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选择的艺术

Sheena Iyengar: The art of choosing

Today, I’m going to take you
在十八分钟的时间里环游世界。
around the world in 18 minutes.
美国是这次旅程的起点。
My base of operations is in the U.S.,
但让我们从地图的另一端出发
but let’s start at the other end of the map,
– 日本京都
in Kyoto, Japan,
在那儿我和一个日本当地家庭生活在一起
where I was living with a Japanese family
当时我正在做博士毕业论文的相关研究
while I was doing part of my dissertational research
这是十五年前的事了。
15 years ago.
那时候我就知道我肯定会遭遇
I knew even then that I would encounter
文化差异和误解,
cultural differences and misunderstandings,
但它们却是在我毫无准备的情形下发生了。
but they popped up when I least expected it.
我到那儿的第一天,
On my first day,
去了一家餐厅,
I went to a restaurant,
点了一杯加糖的绿茶。
and I ordered a cup of green tea with sugar.
那个服务生顿了一下说,
After a pause, the waiter said,
“我们这里喝绿茶都不加糖。”
“One does not put sugar in green tea.”
“我知道。”我说,“我知道这个习俗。
“I know,” I said. “I’m aware of this custom.
但是我想要喝甜的绿茶。”
But I really like my tea sweet.”
听到我的回答,他用更礼貌的语气对我
In response, he gave me an even more courteous version
又解释了一遍同样的意思。
of the same explanation.
我们从来不在绿茶里
“One does not put sugar
加糖。
in green tea.”
“我明白,”我说,
“I understand,” I said,
“我明白日本人从来不在绿茶里加糖。
“that the Japanese do not put sugar in their green tea,
但是我就想放点糖
but I’d like to put some sugar
在我的绿茶里。”
in my green tea.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
服务生被我的执着震住了,
Surprised by my insistence,
他把此事告诉了店经理
the waiter took up the issue with the manager.
不一会儿,
Pretty soon,
开始了一个很长的讨论
a lengthy discussion ensued,
最后店经理走过来对我说,
and finally the manager came over to me and said,
”非常抱歉。我们店里没有糖。“
“I am very sorry. We do not have sugar.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
好吧,既然喝不到想喝的加糖绿茶,
Well, since I couldn’t have my tea the way I wanted it,
我只好另点了一杯咖啡,
I ordered a cup of coffee,
这次服务生很快就端过来了。
which the waiter brought over promptly.
只见茶托上赫然躺着
Resting on the saucer
两小包糖。
were two packets of sugar.
我没能给自己点到
My failure to procure myself
一杯加糖绿茶
a cup of sweet, green tea
并不是因为简单的误解。
was not due to a simple misunderstanding.
而是因为对于选择这个概念
This was due to a fundamental difference
我们存在根本的认识差异。
in our ideas about choice.
从我作为一个美国人的视角,
From my American perspective,
当顾客提出合理要求
when a paying customer makes a reasonable request
出于个人喜好,
based on her preferences,
她就有权利让自己的要求得到满足。
she has every right to have that request met.
这种美式作风,用汉堡王的话来说,
The American way, to quote Burger King,
就是“吃出你的自己的方式”
is to “have it your way,”
因为,正如星巴克所说,
because, as Starbucks says,
“快乐尽在你的选择中。”
“happiness is in your choices.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但在日本人眼里,
But from the Japanese perspective,
他们有责任保护不知好歹的人
it’s their duty to protect those who don’t know any better —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
也就是我这个无知的外国人(注:日语外人)–
in this case, the ignorant gaijin —
做出错误的选择。
from making the wrong choice.
这么说吧,我要在绿茶里放糖这种方式
Let’s face it: the way I wanted my tea
在日本的文化标准中是不恰当的,
was inappropriate according to cultural standards,
他们只是尽最大努力帮我保住面子。
and they were doing their best to help me save face.
而美国人则认为
Americans tend to believe
在实行选择这件事上,
that they’ve reached some sort of pinnacle
他们已经做到最巅峰了。
in the way they practice choice.
他们认为以美国人的视角做出的选择
They think that choice, as seen through the American lens
最能满足人类对选择的
best fulfills an innate and universal
本性和普遍性的欲望。
desire for choice in all humans.
不幸的是,
Unfortunately,
这种观点是建立在一种假设上的
these beliefs are based on assumptions
而这些假设在不同文化不同国家里
that don’t always hold true
并不总是成立的。
in many countries, in many cultures.
甚至有时候在美国本土
At times they don’t even hold true
都不一定成立。
at America’s own borders.
我想探讨其中一些假设
I’d like to discuss some of these assumptions
以及引申而来的一些问题。
and the problems associated with them.
我希望在我进行的同时,大家也能开始想想
As I do so, I hope you’ll start thinking
你们自己的一些假设
about some of your own assumptions
以及它们在你个人背景影响下是如何形成的
and how they were shaped by your backgrounds.
第一个假设:
First assumption:
如果一个选择影响你,
if a choice affects you,
那么该选择应当由你本人做出。
then you should be the one to make it.
这是唯一的办法来保证
This is the only way to ensure
你自己的偏好和兴趣
that your preferences and interests
被最大限度的纳入考虑。
will be most fully accounted for.
这是成功的基本。
It is essential for success.
在美国,选择的主要焦点
In America, the primary locus of choice
在于个人。
is the individual.
人们必须为自己选择,有时甚至于固执己见地
People must choose for themselves, sometimes sticking to their guns,
不管其他人想要什么或推荐什么。
regardless of what other people want or recommend.
这叫“对自己真实。”
It’s called “being true to yourself.”
但是不是所有人都从
But do all individuals benefit
这种选择的方式中获益呢?
from taking such an approach to choice?
马克 莱珀和我进行了一系列研究
Mark Lepper and I did a series of studies
来寻求这个问题的答案。
in which we sought the answer to this very question.
在其中的一项研究中,
In one study,
在旧金山的日本城展开
which we ran in Japantown, San Francisco,
我们把7至9岁的英裔美国籍和亚裔美国籍儿童
we brought seven- to nine-year-old Anglo- and Asian-American children
带进了实验室
into the laboratory,
并将其分成三组。
and we divided them up into three groups.
第一组进来,
The first group came in,
由史密斯小姐迎接他们,
and they were greeted by Miss Smith,
并给他们看了六张字谜。
who showed them six big piles of anagram puzzles.
孩子们可以选择自己喜欢的拼字图来完成。
The kids got to choose which pile of anagrams they would like to do,
他们还可以选择用哪只水笔
and they even got to choose which marker
把答案写下来。
they would write their answers with.
当第二组孩子进来时,
When the second group of children came in,
他们被带到同一个房间,展示同样的字谜游戏。
they were brought to the same room, shown the same anagrams,
不过这次史密斯小姐告诉他们
but this time Miss Smith told them
该做哪个拼字图
which anagrams to do
该用哪只水笔写答案。
and which markers to write their answers with.
第三个小组进来,
Now when the third group came in,
他们被告知做哪个拼字图得用哪只水笔
they were told that their anagrams and their markers
已经由他们的妈妈决定好了。
had been chosen by their mothers.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现实中,
In reality,
那些被告知该做什么的孩子,
the kids who were told what to do,
不管是史密斯小姐还是他们的妈妈做的选择,
whether by Miss Smith or their mothers,
实际上做出了和
were actually given the very same activity,
第一组自由选择的孩子们
which their counterparts in the first group
做出了完全一致的行为。
had freely chosen.
在这个过程中,我们可以保证
With this procedure, we were able to ensure
三组的孩子
that the kids across the three groups
都进行相同的活动,
all did the same activity,
使我们更容易比较他们的行为
making it easier for us to compare performance.
我们管理时的细微差异
Such small differences in the way we administered the activity
在他们实际行为中
yielded striking differences
引起了显著的不同。
in how well they performed.
英裔美国籍的孩子们,
Anglo-Americans,
做了两点五倍更多的拼图
they did two and a half times more anagrams
当他们可以(自己)进行选择时,
when they got to choose them,
相对于
as compared to when it was
史密斯小姐或妈妈们为他们作出选择时。
chosen for them by Miss Smith or their mothers.
不论是谁作出的选择
It didn’t matter who did the choosing,
如果这任务已经被他人所强制,
if the task was dictated by another,
他们的表现就会受损。
their performance suffered.
事实上,一些孩子面露尴尬
In fact, some of the kids were visibly embarrassed
当他们得知已经同他们的妈妈商讨过了。
when they were told that their mothers had been consulted.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
一个叫玛丽的孩子说
One girl named Mary said,
“你真的问了我妈妈?”
“You asked my mother?”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
相比之下,
In contrast,
亚裔的孩子们
Asian-American children
当他们相信他们妈妈作了选择时
performed best when they believed
表现得最好,
their mothers had made the choice,
第二好的是当他们自己作选择时
second best when they chose for themselves,
最差的则是当史密斯小姐告诉他们时
and least well when it had been chosen by Miss Smith.
一个叫夏实的女孩
A girl named Natsumi
甚至在史密斯小姐要离开房间时
even approached Miss Smith as she was leaving the room
拉住她的裙角问,
and tugged on her skirt and asked,
”你可以告诉我妈妈
“Could you please tell my mommy
我照她的话乖乖做了吗?“
I did it just like she said?”
这些“第一代”(父母都为移民)的孩子
The first-generation children were strongly influenced
受到了他们父母选择
by their immigrant parents’
的强烈影响
approach to choice.
对他们来说,选择不仅是一种
For them, choice was not just a way
展现自我的
of defining and asserting
途径
their individuality,
更是一种建立社群使人相处融洽的过程
but a way to create community and harmony
通过服从他们
by deferring to the choices
所信任和尊敬的人作出的选择。
of people whom they trusted and respected.
如果他们有一种对自我真实的观点
If they had a concept of being true to one’s self,
那么这个自我,在很多情况下
then that self, most likely,
不是以个人为出发点
[was] composed, not of an individual,
而是以集体作为出发点
but of a collective.
成功意味着满足一些重要人物
Success was just as much about pleasing key figures
和满足
as it was about satisfying
自己的偏爱。
one’s own preferences.
或者你可以这样认为,
Or, you could say that
个人偏好的形成是根据
the individual’s preferences were shaped
其他人偏好的影响。
by the preferences of specific others.
有这样一个假设,我们将做到最好
The assumption then that we do best
当个人为自己做选择时
when the individual self chooses
只维持在
only holds
当自我同他人
when that self
明显区分开的情况下。
is clearly divided from others.
相对的,
When, in contrast,
当两个或两人以上的个人
two or more individuals
发现他们的选择和结果
see their choices and their outcomes
非常的相近时
as intimately connected,
他们则有可能放大自己的成就
then they may amplify one another’s success
通过把选择
by turning choosing
转变成一种集团行为。
into a collective act.
要保持他们做出独立的选择,
To insist that they choose independently
事实上需要
might actually compromise
他们的表现
both their performance
和他们的关系相互妥协。
and their relationships.
这恰恰就是
Yet that is exactly what
美国最需要的典范行为。
the American paradigm demands.
这种典范忽略了相互独立
It leaves little room for interdependence
以及对个人过失的承认。
or an acknowledgment of individual fallibility.
它让每个人把选择
It requires that everyone treat choice
当成一种私人的和自我界定的行为。
as a private and self-defining act.
一直依据这样的典范成长的人们
People that have grown up in such a paradigm
可能会认为这就是动机.
might find it motivating,
但这是错误的
but it is a mistake to assume
去假设每个人都能够在独自选择的压力下
that everyone thrives under the pressure
茁壮成长。
of choosing alone.
第二个对美国选择观的假设
The second assumption which informs the American view of choice
则是这样的。
goes something like this.
你拥有的选择越多,
The more choices you have,
你就越有可能
the more likely you are
做出最好的选择。
to make the best choice.
所以呢,沃尔玛超市里就会有十万种不同的商品,
So bring it on, Walmart, with 100,000 different products,
亚马逊网站有两千七百万册的书
and Amazon, with 27 million books
交友网站有–什么来着–
and Match.com with — what is it? —
目前可能有一千五百万的约会机会。
15 million date possibilities now.
你一定可以在上面找到真爱。
You will surely find the perfect match.
让我们在东欧
Let’s test this assumption
验证一下这个假设。
by heading over to Eastern Europe.
在那儿,我采访了一些人
Here, I interviewed people
他们都曾是共产主义国家的居民,
who were residents of formerly communist countries,
都曾经历过
who had all faced the challenge
向民主和资本主义社会的过渡
of transitioning to a more
所带来的挑战。
democratic and capitalistic society.
其中最有意思的启示
One of the most interesting revelations
并不是来自访谈过程,
came not from an answer to a question,
而是来自一个款待客人的简单行为。
but from a simple gesture of hospitality.
当访谈对象到了之后,
When the participants arrived for their interview,
我给他们提供了一些饮料,
I offered them a set of drinks:
可乐、无糖可乐、雪碧等–
Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite —
准确地来讲有七种。
seven, to be exact.
在第一部分
During the very first session,
在对俄罗斯进行访谈时,
which was run in Russia,
其中一个参与者的一个意见
one of the participants made a comment
让我大吃一惊。
that really caught me off guard.
“哦,没关系的,
“Oh, but it doesn’t matter.
反正都是汽水,都是一种选择啦。”
It’s all just soda. That’s just one choice.”
(议论声)
(Murmuring)
对这句话我真感到惊讶,于是在接下来对象中,
I was so struck by this comment that from then on,
我开始为访谈者提供
I started to offer all the participants
这七种汽水。
those seven sodas,
然后我问他们:“这里有多少种选择呢?”
and I asked them, “How many choices are these?”
一次又一次的,
Again and again,
他们认为这七种汽水,
they perceived these seven different sodas,
不是七种选择,而是一种选择:
not as seven choices, but as one choice:
汽水或非汽水饮料。
soda or no soda.
我又另外加了果汁和水
When I put out juice and water
除这七种汽水之外,
in addition to these seven sodas,
这会儿他们认为有三种选择
now they perceived it as only three choices —
果汁、水和汽水。
juice, water and soda.
这让许多顽固死硬的美国人来辨别,
Compare this to the die-hard devotion of many Americans,
依据的就不仅仅是口味不同的汽水了,
not just to a particular flavor of soda,
还有不同的牌子。
but to a particular brand.
调查反复证明
You know, research shows repeatedly
我们其实并不能真正辨别出
that we can’t actually tell the difference
可口可乐和百事可乐有什么区别。
between Coke and Pepsi.
当然,大家都明白,
Of course, you and I know
可口可乐是更好的选择。
that Coke is the better choice.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
对现代的美国人来说,
For modern Americans who are exposed
他们面对的选项最多,
to more options and more ads associated with options
面对的广告带来的选择也最多,
than anyone else in the world,
选择表现了他们是谁
choice is just as much about who they are
正如不同的产品一样。
as it is about what the product is.
与第二个假设结合起来看,越多选择总是越好的,
Combine this with the assumption that more choices are always better,
于是你能找到一群人,对他们来说,每一个小小的区别都很重要,
and you have a group of people for whom every little difference matters
也因此每一个选择都很重要。
and so every choice matters.
但对东欧人而言,
But for Eastern Europeans,
突然那么多的产品
the sudden availability of all these
如洪水般充斥着消费市场。
consumer products on the marketplace was a deluge.
在他们抗议自己还没学会游泳之前,
They were flooded with choice
就已经被大量的选择淹没了。
before they could protest that they didn’t know how to swim.
当被问及“选择会令你联想到什么
When asked, “What words and images
词语和印象时?“
do you associate with choice?”
来自华沙的格雷戈尔说:
Grzegorz from Warsaw said,
“啊,对我来说是害怕。
“Ah, for me it is fear.
有很多进退两难的问题。
There are some dilemmas you see.
我习惯没有选择。”
I am used to no choice.”
来自基辅的布丹,
Bohdan from Kiev said,
他针对新的消费市场,
in response to how he felt about
做出的回应则是:
the new consumer marketplace,
“太多了。
“It is too much.
我们不需要那么多东西。”
We do not need everything that is there.”
一个来自华沙研究机构
A sociologist from
的社会学家解释到:
the Warsaw Survey Agency explained,
”这里上一代的人是从“
“The older generation jumped from nothing
没有选择的时代过来的。
to choice all around them.
他们从来没有机会学习
They were never given a chance to learn
如何对外界的选择做出反应。”
how to react.”
来自波兰的年轻人汤马士说,
And Tomasz, a young Polish man said,
我不需要二十种口香糖。“
“I don’t need twenty kinds of chewing gum.
我并不是说我不需要选择。
I don’t mean to say that I want no choice,
但这些选择中,有很多是刻意制造的。”
but many of these choices are quite artificial.”
现实中,很多的选择,
In reality, many choices are between things
存在于并无明显差异的东西之间。
that are not that much different.
选择的价值
The value of choice
基于我们识别
depends on our ability
各种选择之不同的
to perceive differences
能力。
between the options.
美国人的一生都在接受
Americans train their whole lives
”识别差异“的训练。
to play “spot the difference.”
他们从小就开始练习做选择,
They practice this from such an early age
便不由得相信这种能力
that they’ve come to believe that everyone
是与生俱来的。
must be born with this ability.
事实上,尽管所有人
In fact, though all humans share
在“选择”上都有基本的需要和欲望,
a basic need and desire for choice,
但是我们认识选择时的角度
we don’t all see choice in the same places
和程度都是不同的。
or to the same extent.
当有些人无法识辨一个选择
When someone can’t see how one choice
和另一个选择有什么区别时,
is unlike another,
或者得在许多的选择间做出类比,
or when there are too many choices to compare and contrast,
这种选择的过程可能是
the process of choosing can be
令人困惑的甚至感到沮丧的。
confusing and frustrating.
这时,我们非但不能做出最佳选择,
Instead of making better choices,
反倒被选择给打垮了,
we become overwhelmed by choice,
有时甚至会害怕做出选择。
sometimes even afraid of it.
选择不再是提供机遇,
Choice no longer offers opportunities,
反而是来增加限制。
but imposes constraints.
(选择)不再是一支书写自由的笔,
It’s not a marker of liberation,
反而被一些毫无意义的琐碎小事
but of suffocation
给扼制了。
by meaningless minutiae.
换句话说,
In other words,
选择可以向它所代表的反面
choice can develop into the very opposite
发展
of everything it represents
在美国
in America
当选择突然扔到
when it is thrust upon those
那些没有准备好的人面前时是这样。
who are insufficiently prepared for it.
但是不仅仅是其他地方
But it is not only other people
的人们会感到
in other places
纷纷而至的选择
that are feeling the pressure
所带来的压抑。
of ever-increasing choice.
美国人自己也发现
Americans themselves are discovering
无限的选择
that unlimited choice
似乎在理论上要比在实际中
seems more attractive in theory
更具有吸引力
than in practice.
我们都有肉体上、精神上
We all have physical, mental
和情感上的局限
and emotional (Laughter) limitations
这使得我们不可能处理
that make it impossible for us
接触到的每一个微小的选择。
to process every single choice we encounter,
即使是在杂货店里也难做到,
even in the grocery store,
更不用说是在我们整个生活中了。
let alone over the course of our entire lives.
我的一些研究表明,
A number of my studies have shown
当你给人们十个以上的选项时
that when you give people 10 or more options
他们在选择时,会做出糟糕的决定,
when they’re making a choice, they make poorer decisions,
不论是医疗,投资
whether it be health care, investment,
还是其他重要的方面。
other critical areas.
尽管如此,我们很多人还是相信
Yet still, many of us believe
我们应该完全做出自己的选择,
that we should make all our own choices
甚至寻找更多的选择。
and seek out even more of them.
这令我做出了第三个,
This brings me to the third,
也或许是最具争议的一个假设:
and perhaps most problematic, assumption:
“你必须绝不能对
“You must never
选择说不。”
say no to choice.”
为了验证,我们把视线放回美国,
To examine this, let’s go back to the U.S.
然后跳到法国
and then hop across the pond to France.
就在芝加哥郊外,
Right outside Chicago,
一对年轻的夫妇,苏珊和丹尼尔 米切尔,
a young couple, Susan and Daniel Mitchell,
即将要有他们第一个孩子。
were about to have their first baby.
他们已经为她娶好了名字,
They’d already picked out a name for her,
以她祖母的名字命名,芭芭拉。
Barbara, after her grandmother.
苏珊怀孕七个月的一个晚上,
One night, when Susan was seven months pregnant,
她开始感觉到子宫收缩,
she started to experience contractions
赶紧送到了急救室里。
and was rushed to the emergency room.
宝宝生了下来,
The baby was delivered through a C-section,
不料芭芭拉患有
but Barbara suffered cerebral anoxia,
脑缺氧,
a loss of oxygen to the brain.
无法自己呼吸。
Unable to breathe on her own,
她靠呼吸机供氧。
she was put on a ventilator.
两天后,
Two days later,
医生给了米切尔
the doctors gave the Mitchells
一个选择。
a choice:
他们或者移除芭芭拉
They could either remove Barbara
的生命支持装置,
off the life support,
这样她会在几小时后死去,
in which case she would die within a matter of hours,
或者保留她的生命装置,
or they could keep her on life support,
在这种情况下,她还是可能会在
in which case she might still die
几天内死去,
within a matter of days.
即便保住了生命,
If she survived, she would remain
她也会是永久性植物人,
in a permanent vegetative state,
无法走路、说话
never able to walk, talk
交流。
or interact with others.
他们怎么做呢?
What do they do?
身为父母的人会怎么做呢?
What do any parent do?
在我与西蒙娜 博蒂和克里斯蒂娜 奥法里一起
In a study I conducted
进行的研究里,
with Simona Botti and Kristina Orfali,
几对美国夫妇和法国夫妇
American and French parents
接受了访谈。
were interviewed.
他们都经历了
They had all suffered
同样的悲剧。
the same tragedy.
这几对夫妇都决定不再使用生命支持仪,
In all cases, the life support was removed,
于是婴儿死了。
and the infants had died.
但这其中却有很大的差别。
But there was a big difference.
在法国,是由医生来决定生命装置是否需要移除
In France, the doctors decided whether and when
以及什么时候移除,
the life support would be removed,
而在美国,
while in the United States,
最后的决定则还是交给了父母。
the final decision rested with the parents.
我们想:
We wondered:
这是否会影响到并且如何影响
does this have an effect on how the parents
父母对待失去挚爱的这件事呢?
cope with the loss of their loved one?
我们发现答案是肯定的。
We found that it did.
甚至到了一年以后,
Even up to a year later,
美国夫妇
American parents
更容易流出负面的情绪,
were more likely to express negative emotions,
相较于法国夫妇。
as compared to their French counterparts.
法国夫妇则会说些:“
French parents were more likely to say things like,
诺娃活得很短暂,
“Noah was here for so little time,
却教会了我们很多。
but he taught us so much.
他让我们看到了生活的另一页”之类的话
He gave us a new perspective on life.”
美国夫妇则常常会说,
American parents were more likely to say things like,
“如果怎样?如果怎样?”之类的话
“What if? What if?”
另一对父母则抱怨,
Another parent complained,
“我觉得他们似乎在故意折磨我。
“I feel as if they purposefully tortured me.
他们怎么可以让我做这个?”
How did they get me to do that?”
还有一个父母则说,
And another parent said,
“我觉得我好像扮演了
“I feel as if I’ve played a role
侩子手的角色。”
in an execution.”
但是当问这些美国父母们
But when the American parents were asked
愿不愿意让医生
if they would rather have had
来做这个决定时,
the doctors make the decision,
他们都回答说,“不”
they all said, “No.”
他们无法想象
They could not imagine
把选择交给另外一方,
turning that choice over to another,
尽管自己做决定
even though having made that choice
令他们感到困扰
made them feel trapped,
负罪、愤怒。
guilty, angry.
在一些案例中,
In a number of cases
有些人甚至得了焦虑症。
they were even clinically depressed.
这些父母无法想象
These parents could not contemplate
放弃这个选择,
giving up the choice,
因为这样做将违背
because to do so would have gone contrary
他们一直来所被教导的
to everything they had been taught
和所相信的
and everything they had come to believe
关于权力
about the power
和选择的目的。
and purpose of choice.
在琼 迪迪恩的文章,
In her essay, “The White Album,”
《白色相册》中,她写道,
Joan Didion writes,
“我们给自己讲故事
“We tell ourselves stories
促使自己生活下去。
in order to live.
我们体会着自己所见,
We interpret what we see,
在多种选择中,
select the most workable
寻找可行的选择。
of the multiple choices.
我们完全是被强迫地生活在
We live entirely by the imposition
一个叙述性的
of a narrative line
基于一些零碎图片上的线条上,
upon disparate images,
我们已学会去冻结
by the idea with which we have learned to freeze
千变万化的幻觉中
the shifting phantasmagoria,
的真实经历。”
which is our actual experience.”
那些美国人所讲述的故事,
The story Americans tell,
那些铸造着
the story upon which
美国梦的故事
the American dream depends,
是人拥有无限选择的故事
is the story of limitless choice.
这个故事
This narrative
许诺了太多:
promises so much:
自由、幸福
freedom, happiness,
成功。
success.
它令人身置云端,说道,
It lays the world at your feet and says,
“你可以拥有一切的一切。”
“You can have anything, everything.”
这是一个传奇,
It’s a great story,
并且可以理解为何他们不愿意
and it’s understandable why they would be reluctant
去改写它。
to revise it.
但是当你细细地看时,
But when you take a close look,
你便会发现漏洞,
you start to see the holes,
然后你发现这个故事
and you start to see that the story
也可以这样讲,那样讲。
can be told in many other ways.
美国人尝试着
Americans have so often tried to
去传播他们关于选择的观念
disseminate their ideas of choice,
相信他人将会,或者必然会,
believing that they will be, or ought to be,
用开放的心胸去接受这种观念。
welcomed with open hearts and minds.
但是历史书和每天的新闻告诉我们,
But the history books and the daily news tell us
这套理论并不总是这样顺利运作的。
it doesn’t always work out that way.
说故事的手法
The phantasmagoria,
各地不同,千变万化
the actual experience that we try to understand
我们都试图用说故事的方法
and organize through narrative,
去了解组织阐释自己的真实经验。
varies from place to place.
任何地区的任何人
No single narrative serves the needs
都不会只满足于一种叙事的手法
of everyone everywhere.
况且,美国人自己
Moreover, Americans themselves
也能收益于吸收他人
could benefit from incorporating
的叙事技巧,
new perspectives into their own narrative,
这一套叙事技巧已经左右他们的选择
which has been driving their choices
很久了。
for so long.
罗伯特 福斯特(注:美国诗人)曾说,
Robert Frost once said that,
“诗就是翻译过程中所失去的东西。”
“It is poetry that is lost in translation.”
这句话是说
This suggests that
不管多么美丽多么动人,
whatever is beautiful and moving,
多么让我们有了新的感悟的东西
whatever gives us a new way to see,
人们都没有办法将它
cannot be communicated to those
用另一种语言表述出来。
who speak a different language.
可约瑟夫布 罗司机(注:苏联诗人)也曾说过,
But Joseph Brodsky said that,
“诗,
“It is poetry
是从翻译过程中得到的"
that is gained in translation,”
这意味着翻译可以是
suggesting that translation
一项富有创造力的
can be a creative,
和改变力的艺术。
transformative act.
在翻译过程中要面临选择
When it comes to choice,
透过许多不同的翻译叙事手法
we have far more to gain than to lose
我们从中得到的感触
by engaging in the many
会比失去的还要多。
translations of the narratives.
这并不是要
Instead of replacing
用另一个故事来取代,
one story with another,
我们可以在翻译过程中学习到新事物
we can learn from and revel in
并陶醉于不同的版本里,
the many versions that exist
甚至陶醉在非原版的意境里
and the many that have yet to be written.
不论我们来自哪里,
No matter where we’re from
叙述的手段如何,
and what your narrative is,
我们都有一个共同的责任,
we all have a responsibility
打开心房去接受
to open ourselves up to a wider array
更广泛的选择
of what choice can do,
以及这些选择所代表的意义
and what it can represent.
这样才不会让
And this does not lead to
”道德相对主义“滋生,
a paralyzing moral relativism.
相反它可以教导我们
Rather, it teaches us when
何时行动,如何行动。
and how to act.
让我们了解
It brings us that much closer
各种选择的蕴涵,
to realizing the full potential of choice,
更接近能鼓舞人心的希望
to inspiring the hope
获得选择所拥有的
and achieving the freedom
却有时不能传递的
that choice promises
的自由
but doesn’t always deliver.
如果我们学会与人交谈,
If we learn to speak to one another,
即使是通过翻译,
albeit through translation,
我们就可以发现
then we can begin to see choice
选择的不可思议之处,
in all its strangeness,
复杂之处,
complexity
和它的迷人之处。
and compelling beauty.
谢谢大家。
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)
布鲁诺 吉桑尼:谢谢您。
Bruno Giussani: Thank you.
希娜,目前有没有你自传的消息
Sheena, there is a detail about your biography
但是我们已经听过你的许多事迹
that we have not written in the program book.
在座的各位都知道你的眼睛看不见。
But by now it’s evident to everyone in this room. You’re blind.
我想,大家都有一个问题:
And I guess one of the questions on everybody’s mind is:
这一点如何影响你关于选择的研究。
How does that influence your study of choosing
因为这项活动
because that’s an activity
很大程度上需要视觉获得信息,
that for most people is associated with visual inputs
比如美学啊,色彩啊等等
like aesthetics and color and so on?
希娜 亚格尔:恩,你问得问题很有趣,
Sheena Iyengar: Well, it’s funny that you should ask that
因为关于失明,有一个有趣的地方是
because one of the things that’s interesting about being blind
你事实上有一个非常不同的
is you actually get a different vantage point
视角
when you observe the way
去观察人们的选择。
sighted people make choices.
正如你刚刚提到的,日常生活中
And as you just mentioned, there’s lots of choices out there
我们常常依赖视觉做出选择,
that are very visual these days.
是的,就如你想得那样,
Yeah, I — as you would expect —
我有时候会感到沮丧受挫,在面临
get pretty frustrated by choices
该涂什么指甲油的选择时
like what nail polish to put on
我不得不依赖他人的意见
because I have to rely on what other people suggest.
我无法自己做出选择,
And I can’t decide.
有一次我在美容院,
And so one time I was in a beauty salon,
我试图在两种淡粉色之间做出选择,
and I was trying to decide between two very light shades of pink.
一个叫”粉色芭蕾“,
And one was called “Ballet Slippers.”
另一个”粉可爱“
And the other one was called “Adorable.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
于是我就问了两位女士,
And so I asked these two ladies,
其中一个说”啊,你一定得涂个粉色芭蕾“
and the one lady told me, “Well, you should definitely wear ‘Ballet Slippers.'”
”嗯,那它是什么样的呢“
“Well, what does it look like?”
”它是一种非常优雅的粉色“
“Well, it’s a very elegant shade of pink.”
”哦,不错“
“Okay, great.”
另一个则告诉我涂”粉可爱“
The other lady tells me to wear “Adorable.”
”它是什么样的呢“
“What does it look like?”
”它是一种华丽的粉色“
“It’s a glamorous shade of pink.”
于是我就问他们”那我该怎么区别呢“
And so I asked them, “Well, how do I tell them apart?
”它们之前有什么不同“
What’s different about them?”
她们说”一款是优雅的,另一款华丽“
And they said, “Well, one is elegant, the other one’s glamorous.”
好吧,我们知道了。
Okay, we got that.
她们唯一达成共识的,
And the only thing they had consensus on:
是,如果我能看见,
well, if I could see them, I would
我就能够很清晰地辨别了。
clearly be able to tell them apart.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
所以我想她们是不是
And what I wondered was whether they were being affected
被这两种颜色的名字所影响了呢。
by the name or the content of the color,
于是我就做了个小实验,
so I decided to do a little experiment.
我把这两瓶指甲油带回了实验室,
So I brought these two bottles of nail polish into the laboratory,
撕掉了标签,
and I stripped the labels off.
然后我让几个女士进了实验室,
And I brought women into the laboratory,
问她们:”你会选择哪一种呢“
and I asked them, “Which one would you pick?”
一半的人都说我在跟她们开玩笑,
50 percent of the women accused me of playing a trick,
她们觉得
of putting the same color nail polish
这两罐指甲油是一模一样的
in both those bottles.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)
(Applause)
这时候你就会猜想究竟是谁在耍把戏了
At which point you start to wonder who the trick’s really played on.
而在撕掉标签的情况下,
Now, of the women that could tell them apart,
那些能分辨的女性会选择“粉可爱”
when the labels were off, they picked “Adorable,”
若贴上了标签,
and when the labels were on,
她们又选择了”粉色芭蕾“
they picked “Ballet Slippers.”
所以就我所理解的
So as far as I can tell,
一款玫瑰只要有不同名字,
a rose by any other name
就能让它的外观看起来与其他款不同
probably does look different
可能闻起来也有不同。
and maybe even smells different.
布鲁诺 吉桑尼: 谢谢。希娜•亚格尔教授 。. 谢谢你Sheena.
BG: Thank you. Sheena Iyengar. Thank you Sheena.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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