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会放电的鲨鱼 – 译学馆
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会放电的鲨鱼

Shark Electrosensory Experiment | JONATHAN BIRD'S BLUE WORLD

欢迎来到乔纳森·博德的蔚蓝世界
This time on Jonathan Bird’s Blue World,
本期我们将一起探知鲨鱼的电流感知系统
investigating shark electrosensory systems!
嗨 我是乔纳森·博德 欢迎来到我的世界
Hi I’m Jonathan Bird, and welcome to myworld!
乔纳森·博德的蔚蓝世界
JONATHAN BIRD’S BULE WORLD
[碰撞声]
[pow!]
鲨鱼似乎一直都挺喜欢我的摄像机
One thing that has always been true about sharks is that they seem to love my camera.
它们径直靠近镜头
Sharks get right up close to the lens.
这让画面极好 还很刺激
This makes great, dramatic footage.
有很多电视节目
And lots of TV shows —
不包括本节目 想利用鲨鱼的这种行为
not this one — try to use this behavior
让它们看起来攻击性十足
to make sharks look aggressive.
这并不是攻击
it’s not aggression.
它们只是想成为电视明星
They just want to be TV stars!
不 也不是这个原因
No it’s not that either.
鲨鱼的鼻孔上布满小孔 这些小孔被称为洛伦齐尼壶腹
Sharks have a snout full of pores called Ampullae of Lorenzini,
这是专门用来检测水里微小电流的
whose sole purpose is to detect tiny electrical currents in the water.
所有水生生物都会产生一些微小电流 而鲨鱼都能感受到
All living things make tiny electrical currents, and sharks can sense them.
这项技能能让它们在伸手不见五指的环境中捕猎
They use this skill to help them hunt in complete darkness.
我的摄像机在水中产生了一个微小电场
My video camera produces a tiny electrical field in the water,
这勾起了鲨鱼的好奇心
and it makes the sharks curious.
它们撞上这台摄影机 想要一探究竟
They’re bumping the camera to investigate.
白天 这只鲨鱼可以用眼睛看见我
During the day, this shark can see me with its eyes,
但在一片漆黑里
but in pitch darkness
它还能发现我的电子信号吗?
could it still detect my electrical signature?
又能从多远的地方感受到的呢?
And from how faraway?
为了进一步了解鲨鱼的电感系统是如何运作的
To learn more about how the shark’s electrosensory system works,
我来到了全球“鲨鱼王土”之一
I have come to one of the “sharkiest ”places in the world
巴哈马群岛
—the Bahamas.
我正好还带来了一位鲨鱼电感系统的专家
And I just happen to have brought with me an expert in shark electrosensory systems!
史蒂芬·梶浦博士是一位鲨鱼生物学家
Dr. Stephen Kajiura is a shark biologist
他来自波卡拉顿的佛罗里达大西洋大学
at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton
他将通过一个简单实验向我们展示鲨鱼是如何感应电流的
He is going to show me how sharks can sense electricity with a simple experiment.
我们主要是尝试模拟一个电场
Basically what we are trying to do here is simulate the electric field
这个电场由海水中小鱼 螃蟹 或其他生物产生
produced by natural prey item a little fish or a crab or something
所有鲨鱼都具备侦测电场的能力
And all sharks have the ability to detect electrical fields,
我们可以看到它头部表面的所有小孔
and you can see those little pores all over the surface
这些都是电感受器
of the head those are all electroreceptors.
所以我们要做的就是
and so what we’re doing is
在这个环境里设置一个电场
by creating an electric field in the environment here
以此证明 鲨鱼会游向产生电流刺激的地方
we’ll be able to demonstrate this the Sharks orienting to just the electric stimulus
我们会放置两个相同的目标 一个被激活
We will have two identical targets, one will be active
另一个由我们控制
one will be a control treatment,
接着你就会看到
and then you will see
鲨鱼会径直游过被我们控制的目标 根本不在乎它
that they are going to swim right over the control, ignore it completely,
只会咬住激活的产生电流的目标
and bite only at the active electric target.
梶浦博士把设备收到一起
Dr.Kajiura puts the equipment together.
我们将在水下做鲨鱼的测试实验
We will take it underwater to do some tests with the sharks.
梶浦·朱丽亚博士和我已做好准备 要潜水下去布置实验了
Dr. Kajiura and I gear up for a dive to set up the experiment
梶浦已把有机玻璃底板放下
Kajiura has brought down the plexiglass base.
它一部分被埋在沙子里了 所以不太醒目
It will be partially buried in the sand so it won’t draw attention to itself.
梶浦博士把海底电线连到了电极上
Dr. Kajiura connects the electrodes to a cable
这样他就能退到很远以外
so he can back up far enough
也就不会影响鲨鱼的活动
to keep from affecting the sharks’ behavior
然后他又用沙子埋住了电线
Next he buries the cables in the sand.
水下工作进行的很慢
Working underwater is slow going.
[音乐声]
[music playing]
一切就绪之后 他打开了电源
Once everything is set up, he turns on the power.
现在实验产生的一个小型电场已开始扩散
Now a small electric field is emanating from the experiment.
想象一下 沙子上有一堆隐形的篝火
Think of it like an invisible campfire on the sandy bottom.
只有靠近才能感到温暖
It’s only warm if you are close.
鲨鱼们游过来了
The sharks swim by,
但它们无法像我们一样发现电流
but they don’t detect it any more than we do.
因为它们的位置比实验装置高太多
They are way too high above it in the water column
根本察觉不到发生了什么
to realize that anything is happening.
[音乐声]
[music playing]
午饭后 鲨鱼管理员康纳带来了一些诱饵
After lunch, Connor, our shark handler, shows up with some bait.
他要把鲨鱼引过来 让它们离“电子篝火”近一些
He will use the bait to get the sharks closer to our electrical campfire.
鲨鱼们饿了
The sharks are hungry,
因此它们把注意力都放到康纳身上
so they will focus their attention on Connor
跟着他靠近了沙底
close to the sandy bottom.
这只短吻柠檬鲨游向海底觅食
The Lemon sharks are swimming close to the bottom now, looking for food.
梶浦博士打开了电源 我们目不转睛地盯着
Dr. Kajiura turns on the power and we watch.
第一只短吻柠檬鲨从上方略过
The very first Lemon shark to pass over
很快就对有机玻璃产生了兴趣
immediately takes an interest in the plexiglass.
它明显感受到了微小的电场
It can clearly feel the tiny electrical field.
一只虎鲨从半米高处游过实验装置 但没什么反应
A Tiger shark passes half a meter above the experiment and doesn’t react.
[音乐声]
[music playing]
但另一只短吻柠檬鲨在沙滩徘徊 径直游进沙子里
But another Lemon shark cruising just above the sand homes right in on it.
这个装置就是用来制造微小电场的
The apparatus is designed to produce an extremely small electrical field,
它和生物电相类似
similar to the one generated by a living thing.
我们现在讨论的是超微电流
We are talking about a super tiny current.
鲨鱼一只接一只地停下来一探究竟
Shark after shark stops to check it out —
即使康纳就在几米开外投喂它们
even while Connor is feeding the sharks only a few meters away —
但是鲨鱼只有游得足够近才能感受到电场
but only the sharks that are swimming close enough to the sand to feel it
[音乐声]
[music playing]
这说明鲨鱼的电感系统
This demonstrates how the electrosensory system of sharks
只有在近距离才会被激活
is only good for close range.
因为在水里电场没法传的很远
Because the electrical field doesn’t carry far in the water.
鲨鱼需要借助其他感觉 比如听觉 视觉 嗅觉
They need to use their other senses like hearing, eyesight, and scent
来捕捉猎物 只有离猎物足够近时 电感系统才能生效
to get close enough to prey for the electrosensory system to work.
[音乐声]
[music playing]
鲨鱼真是种不可思议的动物
Sharks are amazing animals.
它们依靠高度进化的感官来寻找猎物
They have highly-evolved senses to find prey.
它们敏锐的眼睛可以在微光中看清一切
Ultra-sensitive eyes that can see in low light.
它们有极其灵敏的嗅觉
A powerful sense of smell.
[音乐声]
[music playing]
水里猎物产生的再小的波动 也逃不过鲨鱼的侦测系统
They can detect the slightest vibrations in the water that might be quarry.
当它们离猎物很近时
And when they get close to the prey
即使是在一片漆黑里
— even in pitch darkness —
也能侦测到电场的存在
they have the ability to detect electrical fields.
有人认为这是因为
Some people think that because
鲨鱼已经有上百万年的历史
sharks have been around for hundreds of millions of years
所以它们延续了一些原始的生存方式
that they are in some way primitive.
但这些科学家大错特错
But that’s completely wrong.
正是因为鲨鱼的历史已如此悠久
Because they have been around for so long,
它们才能进化出如此敏锐的感觉
they have developed these incredible senses
才拥有了如此超乎想象的感觉
they have developed these incredible senses
才能在这蔚蓝的水世界中生存
in the struggle for life in the Blue World.

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视频概述

白天,鲨鱼在蔚蓝的海洋世界威风凛凛。但当夜晚降临是,它们又是靠什么来捕捉生物的呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

RamonaH

审核员

审核员_SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdltYEBRJiw

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