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动物应当拥有人类的权利吗?(神奇宝贝+物种歧视)|8-bit哲学第二季 – 译学馆
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动物应当拥有人类的权利吗?(神奇宝贝+物种歧视)|8-bit哲学第二季

Should Animals Have Human Rights? (Pokémon + Speciesism) - 8-Bit Philosophy

伊布 喵喵 杰尼龟和小拳石
Fluffy McFlufferson, Pussy Meowsalot, Turtle Turtleson, and Muffin head.
2014年 美国人为爱宠花费了
In 2014, Americans spent over $56 billion dollars
560多亿美元
on their beloved pets.
但是有些动物却经常受到虐待
But how can we reconcile this affinity
我们如何才能调和这种矛盾呢?
with the horrific ways in which animals are often treated?
思想家笛卡尔认为
Thinkers like Rene Descartes have argued that
动物缺乏思想
since animal lack consciousness,
它们本质上是机器
they’re essentially machines,
所以它们没有道德地位
and thus do not have moral status.
稍温和的观点认为
A less extreme view is that
动物有意识 但这种意识如此短暂
animals are conscious, but their consentience is so fleeting that
因此他们不像人类一样那么在意外物
things don’t matter to them like they do to us.
但在澳洲哲学家彼得·辛格看来
But to Australian philosopher Peter Singer,
根据物种特性来划定道德边界非常武断
drawing moral boundaries based on species
他在《动物解放》中提出
characteristics is utterly arbitrary. In his book Animal Liberation, Singer argues that
我们怀有“物种偏见” 就是说 我们认为
we suffer from a form of “speciesism.” In other words, since there is a belief that
动物不具备人类所拥有的意识水平
animals don’t share the level of consciousness that humans exhibit, they don’t deserve
因而它们不应该得到相同的道德关怀
to be given similar moral consideration.
当然 我们有理由认为动物不应该享有和人类同样的权利
Granted, it’s reasonable to suggest that animals and humans should not share the same rights —
比如投票权 皮卡丘将会浪费这一权利
the right to vote, for instance, would be wasted on a Pikachu. But is it not
但是交给那些没有能力做出理性选择的人 不也是一种浪费吗
also wasted on people who are incapable of making rational choices? Yet, we don’t consider
事实上我们并不会认为 他们和我们不同
those individuals as altogether different from the rest of us.
显然 在物种偏见这件事上我们前后矛盾
Clearly, we are inconsistent with our application of speciesism.
辛格说 平等不应该仅仅基于意识或智力水平
To Singer, the principle of equality shouldn’t be based solely on consciousness or intelligence.
生物承受苦难的能力是最重要的
What’s most important is the capacity for a being to experience pain and suffering.
认识到动物会承受痛苦 也是人类自我发现的一种道德特征
Recognizing animals’ capacity to suffer is as much a moral characteristic as recognizing our own.
不止一种哲学理论认为
According to at least one philosophical theory,
道德行为能够减少痛苦 带来欢乐
moral actions are those that increase pleasures and decrease pains.
它最初被称为享乐主义
Initially known as hedonism,
后来边沁通俗地称之为功利主义
and later popularized by Jeremy Bentham as utilitarianism,
这种哲学观认为
this philosophy holds that
快乐是唯一一件本质上的好事
the only intrinsically good thing is pleasure,
而痛苦则是唯一一件本质上的坏事
and the only intrinsically bad thing is pain.
因此 予以痛苦就是不好的 无论对方是人或动物
Hence, inflicting pain — whether it be against humans OR animals — is wrong. For Singer,
辛格认为 应根据具备痛苦承受能力这一特征 来衡量生物能否享有道德关怀
the capacity to suffer is the characteristic that qualifies any living thing to moral consideration,
因为痛苦是人与动物都尽量避开的东西
because pain is something that both animals and humans alike try to avoid.
这样想想:石头没有兴趣躲避被踢 但一只狗会
Think about it like this: a stone has no interest in avoiding being kicked, but a dog does —
因此 它理应受到道德礼遇
and therefore, deserves moral treatment.
那么亲爱的观众 请扪心自问:
So dearest viewer, ask yourself:
如果培根是用皮卡丘的肉做的 你还吃吗?
would you still eat bacon if it came from Pikachus?
亲爱的观众们 大家好 这里是Disembodied British Voice
Hello, dears viewer, Disembodied British Voice here.
下一集播出时如果你希望得到通知
If you want to be notified when my next episode comes out,
请一定点击这个巨大并且厚脸皮的订阅按钮
be sure to click this giant, shameless subscribe button,
是的 就是它 你值得拥有
yes, the one right here, you can’t miss it.
同时如果你喜欢看这个节目
Also, it’s the time for another vote
并且希望能更多看到社会学话题
if you’d like to see the show broaden its horizons to sociological tissues
就点击这里唤醒雪脚怪
then wake up snow legs by clicking here
如果不喜欢的话 点击这向妖怪发射精灵球
if not then throw a mastoball on youtube by clicking here
亲爱的观众朋友们 谢谢观看
thanks for watching beloved viewer

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动物应该与人类享有同样的权利吗?听听彼得辛格的看法吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

王随意

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=45nYyUn6Ya8

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