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明暗处理 光线 以及物体 – 译学馆
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明暗处理 光线 以及物体

Shading Light and Form - Basics

明暗处理 光线和形体——基础
Hey Welcome to Proko my name is Stan Prokopenko,
嘿 欢迎观看Proko 我是Stan Prokopenko
a lot of you have been asking for a video on
很多人要求我做一期关于明暗处理的视频
shading. The first thing you need to understand when starting to shade
要进行明暗处理
is how light affects the appearance of form
首先要了解光线对形体的外观有什么影响
and how to properly capture 3 dimensional form
以及根据场景里光线的特性
based on the characteristics of the light in the scene.
如何准确的描绘这个三维形体
In some of my previous videos I talked about things like shapes, values and edges.
我在之前的一些课里讲过形状 明暗值 边线
But how do we know what shapes, values and edges to draw?
但怎么知道要画什么样的形状 明暗值 和边线?
What exactly are we looking for?
我们到底要看什么?
Well, we’re looking at Light
没错 我们要看的是光线
and how it illuminates the objects in our picture.
以及光线是怎么照亮我们画面里的物体
Light is the reason we see anything and the
是光线让我们能看见东西
characteristics of light can completely change the appearance of the things it illuminates.
光线的特性能使照亮到的东西有完全不同的外观
So, I like to analyze the light in the scene and try to
我喜欢分析场景里的光线
capture it, so the viewer can FEEL the light.
然后试着把它描绘下来 让观者能感受到光线
Form looking 3-dimensional is a byproduct of correctly capturing the light on the form.
形体的三维感只是正确描绘光线所产生的副产品
Ok, so I hope I’ve convinced you that studying light on form is important.
好了 希望你们能明白研究形体上的光线有多重要
Now let’s take a look at all the elements.
现在我们来看下所有的元素
For this I’m gonna need an egg.
为此 我需要一颗蛋
For this I’m gonna need an egg.
为此 我需要一颗蛋
There are two main zones. Light and shadow.
有两块主要区域 亮部和暗部
The edge where the form transitions from light to shadow is the terminator.
这个由明到暗的边线叫做明暗交界线
It’s located at the tangent between the light source and
位于光源与物体的切点处
the form. In other words, just before the planes start to face away from the light.
也就是说 形体表面由此开始不再朝向光源了
Lets start by talking about the SHADOW side
我们先从暗部开始
There are two types of shadows.
有两种暗部
form shadow is a shadow caused by the planes turning away
暗面是由形体上的面背向光源产生的
from the light source. A cast shadow is caused by one form blocking the light from hitting
投影是由一个形体挡住投射在另一个形体上的光线所形成的
another form. This egg is blocking the light from reaching this part of the table. You
这个蛋挡住了照亮这块桌面的光线
can find this shape by projecting lines from the light source to the termination of the
投影的形状可以从光源处向第一个形体的明暗交界线处画线
first form, and continuing those lines to the obstructed form.
并将这些线条延伸至被阻挡形体上得到
Shadows will rarely be completely black.
很少有暗部是全黑的
Light bounces off objects in the environment and is reflected back into the shadows.
光线会从环境中的物体上反射到暗部里
This is called reflected light.
这个叫做反光
In this case the light will bounce off the paper and into the shadowon the egg.
在这个例子中 光会从纸上反射到蛋的暗面上
Along the terminator, sometimes you will see a core shadow.
顺着明暗交界线有时候会看到阴影最暗处
It’s a darker plane that defines the edge of the shadow.
这是一个界定暗面边线的较暗面
The thickness and softness of the core shadow can vary quite
阴影最暗处的厚度和柔和度变化空间很大
a bit. It depends on the thickness of the form, how sharp the edge is between the planes
取决于形体的厚度 亮面与暗面之间边线尖锐度
of light and dark, or the angle and position of the reflecting light source.
或反光光源的角度及位置
Sometimes you won’t see the core shadow at all.
有时候会根本看不见阴影最暗处
Only if there is something on the shadow side, to reflect back enough light
只有暗部这边有东西能反射足够多的光
to create a visible difference in value. This
出现可见的明暗值变化才能看到阴影最暗处
dark piece of paper reflects less light than the white paper.
这张黑颜色的纸比白颜色的纸反射的光要少
You can see a drastic difference in the value of the reflected light.
可以看到这两个蛋的反光 明暗值相差非常大
Also, regarding the visibility of a core shadow,
还有 要想看到阴影最暗处
the reflection has to come from the right
反射光要从正确的方位照过来
angle. If it’s directly behind the shadow side,
如果是从暗部的正后方
it will create a nice core shadow. If
就会出现很漂亮的阴影最暗处
we move the reflection source closer to the angle of the main light source,
要是我们把反射光源往主光源方向移
it will illuminate the area where the core shadow would have been.
它就会照亮阴影最暗处该在的区域
If you don’t see a distinct core shadow, many artists choose to cheat one in because
如果看不见阴影最暗处 许多艺术家会自己造一个
it can add to the 3-dimensionality of the form.
因为这样可以增加形体的三维感
Reflected light doesn’t just affect form shadows. It also affects cast shadows.
反光不止影响形体的暗面 也会影响投影
Less light can bounce into this deep crevice where the egg and table meet,
在这里蛋与桌面的交接处 较少的光线能反射进去
and so that area gets darker as it goes deeper. This is called an Occlusion shadow.
所以这块区域越靠里越暗 这里就叫做闭塞阴影
Moving on to the light zone, immediately after the terminator, is the halftone. These are
来看亮部 紧靠明暗交界线的另一边是中间调
planes of the form that are partially hit by the direct light.
这是形体上部分被光线射到的面
As the planes get closer and closer to facing the light, they will get lighter.
这些面的角度越正向光就越亮
And the point where the form points directly at the light is called the center light.
直接对着光源的地方叫做中央光
The center light shouldn’t get confused with the highlight.
不要把中央光跟高光混了
The difference between the two is that the center light is the plane facing the light source,
区别是中央光是朝向光源的面
whereas the highlight is a reflection of the light source.
而高光是光源的反光
A reflection will move depending on where the viewer is.
反光会随着观者的位置而变
So let’s say this is the egg.
那么 假设这是个蛋
The viewer, or camera is down here, and the light source is over here.
观者或者摄像机在下面 光源在右边
The center light will be here facing the light source. The highlight however
中央光就会在这里 对着光源
will need to be at the point where the light can bounce off the surface of the egg and
高光则在蛋上既能折射光线又能被观者看见的点上
reach the viewer’s eyes. These two angles need to be equal.
这两个角度一定是相等的
If you’ve played billiards, this is very similar.
跟打桌球的原理差不多
To test this concept let’s mark the point of the highlight,
为了测试这个概念 我们标一下高光点
and mark another point for the center light.
也标一下中央光点
Now let’s move the camera and see what happens. Ok, you can see here
我们把摄像机转一下 看一下会有什么变化
that the highlight moved to a different spot, following the camera. The center of light
你们可以看见 高光随着摄像机跑了
hasn’t changed. It still pointing directly at the light source.
中央光完全没有变 还是指着光源
Don’t let the math of all this confuse you.
不要被前面的数学关系迷惑住
Highlights, and also cast shadows which we discussed earlier, can be changed
高光和之前提到的投影是可以改的
and they can still look believable.
并且依然能看起来很真实
Nobodys going to call you on a highlight being in the wrong spot.
不会有人说你这个高光位置不对
I can take the highlight on this egg, move it to a different spot, and change the shape.
我可以把这个蛋的高光挪到另一个位置 换下形状
And it still looks believable…
看起来依然很真实
I’ll often change the shape of a cast shadow
我经常会改变投影的形状
to better describe the form it is being cast
来体现这个投影被投到什么形体上
onto. For example if I have an object that casts a shadow appearing to go against the
例如 如果我有一个东西看起来是投影在这个形体上
form. The form of this paper towel roll is a cylinder and to show that I would change
这个纸卷的形体是圆柱 为了显示这个
the cast shadow from the egg to wrap around the cylinder.
我会把蛋的投影画成环绕圆柱的样子
I usually try to describe the form that the shadow is casting on to,
我通常画的都是投影投到的形体
rather than the form casting the shadow.
而不是画投影形体本身的投影
So, give yourself artistic license. Learn the rules,
所以给自己个艺术破格特许吧 先学习作画规则
and then learn how you can break the rules to improve your drawing…
然后学习如何打破规则让画作变得更完美
Just want to let you guys know, I will be releasing a DVD very soon.
跟你们说一下 我马上会发行一部DVD
So, keep your eyes out.
希望你们关注下
It’s gonna have all the video tutorials I’ve done so far,
里面会有我到目前为止所有的教学视频
PLUS a few extras that will be available only on the dvd.
以及一些DVD专供的片段
I’m hoping to have it available in the next few weeks.
我希望在几周后发行
And as always, if you liked this video,
还有照例 如果你喜欢本视频
share it with your friends. They might like it too.
请分享给朋友 也许他们也喜欢
And don’t forget to subscribe to the mailing list on proko.com
别忘了在proko.com上订阅通知
to get the latest and greatest tutorials.
可以收到最新最棒的教学视频
See you next week.
下周见
为此 我需要一颗蛋
为此 我需要一颗蛋
哎呀 不好意思
我需要一颗蛋
嗯 完美

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