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季节性情感障碍是什么

Shedding Light on Seasonal Affective Disorder

Winter is not a glamorous season.
冬天并不是个迷人的季节
It can be cold and rainy and sometimes icy.
又冷又多雨 有时还会结冰
The sky is grey.
天空灰蒙蒙的
Trees without their leaves look pathetic.
树木光秃秃的 看起来一副可怜巴巴的样子
Except for the holidays
除了有假期
there’s really not much to get excited about.
冬天实在没有其他令人兴奋之处
Most people feel a little ugh.
多数人都不太喜欢这个季节
Some people feel worse.
一些人感觉更糟
You might say, they feel S.A.D.
或许你会说 他们有季节性情感障碍症
[SPLASH INTRO]
[快速介绍]
Seasonal affective disorder, which has the oh-so-clever acronym SAD,
季节性情感障碍 有着巧妙的首字母缩写SAD
is a diagnosable mental illness.
这是一种可加以诊断的精神疾病
You can find it in the bible of mental health, the DSM-5.
在精神健康圣经即DSM-5中 能找到SAD这个词
Or you could, until they changed the name to the much less catchy
或者只有换个更易记住的名称才能找到
“depressive disorder with seasonal pattern.”
即“季节性抑郁症”
How do you even pronounce that?
怎么念这个词?
DSPAH? DISSPAH?
DSPAH?DISSPAH?
Same disorder though
两个都不太适合
so I’m sticking to the old name,
因此我还是用已有名称(SAD)
out of respect for good acronyms.
以示对优质首字母缩略词的尊重
SAD is a version of depression,
SAD是抑郁症的一种变体
and many of the symptoms are the same:
两者有着许多相同的症状
feeling sad, having low energy, changes in appetite and other symptoms.
难过 无精打采 食欲有变化 还有其他症状
What makes seasonal affective disorder different from depression is, well, it’s seasonal.
不同于抑郁症的是 SAD具有季节性
SAD only affects people during certain seasons and it can recur year to year.
SAD只在特定季节有影响且每年都出现
Most people with SAD begin to feel its effects in the late fall and winter,
多数SAD患者最初会在深秋和冬天体会到这一病症的影响
but some people have it during the spring and summer instead.
但也有些人在春夏两季发病
About 5 percent of Americans experience SAD each year.
每年约有5%的美国人会得SAD
It ranges from 1.4 percent in Florida to 9.9 percent in Alaska.
从最低的佛罗里达1.4% 到最高的阿拉斯加9.9%
Latitude makes a big difference.
造成这种差异的原因是纬度(不同)
SAD’s causes are complex and not well understood.
SAD的病因复杂且尚未被搞清
Research suggests
研究表明
It’s related to the changing patterns of light that comes with seasons.
这与随着季节变化的光线有关
As we write this in Reactions’ headquarters in Washington, DC,
我们在华盛顿总部写这篇文章时
it’s 5:30 PM in early December
正值十二月初的下午5点30分
and it’s as dark as night outside.
此时外面漆黑一片
That can affect the body’s circadian rhythm.
这会影响人体的昼夜节律
And that can mess with your mood.
也会影响情绪
Your circadian rhythm is controlled by a region
你的昼夜节律受控于
deep in your brain, called the SCN for short.
大脑深处的一个叫SCN的区域
The SCN takes cues from your eyes
SCN从眼睛得到线索
about whether it’s dark or light out
来判断外面是明是暗
and sends that information on to the pineal gland.
并将判断结果发送给松果腺
The pineal gland makes the hormone melatonin only when it’s dark out,
松果腺只在黑暗条件下分泌褪黑素
and melatonin helps humans go to sleep.
这种褪黑素有助于人类的睡眠
Quick fun fact
一个简单有趣的事实
Melatonin has the opposite effect in animals
褪黑素对动物的作用恰恰相反
depending on if they sleep during the day or at night.
这取决于动物们白天睡觉还是晚上睡觉
Nocturnal animals’ brains secrete melatonin at night
夜行动物的大脑夜间会分泌褪黑素
just like ours,
和我们人一样
but instead of making them sleepy,
但这种褪黑素并非促进睡眠
it gets them amped up to go
而是让它们兴奋起来
knock over trash cans and other nighttime stuff.
好去翻垃圾桶和捣腾其他夜间事物
So when winter comes around and the days get shorter,
所以当冬天来临 白天变短时
your brain can get mixed up and your circadian rhythm
大脑会混乱 你的昼夜节律
and your mood can get out of whack.
和情绪也都会紊乱
Another hormone at play in SAD is serotonin.
SAD中发挥作用的另一种激素是血清素
Most of your serotonin is weirdly in your intestines,
你体内的多数血清素都奇特地分布在肠道中
where it helps move digesting food along.
帮助消化食物
But some is in your brain too, where it keeps you feeling good.
也有些在大脑中 让你心情很好
Lots of mental disorders are linked to problems with serotonin levels.
许多心理疾病都与血清素水平有关
Serotonin levels are naturally lower in the winter when there’s less light.
冬天光线少 血清素水平自然低
So by now it’s probably clear that light plays a big role here.
因此到目前为止 几乎很明确光线起了很大的作用
That’s why one of the most common treatments for SAD
这也是为什么SAD最常见的疗法之一
is to sit under a bright light.
就是坐在光线明亮的地方
Seriously, doctors recommend getting a bright, white light
不开玩笑 医生建议早上找个光线明亮的地方
and sitting a couple feet away from it for half an hour in the morning.
在离光源几英尺远的地方坐上半小时
You don’t even have to look at it.
你甚至不必看着光源
Just hang out next to it. Share stories with it. Have breakfast with it.
只要在附近逛一逛 看看故事 吃顿早餐
It will make you feel better.
这会让你感觉好些
Medicines are another option.
吃药是另一种选择
SSRIs are a class of drugs that may keep more serotonin in your synapses.
SSRI是一类能让突触中保留更多血清素的药物
In randomized controlled trials, SSRIs do better than placebos in treating SAD.
在随机对照试验中 SSRI治疗SAD的疗效要优于安慰剂
Psychotherapy is a third treatment that can be effective.
第三种有效疗法是心理治疗
BUT doctors say none of these are a sure bet,
但医生表示没有一种方法是绝对有效的
and sometimes these treatments work better in combination than alone.
有时联合治疗的效果比单独治疗更好
What works varies from patient to patient,
有效的方法因人而异
and some need a combination of one or more treatments.
有的病人需要采用一种或多种联合的疗法
Definitely talk to a doctor
如果你已不限于偶发的冬季抑郁
if you think you’ve got more that the occasional winter blues.
一定要找医生咨询
Sometimes all that chemistry happening inside us needs to be readjusted
有时我们体内发生的化学反应需重新调整
– even if all it takes is a little more light.
即使只需要多一些光线
Tell us how you stay cheery in the winter,
欢迎告知你在冬季保持心情愉悦的方法
and check out these other videos to help keep your spirits up.
也欢迎收看其他视频来帮助你振作起来
Thanks for watching.
感谢收看

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视频概述

季节性情感障碍的原因与治疗

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Amanda

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lld7lFZm-m0

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