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渡渡鸟灭绝的真正原因 – 译学馆
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渡渡鸟灭绝的真正原因

Scientists Finally Know The Real Reason Dodo Birds Went Extinct

If there’s one thing most people know about the dodo bird,
如果关于渡渡鸟的什么事是众所周知的
it’s that they were dumb.
那一定是——它们很笨
If they had been human,
如果它们变成了人类
they would have been the kind of person who changes pants while driving.
那也是会在开车时换裤子的人
Yes, legend has it, this creature was only really ever a danger to itself
没错 据说渡渡鸟是唯一一种导致自己灭绝的动物
a true poster child for The Darwin Awards…
一个真正该获得达尔文奖的物种……
at least, that’s the story we’ve been fed.
至少 我们听到的故事是这样的
But is it true?
但事情真的是这样吗?
Turns out, the whole story that the dumb dodo got itself hunted
渡渡鸟因自己的愚蠢而被猎杀殆尽这个故事
to extinction by being so stupid may have been a big load of doodoo.
对渡渡鸟来说 是个极大的误会
Leon Claessens, Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution at
荷兰马斯特里赫特大学的Leon Claessens
the Netherlands’ Maastricht University,
是研究脊椎动物古生物学及进化的专家
believes the Dutch sailors who first encountered the bird in 1598
他认为 1598年第一次遇到渡渡鸟的荷兰水手们
didn’t actually hunt the birds to extinction,
并没有把渡渡鸟捕杀殆尽
though the sailors likely had an indirect role in the demise of the species.
即使水手间接导致了这场物种灭绝 他们也不是主角
Previously, it was believed the birds were fat,
之前 我们一直认为渡渡鸟很肥
and were hunted for food.
而且人们是为了填饱肚子才捕杀它们的
But in the dense jungles of their native Mauritius,
但生活在毛里求斯当地密林中的渡渡鸟
the bird would have been much leaner than previously thought,
比我们想像的更瘦
and therefore, not as appetizing of a meal.
因此 渡渡鸟也算不上美味
Further, these jungles would have also made it much harder for the
而且 无论渡渡鸟与人多么亲近
few hundred sailors to catch the birds regardless of how unafraid the dodos were of human beings.
几百名水手要在密林中捕杀渡渡鸟也是件难事
Claessens believes the real problem was the rats and other animals
Claessens认为 渡渡鸟灭绝的真正诱因是
that would have landed with the sailors.
岛上的老鼠以及水手带上岛的其他动物
These animals would have been able to multiply quickly in an unrestricted habitat
这些动物在这片自由的岛上成倍的快速繁殖
and would have feasted on dodo eggs and outcompeted them for food
它们还以渡渡鸟的蛋为食
a double-extinction whammy.
这是双重的灭绝打击
And then the triple whammy hit: rapid habitat loss.
然后第三重打击来了:栖息地迅速的消失
The island of Mauritius was not initially considered very valuable;
起初人们并没有觉得毛里求斯的岛屿有什么价值
just a place for ships to stop over.
只是个停船的地方罢了
Some even thought the island was cursed
有些人甚至认为 这个岛屿
due to a large amount of shipwrecks in the area.
因发生过许多海难而被诅咒过
That all changed when the Dutch realized they could export
当荷兰水手意识到 他们可以出口岛上的乌木来谋利时
the island’s ebony wood for sale,
一切都改变了
which became the island’s primary economic activity.
出口乌木成了岛上主要的经济活动
Not long after,
不久之后
settlers were turning the once-wild island into a big agricultural plantation,
殖民者把这里从一个野生岛屿变成了巨大的农场
leading to heavy deforestation and loss of native plant species.
这导致大量树木被砍伐 许多本土植物灭绝
The forest that provided natural protection for the dodo bird gave way to sugar cane fields,
为渡渡鸟提供天然庇护的森林变成了种植甘蔗的田地
making the birds oversized sitting ducks for any predator who came along
这使得渡渡鸟直接暴露在捕食者面前
as the dodos literally had no fight or flight reflex.
但它们却没有一点反抗或飞走的反应
Lack of flight also made dodos ill-suited to surviving natural disasters.
不会飞也是造成渡渡鸟不能幸存的自然灾难
Evidence has been found that even before human settlement
有证据显示 在人类登陆岛屿之前
many of the birds died in flash floods brought on by cyclones.
许多渡渡鸟都死于飓风造成的洪水
Once they lost the natural protection of their sheltered forests,
一但它们失去赖以生存的森林
they became even more vulnerable.
它们就会变的更加脆弱
The entry for “dodo” in the Oxford English Dictionary describes something
在牛津英文词典中 关于“渡渡”的解释是
that is “no longer effective, valid, or interesting,”
“无效的 无用的 或没有兴趣的”
and the origin of the word comes from the Portuguese doudou, translating to “simpleton.”
渡渡一词源于葡萄牙语 意思是“傻瓜”
It’s a sad legacy for what was once a beautiful, totally innocent creature.
这是一个美丽的 天真的生物留下的悲伤遗产
Beyond their reputation for stupidity, dodos are a
它们不仅留下了愚蠢的名声
symbol of how quickly and profoundly
渡渡鸟也是一个证明人类能够
humans can impact an environment and drive a species to extinction.
快速且严重影响环境并导致一个物种灭绝的标志
Until we can clone them, dodos are gone forever,
在我们能够克隆它们之前 渡渡鸟永远消失了
and the best thing we can do about it is
我们能做到的最好的事情
to learn from the mistakes of our ancestors.
就是从我们的祖先那里吸取教训
It only took a hundred years to wipe out the dodo
人类只用了一百年的时间就使渡渡鸟灭绝了
and while exact dates of extinction vary,
根据准确的记录
most believe the dodo was gone by the 1660s,
大多数认为 渡渡鸟在17世纪60年代灭绝的
with other reports claiming they lasted on ne
一些其他的报告指出 它们最后出现在附近岛屿
arby islands until the 1690s.
是在17世纪90年代
In the grand scheme of things, it doesn’t matter much,
在大事件年表中 这不太重要
because either way,
因为不管怎样
the bird,and just about every trace of it,
这种鸟 以及关于它的一切痕迹
is gone forever.
都已经永远消失了
All we’ve got are a few records and sketches from sailors,
我们拥有的只是来自水手的几张记录和素描
and one or two shoddily stuffed birds in museums.
以及博物馆里一两个粗糙的毛绒绒的模型
We’re hardly even sure what color they were.
我们甚至不知道它们是什么颜色的
Most paintings from the time show dodos with white feathers,
一直以来 许多图片上渡渡鸟的羽毛都是白色的
but firsthand accounts describe them
但根据最初的描述 渡渡鸟的翅膀
with gray to black plumage.
是灰 黑色相间的
Heck, we didn’t even know they had kneecaps until 2014,
天呐 我们直到2014年 利用3D扫描技术扫描了渡渡鸟剩下的骨骼
after a 3D scan of the last remaining skeleton revealed them.
才知道它们还有膝盖骨
So have we learned our lesson?
我们从中学到什么了吗?
Not yet, it seems: in another hundred years
还没呢 看起来:在下一个百年间
it’s estimated that 25 percent of all bird
预计全球25%的野生鸟类会灭绝
species will be extinct in the wild unless
除非我们能在对待自然的行为上
we take big steps to clean up our act.
做出巨大的改变
If not, we’ll be the real dodos.
否则 我们可能会成为真正的渡渡鸟
Check out one of our newest videos right here!
点击这里可以看到我们最新的视频!
Plus, even more Grunge videos about your favorite animals are coming soon.
另外 更多关于你感兴趣的动物视频很快就会更新了
Subscribe to our YouTube channel and hit the bell so you don’t miss a single one.
在优酷搜索我们的频道并订阅 就不会错过我们的更新啦

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视频概述

人类导致了渡渡鸟的灭绝 如果不加改变 人类也可能重蹈渡渡鸟的覆辙

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

喵的薛定谔

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zi40M3RfHDA

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