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海难礁石

Shipwreck Reef | What Sam Sees

嗨 我是萨姆 我是一名认证水肺潜水员
Hey, I’m Sam and I’m a certified scuba diver
我热爱海洋 因为海里有各种各样的
who loves the ocean, because it’s filled with all kinds of
神奇的大大小小的动物
amazing creatures, both big and small.
海洋是一个神奇的地方
It’s such a magical place.
每次我去探索这片水下世界
When I get to explore this underwater world,
总是一次冒险
it’s always an adventure.
萨姆视野
今天 我来到了佛罗里达基岛群岛的肘部礁 与NOAA的两位专家会合
Today I’m at Elbow Reef in the Florida Keys, meeting up with two experts from NOAA-
NOAA即美国国家海洋和大气局
the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration.
我要和部门潜水主管约翰·凯撤纳构
I’ll be going on a dive with John Katchenago-a unit diving supervisor and
和渔业生物学家劳拉·杰伊·格罗一起潜水
and Laura “Jay” Grov- a research fishery biologist.
肘部礁是基岛群岛的一个热门潜水点
Elbow Reef is a popular dive spot here in the Keys.
这里有一些漂亮的珊瑚礁 是在非常古老的海难船上形成的
It has some beautiful reef systems that have formed on some very old shipwrecks.
这些珊瑚礁是各种海洋生物的家园
These reefs are home to all kinds of marine life.
走了
Here we go.
肘部礁通常被称为“海难礁”
Elbow Reef is commonly called Wreck Reef.
我看到原因了
I see why.
下午3:07最大深度-24.61
平均深度-11.6
高温-88
低温-88
我抓着一个锚浮标绳
I’m holding on to a mooring buoy line
绳子一端在水面 另一端系在船的锚上
that starts at the surface and anchors of the boat
不会对珊瑚礁的生存环境产生危害
without creating damage to the reef habitat.
想到珊瑚礁这里生活着大约9百万种生物
It’s pretty quiet down here,
这底下还是相当安静
considering coral reefs create homes for about 9 million species.
看!一条小鼓鱼 在珊瑚里游进游出
Look, a little drum fish, swimming in and out of the coral,
一群小红树鱼在玩模仿游戏
and a school of tiny mangrove fish playing Follow the Leader.
每转一个弯就会遇到不同的物种
There’s a different species at every turn.
这个海星都快和我的手一样大了
This starfish is about the size of my hand,
这是一个篮海星
and this is a basket starfish.
它有点儿小 有许多弯曲的触角 上面带着捕捉猎物的小钩子
It’s a bit smaller and has twisting tentacles with tiny hooks to catch prey.
真神奇
Really amazing.
那些石头后面躲着一条黄魟
Hiding behind those rocks is a yellow stingray.
咱们靠近点去看看
Let’s get a closer look.
太晚了 它跑掉了
Too late. Off it goes.
咱们到珊瑚那儿去
Let’s get up close to the coral.
这些小花蕾就是珊瑚礁最小的建筑师——珊瑚虫
These buds are one of the tiniest architects of the reef- coral polyps.
珊瑚虫是超级小的有机体
Coral polyps are super small organisms
它们将自己吸附在海底的岩石上
that attach themselves to rocks on the seafloor
然后通过无性繁殖 产出出数千个个体 组成珊瑚群落 最后形成珊瑚礁
and divide into thousands of clones to create colonies that become reefs.
这个沉船生锈的残骸被植被和珊瑚礁掩埋了
This shipwrecks rusted remains are buried under vegetation and coral formations.
这是绝佳的珊瑚礁栖息地
It’s the perfect reef habitat.
可以看出船的有些部位是完好无损的 比如船头和甲板
You can see some parts are still intact, like the bow and decks.
这些沉船是从19世纪后半叶和20世纪开始 陆续沉没于此的
These shipwrecks have been grounded since the late 19th and 20th centuries.
这片珊瑚礁中生活着海洋史上如此多的神奇物种
There are so many awesome species in maritime history living in this reef.
该上岸了解些东西了
Time to dry off and learn more.
杰伊 约翰 能说说你们的工作是做什么吗?
Jay and John, can you tell me a little bit about what you guys do as your jobs?
我是一名NOAA队长 我在海洋遗产小组工作
I am a NOAA Corps officer. I work with a maritime heritage group,
勾画沉船地图 我还是潜水单位主管
map shipwrecks and I’m also the unit diving supervisor,
所以我监管着佛罗里达基岛群岛的所有潜水活动
so I monitor all diving activities to be the Florida Keys
确保活动安全
and ensure everything is safe,
确保所有人都遵守NOAA的政策和标准
and everyone is following NOAA policies and standards.
你一周潜几次水?
How often you dive on a weekly basis?
天气好的日子都潜
Any day that it’s nice.
基本上 如果没潜够15次或更多 我就不会离开水
Basically, it’s not blowing 15 or more, I’m out on the water.
大多数日子 这就是我的办公室
This is my office most days.
哇!真是相当酷的办公室
Wow! That’s a pretty cool office.
那么杰伊 你呢?
And how about you, Jay?
我是研究渔业的生物学家 我是科学家
I am a research fishery biologist, so I am a scientist
我做的许多工作是关于国家珊瑚礁破坏项目的
and I do a lot of work with the National coral reef foundering program.
我在这里水下对珊瑚鱼类做评估
So I am down there doing assessments of reef fish.
所以我经常带着鱼尺潜水
So now I’m down there often with a fish stick,
在佛罗里达基岛群岛 海龟公园和美国加勒比
measuring fish and recording information on fish and coral all throughout
测量鱼的尺寸 记录有关鱼的信息
the Florida Keys, on Dry Tortugas and the US Caribbean.
真棒
That’s super neat.
杰伊有一项很棒的工作 是给她新发现的物种命命
Jay has the awesome job of naming any new unknown species she discovers.
真是太酷了
Now that’s pretty cool.
现在我们来到了肘部礁
So we’re here at elbow reef and
这块礁石真的像肘部吗?
is this reef actually shaped like an elbow?
真的像!因为……如果你看一下地图
Actually yeah! Because it…if you look at the chart.
这是佛罗里达 对吧?
It’s Florida, right?
– 对- 这是礁石
-Yeah.- Here’s a reef line.
– 肘部礁有点像个突起 这里就像肘部- 明白了
-Elbow Reef kind of jags so like an elbow here. -Ok
不知道什么原因
So for whatever reason it has attracted
海难船就是搁浅沉没的船
I would say that shipwreck is a ship that has gone aground and sank.
也就是这些船没有驶过这片海 碰到了什么而在这搁浅沉没了
It means you didn’t go around but something caused it hit on water and sink.
它们不是故意沉在这儿的 但是有人工礁石
It was not deliberately sunk. There is an artificial reef.
那是人们有意做的 我们会做一些清洁
People decide it. We are going to clean this up
把有害的物质去掉
and try to remove all harmful chemicals and substance
然后故意把船沉在这里
and deliberately sink it.
旧地铁车厢 军舰甚至轮胎都被沉到海底
Old subway cars, naval ships and even tires have been sunk to
去制造人工礁石
to create artificial reefs.
你们为什么要这么做呢?
Why did you do that?
主要因为旅游——旅游潜水
A lot of it has to do with tourism- tourism diving.
人工礁石是很好的鱼类栖息地
Artificial reefs make great fish habitat.
给人们旅游提供了很好的场所
They’re just a great spot for everybody to visit.
佛罗里达最受欢迎的人工礁石之一是Duane
One of the most popular artificial reef sites in Florida is the Duane.
1987年一艘旧军舰被有意沉没在这里
An old military ship that was intentionally sunk in 1987.
这些栖息地很美
These habitats are beautiful,
但是对这些敏感的环境非常有害
but can be very damaging to these sensitive environmental areas.
通常生物学家更想让这些人工礁石尽可能像天然礁石一样
Biologists generally prefer that these artificial reefs remain as natural as possible.
这些船是什么时候沉的?
When did those shipwrecks sink?
Acorn是1885年
So the Acorn went down in 1885.
它长167英尺
It was 167 feet.
汉娜·米·贝尔在1911年
And the Hannah M. Bell went down in 1911.
长315英尺
And she was 315 feet.
这时间很久了
That was a long time ago.
对 现在沉船上的礁石
Yeah. Based on the wrecks that we saw on the reef,
你怎么判断完全长成了呢?
how can you tell they are fully established?
这是个很好的问题
That’s a great question.
如果你注意到 因为我们有点像把天然珊瑚
And it’s because, if you notice, we’re kind of embarking between
安在了船上 你没有看到许多变化
the natural reef onto this ship. Right? You didn’t see a lot of change.
对吧?你看不到结构上有多大变化
Right? You didn’t see a lot changes in the structure.
你看到一些相同的珊瑚微生物
You saw some of the same corals organism.
你看到相同的珊瑚 相同的柳珊瑚 相同的鱼
You saw some of the same corals, the same gorgonians. You saw the same fish.
新的沉船肯定不会有这些
And a newer shipwreck would not necessarily have that.
这是个无痕迹的转变 有时你向下看
but it was a seamless transition and sometimes you would almost have to look down to
会说:“这是沉船吗?”
say “Am I over the shipwreck? “
– 那是另一件事了- 对 很难判断
-That’s another story.-Yeah, that’s hard to tell.
我们在这儿看到了哪些生物呢 杰伊?
So what are some of the creatures that we saw down there, Jay?
这边我们看到了好多生物
we saw tons of creatures on the side.
我们看到了两种黄貂鱼 对吧?
we saw two different stingrays, right?
没错 你见到了一条南部黄貂鱼和一条黄色黄貂鱼
Absolutely, you saw a Southern Stingrey and a Yellow Stingray.
黄色黄貂鱼特别可爱
The yellow stingrays are particularly cute.
– 而且游得非常快- 是的
– And he swims pretty fast. – Yeah.
– 如果你用手去捧 它们绝对游得非常快- 对 我还没去捧呢
-If you scoop, they’re definitely moving very quick.- Yeah, I wasn’t trying to scooping.
就是这样跑了
[laugh]It just happens.
对 然后我们又看见了一个真的很酷的鱼 长着长鼻子
Yeah. Then we saw a really cool fish that had a long snout,
身上有蓝色的圆点花纹
and blue polka dots.
对 那是拟态革鲀
Yes, that was a Scrawled Filefish.
那是种很炫的鱼
That’s an awesome fish.
太棒了
That’s super neat.
谢谢你们带我来潜水
Thanks guys for taking me out on this dive.
珊瑚礁给各种生物提供食物和躲避处
Coral reef systems provide food and shelter to all kinds of species.
珊瑚礁对人类的安全也很重要
Reefs also play a very important role in keeping us safe,
充当屏障保护我们的海岸线
acting as a barrier to protect our shorelines from
免受波浪 风暴和洪水的袭击
damaging waves, storms and flood.
珊瑚虫是微小的有机体 是珊瑚礁形成的基础
下次《萨姆视野》节目见
See you next time on “What Sam Sees”.

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视频概述

萨姆带你看海难礁石 可以看到神奇的海底世界 了解人工珊瑚礁是如何形成的

听录译者

greenhoodie

翻译译者

greenhoodie

审核员

审核员DW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3VptlkY9lT8

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