚瑟 克拉克
by Arthur C. Clarke.
我承认每秒转速比较慢 科里奥利效应较弱
I agree it has slow RPMs and low Coriolis effects,
但是它仅仅有0.7 earth Gs 可能是故意的
but it only has 0.7 earth Gs, which might be intentional.
我不知道
I don’t know.
高达日本动漫系列 我还从未看过
The “Gundam” anime series– yet something else I’ve never seen.
然而Scina Bocere指出 它的设计
However Scina Bocere pointed out that its design
是基于叫做O’Neill Cylinder的东西
is based on something called an O’Neill Cylinder that you
你可以在维基百科里查到
can look up on Wikipedia.
Watchit1337提供了高达漫画中飞船的数量
And Watchit1337 supplied numbers for the “Gundam” ships, which
如果是对的 我同意会产生最小的科里奥利效应
if right, I agree would produce minimal Coriolis effects.
赞一个
Thumbs up.
最后一些观众指出
Finally, some people brought up using
为了得到人造重力可以使用加速飞船
an accelerating ship in order to get artificial gravity.
一个方向上给的加速度是每二次方秒 9.8米
So go 9.8 meters per second per second acceleration in one direction.
在“质量效应”里显然已经做到了 这属于
This is done apparently in “Mass Effect,” the “Expanse” series,
另一部尼文的作品《上帝眼中的尘埃》的《扩张》系列
another Niven work called “The Mote in God’s Eye.”
问题是 为了保持加速状态
The problem is, where do you get the fuel
你从哪里获得燃料呢
to keep that acceleration going?
有很多不现实的理由
There’s lots of reasons that’s not realistic, which
所以我没有提出
is why I didn’t bring it up.
其余的评论是关于
The remaining comments are about things that
剧情本身的
happened in the episode itself.
格雷格·佩登指出 大概在3分47秒时
Greg Peden points out that around three minutes, 47
球被扔出了旋转木马
seconds, where we had the ball sort of being thrown away
球的轨迹不应该像视频里
in the carousel, it shouldn’t go as straight
呈直线的
as we had it in the video.
应该是向右稍微倾斜的
It should tilt slightly to the right because of the already
因为球已经有了切向动量
tangential momentum that it had.
你完全正确
You’re absolutely right.
我很高兴大家发现了那个问题
I’m glad you guys picked that up.
戴维德·孔蒂问 为什么我们没有提到重力梯度效应
Davide Conte asked why we didn’t bring up gravity gradient
即在小环里
effects, namely that in a small ring– this is not as a big
在大环里问题不大
a problem in large rings– there would
你脚上的地球引力和你头上
be a gravity differential between what you’d feel
是不一样的
at your feet and your head.
我之所以没有提到这个是因为
I didn’t bring this up because we don’t entirely
我们没有完全理解那个效应
know the effects of that.
体内的液体可能会重新分布
There might be fluid redistribution in the body,
你的骨头可能需要更加贴近你的颈部
and you might get more bone leeching in your neck
因为压迫你的脊柱的重力更小了
because there’s less gravity there compressing your spine.
但是 短期内 科里奥利效应
But in the short term, the Coriolis effects
更为重要
are a lot more significant.
“堡垒风暴”问 旋转航天站
Fortstorm asks, wouldn’t a rotating stations
转动的时候会不会有问题 因为它的角动量矢量
have trouble turning because its angular momentum vector would
变化的时候会出现问题
have trouble being shifted?
他指的是之前的滚筒翻转那一期节目
He’s hearkening back to our barrel roll episode there,
答案是 是的
and the answer is yes.
这就是我在评论里提到的O’Neil Cylinder
That’s why O’Neill Cylinder, which I’ve already referenced
会有两个反向旋转部分的原因
in the comments, would have two counter-rotating sections, so
这样这里就会有重力 这里会有重力
that there would be gravity here and gravity here
但是没有角动量 因此就没有陀螺效应
but no net angular momentum, and thus no net gyroscope effects.
非常棒的问题
Excellent question
Thomas Archuleta提到了“巴比伦5号”的另一个场景
Thomas Archuleta points out another scene from “Babylon 5”
我记得在里面Michael Garibaldi
that I remember in which Michael Garibaldi drives a motorcycle
以极快的速度驾驶着一辆摩托车
at a pretty fast clip but doesn’t seem to have
但是好像没有出现奇怪的科里奥利效应
any weird Coriolis effects.
原因是 如果他是
The reason is that if he’s driving
沿着空间站的轴线驾驶的
along the axis of the space station,
就不会有科里奥利效应
there would be no Coriolis effects.
只有在你沿着边缘运动时
The Coriolis effects would only be there
才会产生科里奥利效应 而不是沿着轴线
if you move along the rim, not along the axis.
CGIAgent问 在一个像“巴比伦5号”那样旋转的飞船里 假设
CGIAgent asks, in a rotating ship like “Babylon 5,” assuming
你在边缘有大气压力
that you had atmospheric pressure at the rim
大气压力随着高度增加而下降
and that atmospheric pressure dropped with altitude,
边缘的中心位置附近有没有某个点
would there be some point near the center of the rim
那里的大气很稀薄以至于你都无法呼吸
where the atmosphere got so thin that you’d suffocate
有窒息区吗
and there’d be a suffocation zone?
我觉得这取决于具体情况
I think that would depend on the specs
以及气体是怎么送进去的
and how air was being blasted in there.
你可能会在轴线上
You might be able to have something on the axis
类似于注入更多的气体 人工地增加
to sort of inject more air out and artificially increase
气压
the air pressure there.
不过实际上我也不知道
But I don’t actually know.
如果你把它弄明白了 我也会很有兴趣的
I’d be really interested if you worked it out.
最后 约翰 尼尔森非常喜欢我们的节目
Finally, John Nielson, who really likes the show,
他说他不知道做些什么好
says he doesn’t know what to do with himself.
我可以给个小小的建议吗
May I offer the following humble suggestion?
宣传一下我们的节目
Spread the show.
告诉你的朋友们
Tell your friends.
观看的人越多
The more people we get watching, the better
《太空时间》节目就会做得越好
we can make “Space Time.”

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译制信息
视频概述

2013年宇航员的候选人中有一半是女性。那么女人与男人相比,生理和心理方面有什么不同呢?谁更适合完成太空任务呢?本期节目就参与首次火星任务男女的优劣势方面,会给出具体的数据进行详细分析和比较。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jessie

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEagBK4Xb1w

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