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科学家可能意外地找到了一种治疗所有癌症的方法

Scientists May Have Found a Way to Treat All Cancers... By Accident | SciShow News

Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this episode of SciShow.
感谢Brilliant对本期《科学秀》的支持
Go to Brilliant.org/SciShow to learn how you can give
赶快登录Brilliant.org/SciShow网站
the gift of learning to someone you love!
把学习课程作为礼物送给你心爱的人吧
《科学秀》
People often wonder and they ask quite often
人们时常纳闷并且常问我们
why there isn’t a cure for cancer yet.
为什么还没有治愈癌症的疗法
And the answer that we have given is that “cancer” isn’t just one thing.
我们给出的答案通常是:“癌症”并不是单一疾病
It’s this big umbrella term for a bunch of different conditions
癌症是描述细胞的
where cells grow out of control.
各种失控增殖的总称
While there are of course treatments for some types of cancer,
虽然现在已经有了针对某些癌症的治疗方法
different cancers are different enough that
但不同的癌症差别明显
there’s nothing that works for all of them — there’s no universal cure.
以至于人类还未找到对所有癌症都有效的疗法
But, uh, it turns out there might be?
然而 这种万能疗法或许并非异想天开
Researchers from Cardiff University in Wales
威尔士卡迪夫大学的研究人员
may have found a way to treat all cancers,
可能已经找到了一种治疗所有癌症
or at least a whole lot of them.
或者至少是很多癌症的方法
And they just kind of stumbled onto it.
而且他们还是偶然发现的这个方法
The researchers weren’t searching for cancer therapies.
起初研究人员并不志在找寻癌症的疗法
They were looking for ways to fight bacteria
他们研究的是用杀伤性T细胞
with immune cells called killer T cells.
去对抗病菌的方法
As the name implies, these cells kill things.
顾名思义 这些细胞能杀死一些东西
Specifically, things that aren’t good for your body.
具体来说 它们能杀灭对身体有害的东西
But unlike other immune cells,
但与其它免疫细胞不同
they don’t target bacteria or viruses directly.
它们不会直接攻击细菌或病毒
Instead, they go around interrogating the body’s own cells,
相反 它们四处巡查人体自身的细胞
trying to sniff out which ones might be hiding pathogens inside them.
试图识别那些可能潜藏了病原体的细胞
And when they find an infected cell, they kill it.
一旦发现受感染的细胞 就消灭它
But not all killer T cells are the same.
但杀伤性T细胞也各不相同
There are different types that use slightly different proteins,
其主要区别在于其用于检查其它细胞的
called receptors, to check out cells.
蛋白质——受体
Often, these receptors are somewhat specific
通常 受体与入侵的病原体
to the invader they’re hunting for.
是特异性对应的
But the researchers were looking for a kind of T cell
但是研究人员在寻找的是一种可以识别
that can detect lots of different bacteria.
许多不同细菌的T细胞
So, they pulled a bunch of killer T cells from blood samples
因此 他们从血液样本中提取了很多杀伤性T细胞
and tested their infection-spotting abilities.
并测试了它们识别感染的能力
The test the team was using
研究团队的测试碰巧使用了
just so happens to employ a kind of cancer cell that’s easy to infect with bacteria.
一种容易受细菌感染的癌细胞
And a number of different T cells showed promise
当科学家们把许多不同的T细胞释放到
when the scientists set them loose on
受感染的癌细胞中时
those infected cancer cells.
它们展现出了令人满意的效果
But one was especially ruthless.
其中有一种T细胞杀灭能力特别强
Unfortunately, in further experiments,
不幸的是 在进一步的实验中
it killed all of the cancer cells,
它消灭的不仅是受细菌感染的细胞
not just the ones with bacteria inside them
而是所有癌细胞
so it wasn’t what they were looking for.
这样的结果并不符合预期
But it did pique their curiosity.
但这确实激起了他们的好奇心
Now, it’s not that weird for a T cell to kill cancer cells,
T细胞能杀灭癌细胞并不奇怪
because T cells don’t just hunt for infections,
因为它们不仅猎杀受感染的细胞
they are also in charge of keeping cancers in check.
它们也负责检查癌细胞
And over the past several years,
科学家们在过去数年里
scientists have started harnessing the power of these cells to fight cancer.
已经开始借这些细胞的力量来对抗癌症
In CAR-T immunotherapy, for example,
例如 在CAR-T免疫疗法中
T cells are removed from a person’s body,
研究人员将T细胞从人体内移除
genetically programmed with a receptor which can spot the person’s cancer,
进行基因编辑 植入一种能识别癌症的受体
and then injected back in to seek and destroy.
再重新注入人体内去寻找和摧毁癌细胞
But we can’t do this for all cancer patients yet
但我们还无法对所有癌症患者行此疗法
because we don’t have good receptor targets for every type
因为研究人员没有找到适合每种类型
or even subtype of cancer.
乃至亚型癌症的靶向受体
It’s back to that whole “cancers aren’t all the same thing”
话题又回到了“癌症并不都是相同的”上了
But I digress.
但是我偏个题
Point is, it wasn’t super surprising that
事实是 研究人员找到
the researchers had found a T cell
可以治疗特定种类癌症的T细胞这件事
that killed this particular type of cancer.
并不是一个特别惊人的发现
But, before just discarding or shelving them
研究人员没有丢弃它们或者将它们束之高阁
to continue the hunt for bacteria-killing T cells,
从而继续寻找杀灭细菌的T细胞
they decided to see what happened with some other cancer types, too.
相反 他们决定看看用它们来对付其他种类的癌细胞会有什么效果
And they worked. Against all of them.
结果它们居然对所有癌细胞都起作用
Lung cancer, colon cancer, bone cancer, breast cancer, blood cancer, skin cancer…
肺癌 结肠癌 骨癌 乳腺癌 血癌 皮肤癌等等
these T cells killed every kind of cancer the researchers tried.
这些T细胞不仅杀灭了研究人员试验的所有癌细胞
Not only that, but they left healthy cells alone.
而且健康的细胞没有受损
Which is, like, WHOAH.
这简直就是一个奇迹
Needless to say, this sparked a new investigation into
不用说 这引发了新一轮的关于
how these T cells were doing this.
这些T细胞的作用原理的研究
To figure that out
为了弄清楚真相
the researchers deleted proteins from the cancer cells one by one
研究人员使用CRISPR-Cas 9基因编辑的方法
using CRISPR-Cas 9 gene editing
逐个从癌细胞中删除蛋白质
The idea being that, if deleting a protein made the T cells ineffective,
因为如果删除一种蛋白质使得T细胞就失效的话
then that protein must be involved in how the cells are spotting cancer.
那么这种蛋白质一定在发现癌症的过程中产生了作用
And that led them to a protein called MR1.
最终研究人员找到了一种叫作MR1的蛋白质
Now, what’s interesting about that, is MR1 can be found on all your cells,
有意思的是 MR1不仅在癌细胞中
not just cancerous ones.
而且在所有的细胞中都能找到
See, it’s thought to be an informant of sorts for the immune system.
研究人员认为它为免疫系统提供了某种信息
It samples molecules from inside the cell
它从细胞内提取分子样本 将其展示在细胞之外
and presents them on the outside, where immune cells can take a look.
以供免疫细胞观察
And that’s exactly what these killer T cells seem to be doing.
这正是这些杀伤性T细胞好像在做的事情
They have a special receptor
它们有一种特殊的受体
that allows them to interact with MR1 proteins
可以与MR1蛋白质相互作用
and read those samples.
并且读取这些样本信息
They’re not the only T cells that interact with MR1,
它们不是唯一与MR1相互作用的T细胞
but they seem to be the only ones we’ve found so far that can spot
但它们似乎是迄今为止我们发现的唯一一种
all sorts of cancers by doing so.
可以通过与MR1相互作用识别各种癌细胞的T细胞
The researchers were even able to take this receptor
研究人员甚至能取出这种受体
and stick it into T cells from actual cancer patients.
植入到真正的癌症患者的T细胞中
So basically, the same idea as CAR-T therapy,
基本上来说 这种方法与CAR-T疗法理念一致
but using this one protein instead of tailoring the T cells
但不同的是 使用这一种蛋白质治疗癌症
to each patient’s specific cancer.
不需要根据具体的癌症使用定制的T细胞
And not only did those engineered T cells
这些经过基因编辑的T细胞
kill samples of the patients’ tumors,
不仅杀灭了病人的肿瘤样本
they killed cancers from multiple patients.
还杀灭了许多病人身上的癌细胞
That’s probably because MR1 proteins
这可能是因为MR1蛋白质
don’t really differ much between people,
在个体间的差异不大
so the same receptor can recognize all of them.
同一个受体可以识别所有MR1蛋白质
this means that instead of having to
这意味着医生不必要为
design individual therapies for each cancer,
每种癌症设计单独的治疗方案
doctors might be able to use this one receptor
他们可以利用这种单一受体
to make T cells that work for everyone.
来获得对每个病人都有效的T细胞
Now we shouldn’t pop open the champagne quite yet.
我们现在还没到庆祝成功的时候
There are still some big unknowns here.
一些巨大的谜团仍然困扰着我们
Like, the researchers don’t actually know
比如 研究人员实际上并不知道
how the T cells are recognizing MR1.
T细胞是如何识别MR1的
Seriously, the actual wording in the paper is that
说实在的 这篇论文的原文提到的是
this receptor quote “does not recognize MR1 by known mechanisms”.
“该受体识别MR1的机制与已知机制均不同”
And they don’t know what MR1 is showing to the T cells
他们也不知道MR1告知了T细胞什么信息
to alert them that the cell is cancerous
使得T细胞识别癌细胞的
though, presumably it’s unique to cancers and,
不过 这些信息就算不是绝对的
if not universal, then at least super common.
至少也是癌症所特有的且非常常见的
Most importantly, though:
不过最重要的是:
they have yet to try these T cells in actual human patients.
他们还没有在真实的患者身上试验这些T细胞
They did test them in mice given human cancers,
他们确实在被注入人类癌细胞的老鼠身上进行了实验
and the results were promising.
而且结果令人充满希望
But it’s still possible they won’t work in a real, live person.
但是它们仍然有可能在真正的患者身上不起作用
We should know fairly soon those.
我们应该很快就会知道结果
The researchers’ current plan is to proceed cautiously,
研究人员目前的计划是要谨慎地推进
and if safety tests go well,
如果安全测试进展顺利
they’re hopeful human trials could start in the next few years.
他们希望在未来几年内开始进行人体试验
On the upside
从好的方面来说
even if this doesn’t lead to a quote “cure for cancer”,
即使无法取得论文里所说的“治愈癌症”的结果
studying these T cells could help scientists discover new ways
研究这些T细胞也可以帮助科学家发现
to treat a lot of different cancers.
许多治疗不同癌症的新方法
And the team is also already on the hunt for
这个研究团队已经在寻找
other similar T cells that
其它类似的
can kill multiple cancers.
能杀灭多种癌细胞的T细胞
And to think — this discovery would
想想看 如果当初研究人员在发现一些细胞表现异常时
never have happened if the researchers didn’t have the good sense to investigate further
没有敏锐的判断力去做进一步研究
when some cells did something funny.
就不会获得这些研究成果
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News!
感谢收看本期《科学秀》新闻
And thanks to Brilliant for sponsoring today’s episode.
感谢Brilliant赞助今天的节目
Brilliant offers courses in science,
Brilliant提供科学 工程
engineering, computer science and math.
计算机科学和数学方面的课程
And they’re all interactive
这些课程都是互动式的 亲身实践的
and hands on, so the learning is fun.
所以学习的过程会很有趣
Like, their Computer Science Fundamentals course introduces you to algorithms
例如 计算机科学基础课程给你讲授算法
without needing to learn the tedious details of a specific programming language.
不需要学习特定编程语言的乏味的细枝末节
Though, when you’re ready,
但是 当你打好基础的时候
they’ve built Python into the browser,
他们会将Python构建到浏览器中
so you can test out your
这样你就可以检验
newly-acquired algorithm-writing skills.
你刚学会的算法编写技能了
And it’s just one of dozens of courses
这只是你通过高级订阅此频道获得的
you can take with a Premium subscription.
几十门课程的其中一门
Or, you could give the gift of learning to someone you love—
或者 你可以把课程作为礼物送给你的爱人
it is Valentine’s day, after all.
毕竟今天是情人节嘛
So if you’re interested— for yourself,
所以 如果你自己感兴趣
or for that smart, special someone in your life—
或者为了你生命中那个聪明的 特别的人
sign up at Brilliant.orgSciShow
就赶紧去Brilliant.org/SciShow注册吧
and you’ll get twenty percent off the annual Premium subscription.
这样你就可以享受8折的年费优惠哦

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视频概述

癌症是世界性难题,科学家一次意外的发现让攻克癌症露出曙光!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

铲屎官王女士

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-V_MDVgISo

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