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如何寻找丢失的无人机 – 译学馆
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如何寻找丢失的无人机

Shooting Down a Lost Drone and why Dogs Tilt their Heads - Smarter Every Day 173

嘿 我是德斯丁 欢迎回到《每天聪明点》
Hey, it’s me Destin welcome back to Smarter Every Day
我在树林中央
I’m in the middle of the woods.
我儿子丢了架便宜的小无人机
My son lost a cheap little drone
目前唯一能找到它的方法
and the only way we can figure out where it’s at
是启动它
is we are powering it up
听它在哪儿
and listening to where it is
这让我开始思考关于听声辨位
it’s really get me thinking about directional hearing
快速说明前情是
To bring you up to speed real quick
我妹妹送我儿子一架玩具无人机
my sister bought my son a toy drone
他当然是立刻跑出去
which of course he immediately went outside
让飞机尽量飞高
flew as high as he could
再让风把它吹进树林
and let the wind carry it off into the wood
直到消失不见
way out of sight.
我们只知道它在
All we knew is that it was
这座树林的一大片区域
in a huge section of the forest
“解决问题” 是我一直尝试教给
Now, problem-solving is an important skill
孩子们的一项重要技能
that I always tried to teach my children.
所以 我先会让他无目的的四处寻找
So, first I leted him wander around aimlessly for a bit
当然没找到
Of course not finding it.
之后我决定是时候开始我们的小冒险了
and then I decided it was time to start our little adventure.
首先 我们全体四散在林中
First, we all spread out in the woods
并保持绝对安静
and got real quiet.
接着我们启动无人机并利用我们的定向听力来
We then activated the drone and used our directional hearing to
看看我们是否认为我们知道它在哪
see if we thought we knew where it was coming from.
声音很微弱 所以我们都前行在大家
It was super faint so we each walked in the direction
各自认为的方向
we thought it was coming from
之后我们都停下来 保持安静 再启动无人机
and we all stopped, got quiet again and reactivated it.
此时 我们更靠近它一点了
At this time, we were a little bit closer.
所以我们对自己的定向听力更自信了
So we felt more confident with our directional hearing
大家继续按原方向前行
and we moved in that direction.
因为有三个人 大家很容易就三角包围了它
With three of us, we were able to easily triangulate it
即使看不到它
even though we couldn’t see it
但有个现象很奇怪
but this is where it got weird.
我们根本不知道它在树上离我们有多远?
We had absolutely no idea how far of the tree it was.
就好像我们的定向听力只在水平面行得通
It was like our directional hearing somehow worked in the horizontal plane
但在垂直平面就行不通
But in the vertical plane it just didn’t work.
现在我们排查出它在这棵树上
Right now we’ve isolated it to this tree.
推断但并不真的确定它的…
We think but we’re not really sure…
准确位置
exactly where
但我们在利用立体听觉来寻找它
But we’re using our stereo hearing in order to find it
这非常酷
It is really cool.
我儿子拿来个双筒望远镜
My son is bringing some binoculars.
往树上看 我听着它在这
Look up in the tree. That’s where I hear it
它在那棵树上
It is in that tree.
我听着它在那棵树上
I hear it in that tree.
好的
Okay
哪儿?
Where?
从你那个方位可以看到那树枝
For you, you see that branch right there
那树枝盖着它
and the branch is covering it up
哦 再来一次
Oh, do it again.
它就在那儿
There it is
就是它 好的 我觉得咱们能拿到它
That’s it. Okay. I think we can do this.
儿子 去拿把来福枪
Son, go get a rifle.
所以我们及时找到它了 你看到了吗?
So we found it just in time,you got it?
来吧
do it up
你真是好样的 它落下来了吗?
You’re freaking awesome. Did it come down?
保管好武器 待命
Safe the weapon, stand by.
不不不
Ah ah ah
回去!
Get back!
坐下
Get on the ground.
看好枪别走火
Make sure the weapon’s cold
我知道大家很激动 但是要确保安全
I know we’re excited, let’s be safe.
我们真棒 耶!
We are good.yeah!
我们拿到它了
We get it!
枪是安全的 我们先去拿它 [树叶沙沙声]
Weapon’s safe, first go get it.
没电了 有点儿卡
run out battery, a little stuck.
好了 布里丽姑姑送了你个圣诞礼物
All right, Aunt Briley gave you a Christmas present
然后她又把它找回来了
and then she saved your Christmas present
这太棒了
So that’s pretty cool
这是我们与生俱来的听声辨位的能力
That is the power of the directional hearing that our bodies have.
因为你想想看啊
Because if you think about it
如果声音从这只耳朵
One ear to the other one and
传到另外这只耳朵
if I have a sound on this side
那么这只耳朵会比另一只提前
the sound hits this ear one millisecond
一毫秒听到声音
before it hits this ear and
当声音到达另外一只耳朵时
the higher frequencies are muffled that
高频音已经减弱了
by the time it gets over here
因为它经过了我的脸
because that sound goes across my face
我们刚刚用这个原理找到无人机
We just use that to find this.
但你知道我觉得什么有趣吗?
But you know what I think is interesting?
你是怎么找到它的?
How can you find something
你怎么知道它在上面?
How did you know it was up high?
我不知道
I don’t know.
我也不知道
I don’t neither.
这真是个好问题
This is a really good question
想想看
Think about it.
如果在你正前方有个声源
If there’s a sound directly in front of you
你听到了它
and you hear it
它同时刺激你的双耳
It’s stimulating both of your ears at the exact same time.
因为距离相等 是吧?
Because the distance is the same, right?
如果你把那个声源上下垂直移动
If you take that same sound and you move it vertically
结果是一样的
the same is true
所以你不能仅凭借时间
So you can’t resolve a vertical position
来判断你面前的垂直位置
directly in front of you with temporal cues, meaning time.
必须有其他信息才行
It has to be something else.
直到我在YouTube
It wasn’t until I found an experiment
《教学大纲》节目上看到一个实验
performed on the YouTube channel called the SYLLABUS
我才理解这个问题的答案
that I understood the answer to the problem.
它叫做频域信息
It’s called spectral cues.
设想一束声音穿过房间
If you think about a sound across the room
传到你的耳朵 经过耳朵反射
it’s gonna to go to your ear and bounce off of your ear
进入你的耳洞
and down into your ear hole.
如果声音从下面传播
If you have a sound from below
它会从耳朵的不同位置反射
It’s gonna bounce off a different part of your ear
进入你的耳洞
and then into your ear hole
那会在这个声音在进入你身体前
That is going to change the sound
改变它的声音
before it goes into your body
你的大脑发展出来这样复杂的运算
and your brain has developed this complex algorithm
这与一个叫心理声学的研究领域有关
It has to do with the area of study called psycho acoustics
它将告知你的大脑
and it will tell your brain
声音在垂直轴上的准确位置
Exactly where it is in the vertical axis
这个判断基于频率和频域信息
based on frequency and spectral cues
这让人惊叹
And that is amazing.
我在薇薇安《教学大纲》节目看过一个视频
I watched a video on Vivian’s channel, SYLLABUS
关于如何验证这点
about how to test it
你在自己家里也能做到
and you can do this at your own home
所以我鼓励你去看她的视频
So I would encourage you to go watch her video
但我想和我儿子一起完成
But I wanted to do it with my son
所以我将和我儿子演示一下
so we’re going to illustrate this with my son here
看我们准备了这么大场地
See we’ve got this big set up.
接下来我会用我的双手
What I’m gonna do is I’ll take my hands and
这样拍
I’m gonna to clap it like this
[拍手声]
[Clapping]
然后由你指出确切的声源方向
and you point to exactly the spot where the sound’s coming from
你行吗?试试
Can you do that? Try it.
[拍手声]
[Clapping]
– 你可以蒙上眼睛吗?- 我很乐意
– Are you cool being blind folded? – I’m fine with that
好 事情是这样的
Okay, here’s the deal
他的大脑可以校准通过耳廓的频域信息
his brain is calibrated for the spectral cues off of his shaped ear.
如果我们把橡皮泥粘在耳廓上
If we were to pack Play-Doh in the pinna
这样会改变进入他耳朵内的频谱
that’s gonna change the spectrum that comes down into his ear
然后他将无法判断垂直方向上的声音位置
and he’s not gonna be able to calculate the position in the vertical axis.
我从《教学大纲》学到这些
I learned this from SYLLUBAS
薇薇安做了个超酷的实验 去看她节目吧
Vivian did a really cool experiment go check it out on her channel.
回到正题 我们继续拍手实验
Anyway, let’s do the clappy thing again. Anyway, let’s stick to the clappy thing again
你们可以发现当我在左边或右边时
So what you’ll notice is if we’re on the left or the right
他几乎每次都能成功
he gets it almost every time
但是他很难判断垂直方向上的声源位置
but he has a hard time with the vertical axis
他甚至难以判断声音的前后
He can’t even tell if it’s forward or back
刚才我在你两腿间拍手但你向上指了
I was clapping right between your legs and you pointed up.
是吗?
“What?”
你有意识到这多么神奇吗?
Do you realize how awesome that is?
用术语解释下
Let’s just use all the big words.
我们刚刚调整了我儿子大脑中的心理声学过滤器
We just derailed the psycho-acoustic filter in my son’s brain
通过声源位置的变化
by negating his ability to use
干扰他使用时域信息
temporal cues because of the position of the sound
通过橡皮泥敷平他的耳廓
but driving him to not being able to trust his spectral cues
就是头部外侧软软的部分
because we dampened down the pinna
使他无法使用频域信息
Which it’s the floppy part from outside his head by using the play dough.
所以他无法指出声源的位置
So he couldn’t figure out where the sound was coming from
这着实令人着迷 有个酷酷的事情是
That’s fascinating. The cool thing about this is that
狗狗在这方面也不很擅长
dogs don’t really do it that well.
你是否发现狗狗在你说话时
Have you ever said something to a dog
不断这样(摇头)?
and he kind of does his head like that?
它这么做是为了做点弊
What he’s doing is he’s trying to cheat a little bit.
狗狗通过侧头
The dog’s putting one ear above the other
来判断垂直位置 这十分神奇
so they can resolve vertical position. That’s amazing.
它们在利用时域信息
They’re using temporal cues.
它们利用时域信息来得到
They’re cheating with temporal cues to try to get something that
我们通过频域信息得的信息
we get with spectral cues.
我从来没想过这些
I’ve never thought about this
这点之所以非常重要
and the reason that’s important is because
是因为我在youtube上有个你不知道的节目
I have a whole YouTube channel you didn’t know about
可能不知道 叫做《声音旅行者》
probably. It’s called The Sound Traveler.
这节目我已经做了很多年了
I have been recording video for years now
节目中我把立体声麦克风塞入耳朵
where I put bineural microphones in my ear
如果你带着耳机
And if you wear headphones and
观看我录的节目的话
watch the video that I’m recording.
基于对时域信息的判断
it tricks your brain into thinking you were there
它会使你的大脑误以为你在现场
based on these temperal cues
好吧 告诉他们我们做的事情
-okay, tell them about the thing we do.
YouTube上我们有第二个节目
-So there’s a second YouTube channel
叫《声音旅行者》
-It’s called The Sound Traveler.
我们到世界各地
We go around the world and we record experiences with bineural audio.
我们用立体音频记录体验
we record experiences with bineural audio.
我已经去过泰国和哥伦比亚特区
I’ve gone to Thailand and DC.
德斯汀已经去过冰岛 德国……
Destin’s done Iceland, Germany…
我去过冰岛和德国
I went to iceland and Germany.
对 我们很快会去哥伦比亚
Yup, we’re going to Colombia soon.
啊 这真的是一个非常非常棒的节目
Uh, and it’s it’s a really chill channel.
这就像一种别样的旅行
It’s just like experiencing travel in a different way.
非常棒
– It’s pretty cool.
这不是一个想在youtube上流行的节目
It’s not like a full-on like trying to win YouTuBe kind of thing
但是一个3D环绕声
but it’s an experiment in immersive 3D audio
使用头顶相机的实验 非常有意思
with a GoPro on your head. It’s really fun!
无论如何 我相信你会喜欢它的
Anyway, I think you’ll dig it.
如果你戴上了耳机 就赶快来试试吧
– If you have headphones on, just go check it out.
是的 戴上耳机来试试吧
-Yeah, put your headphones on, check it out.
它叫《声音旅行者》
It’s called The Sound Traveler.
我会把链接留在视频描述里
I’ll leave the link in the video description
我希望订阅量能够超过十万
I would love to get that over a hundred thousand subscribers.
这是我热爱的事业
It’s something I really love.
好的 这就是本期的小知识
Ok that’s it for this episode of Smarter Every Day.
希望你们能喜欢
I hope you enjoyed it.
你可能知道Audible已经赞助《每天聪明点儿》很久了
You may know that Audible’s been sponsoring Smarter Every Day for a really long time.
我喜欢它 我喜欢通过听觉让自己更聪明
I love it, I love to use my ears to get smarter.
我利用Audible做到这一点
and I do that with Audible.
建议你去audible.com/smarter了解试用版信息
If you want to check out a free trial go to audible.com/smarter
我们已经给我喜爱有声读物的孩子们使用了它
We’ve recently started introducing audible books to my children who loved it.
这里有优惠
Here’s a hack for you
如果你想用一本书的价格获得五本书
If you want to get like five books for the price of one
那可以找魔法故事集或者冒险故事集
then get something called the enchanted collection or the adventure collection.
这是40小时的音频书籍 如《白牙》 《格列佛游记》 以及各种酷酷的书籍
It’s 40 hours of audio books like White Fang, Gulliver’s Travels, all kinds of cool stuff
在audible.com/smarter上购买魔法故事集或冒险故事集
Get the enchanted collection or the adventure collection at audible.com/ marter
就这样 我把所有链接都留在视频描述里
That’s it. I’ll leave links to everything in the video’s description
我希望今天节目满足你们的期待
I hope this video earned your subscription.
如果没有 也没什么
If not, no big deal.
我希望从现在开始 你在听到声音时
I hope from now on if you hear a sound
能想想它来自哪儿
you think about where it’s coming from
为什么你知道它是从那儿来的
why you know it’s coming from that position
基于时间还是谱特征?
whether it’s temporal cues or spectral cues
我还希望你每次看到小狗这么做时
and I also hope every time you see a dog do this
你知道它在作弊
You know that he is cheating.
它在试图利用时间而不是谱特征
He’s trying to use temporal cues instead of spectral cues
这真是超级酷
which is pretty doggone cool
好了 我是德斯丁 你每天都变得更聪明 祝你愉快
Anyway, I’m destin, you’re getting smarter every day. Have a good one.
别作弊 这很重要 我们需要这些数据 好吗?
Don’t cheat. It’s important that you don’t cheat. We need the data, okay?
– 这是你射的 对吧?- 是的 但是我不想的 我本想射树枝的
– And you shot it, didn’t you?-I did. I didn’t mean to. I meant to shoot the branch.
– 我想这是为什么它仍掉下来了- 它还是好的
– I think that’s why it came down though. – It’ll still be good.
– 你知道我们使尽了浑身解数吧?- 贡献了我们的所有业余时间
– You realize we used all of our country super powers to do that? – Pulled out every single stop that we had.
– 让我们瞄准它 从这些罐子开始瞄准
– Let’s zero in this – let’s zero in this scope with those cans.
– 嗨 兄弟!我们用这些旧罐子瞄准了 然后我们可以得到……
– Hey man, we did! We zeroed the scope with old cans. And then we got…

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视频概述

本文通过寻找无人机引发了关于人们如何判断声源的思考,并通过拍手实验以及狗狗歪头判断声源的事例解释了如何利用时间信息和谱特征判断声源位置。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

vhrhkdn

审核员

审核员BZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oai7HUqncAA

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