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小孩近视不该怪屏幕👀

Screens are NOT the reason kids need glasses 👀

To be able to see things clearly, your eyeballs need to be a certain shape.
为了看东西清晰 你的眼球得是特定的形状
Today though, around half of the world’s kids have eyeballs that are too long.
然而如今 世界上约一半小孩的眼球都太长了
and as a result, they have blurry vision.
所以 他们看东西模糊了
Welcome to MinuteEarth.
欢迎收看《分钟地球》
Most babies are born with short eyeballs.
大部分宝宝生来就眼球短
But as a baby grows, their eyeballs get longer –
但随着成长 他们的眼球会变长——
the lens and the retina get farther and farther apart.
晶状体和视网膜离得越来越远
By the time the kid is about six their eyeballs are
小孩长到约六岁时 他们的眼球
just the right length for the lens to be able to focus incoming light
长度正好 恰能使晶状体在视网膜处聚焦入射的光
and form a crisp image right on the retina, rather than focusing well behind it;
并清晰成像 而非远远地聚焦到视网膜后面
at that point, the brain sends a signal to the eyeballs,
到那时 大脑会向眼球发送信号
telling them to stop growing.
指示眼球停止生长
But, starting a few decades ago,
然而 从几十年前开始
many kids – like, more than 90% of kids in some countries…
好多小孩——比如有些国家超九成的小孩……
these kids’ eyeballs continued to lengthen well past that spot.
他们的眼球在达到了合适的长度后 又继续变长了很多
As a result, instead of focusing light right onto the retina,
结果 光没能恰好聚焦在视网膜处
the lenses in these kids’ longer eyeballs focus light on a point in front of the retina;
反而让长眼球里的晶状体给聚焦到视网膜前面的点上了
from there, the light spreads back out,
光从那个点开始 向后发散
causing them to see a fuzzy image rather than a crisp one.
导致小孩们看到的图像是模糊而非清晰的
For years, most scientists thought this was happening because of screens –
很多年来 大多科学家以为是屏幕导致了这一切——
or more specifically
或者说得更具体点
because kids were spending most of their time
因为小孩花了大部分时间
looking at things only a short distance away.
看一些离自己很近的东西
You see, our eyes focus most easily on stuff in the middle distance.
你想 我们的眼睛盯着距离适中的东西最容易
In order to clearly see stuff far away,
为了看清远处的东西
the muscles have to work to stretch the lens
眼部肌肉努力拉伸晶状体
in order to bring those images back to the sweet spot on the retina,
以使那些图像重新聚焦到视网膜处的完美位点上
and in order to clearly see things close up,
而为了看清眼前的东西
the muscles have to work to smooth the lens
眼部肌肉努力压扁晶状体
to bring those images forward to the sweet spot on the retina.
使图像前移至视网膜处的完美位点
Scientists wondered whether kids’ eyeballs were growing extra long
科学家们想知道 小孩眼球比原来长出一截
to shift this entire range farther back,
是不是为了后推整个成像范围
allowing them to see close up stuff in focus without having to use their muscles,
以让他们能不用肌肉就看清眼前的东西
but leaving their eyes unable to focus on things far away at all,
但这种范围的后推 也让他们无论怎么拉伸眼部肌肉
no matter how much they strained.
都完全没法看清远处的东西了
But recently, we’ve found that kids who spend a lot of time parked in front of a screen
然而最近我们发现 长时间在屏幕前的小孩
don’t necessarily have longer eyeballs than those who don’t.
他们的眼球并不一定比没那么做的小孩更长
Instead, it seems that the likely culprit is the hormone
罪魁祸首 反而可能
that carries the stop-growing signal from the brain to the eyeballs
是替大脑运载停止生长信号到眼球的激素
– or, really, a lack of this hormone.
——或者说 事实上 就是缺乏这种激素
We still don’t totally understand how the entire signaling-process works,
我们仍未完全理解整个信号通路如何运作
but we do know that our eyes need to be exposed to a certain level of light
但我们确实知道 首先 眼睛需要处在一定强度的光下
in order for the hormone to form in the first place.
来促成这种激素的合成
Kids today – who only spend about half as much time outside as their parents did –
现在的小孩花在户外的时间只有父母辈的一半左右
simply aren’t getting the light their eyes need
他们根本无法获得
to create enough of that hormone and give the stop-growing signal.
眼睛合成足量这种激素传递停止生长信号所需的光
As a result, their eyeballs keep lengthening – past the sweet spot –
结果 他们的眼球持续变长 超过了最佳长度
creating an epidemic of blurry vision the likes of which the world has never .. uhh .. seen.
这带来了近视的流行 整个世界也……没看见过这阵仗
Luckily, there’s an easy solution for future generations –
幸好对于我们我们的后代来说 有了一个简单的解决办法——
go outside to watch your YouTube videos.
去户外看你的油管视频
Want to learn more about the strange workings of the human body?
想了解更多人体的奇特运作方式吗?
We made an entire show about it, called, well, MinuteBody.
我们为此做了一整套节目 叫《分钟人体》
It lives exclusively on Nebula,
它只在Nebula独家发布
a platform built by independent education-y creators like us
Nebula平台由像我们这样的教育内容独立创作者建立
as a way to explore new ideas.
用于探索新点子
MinuteBody – and all the other creative content on Nebula –
《分钟人体》以及 Nebula上的其它所有创意内容
is brought to you with the help of CuriosityStream,
都由CuriosityStream呈现给你
a streaming service that brings tons of
CuriosityStream是一种让你能在自己设备上
high-quality documentaries right to your device.
立刻享受海量优质纪录片的流媒体服务
I just rewatched one of my favorites – “What Animals See” –
我刚回顾了我最爱的纪录片之一——《动物看见了什么》
about the wild and very different ways animal eyes work.
讲的是野生环境以及动物眼睛与众不同的工作机制
When you sign up at curiositystream.com/minuteearth,
你在curiositystream.com/minuteearth
for less than fifteen bucks
花上不到15美元注册以后
you’ll not only get access to CuriosityStream for an entire year,
不仅能包年看CuriosityStream上所有内容
you’ll also get to experience all of the cool content on Nebula:
还能体验Nebula上所有很酷的内容:
stuff from the folks behind TierZoo, Polyphonic, Wendover
由《动物排行榜》《复合音》《文多弗》幕后人员的带来的花絮
and of course all new episodes of minute body.
当然还有《分钟人体》全新剧集
Check it out.
去看看吧

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视频概述

如今,越来越多的小孩年纪轻轻就看不清了。我们总是将此归咎于电子产品,然而科学家提出,罪魁祸首竟可能是户外活动时间匮乏。快来看看吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

iBRIT

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbCobKbLJls

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